Hestia2: reading texts spatially

Lead Research Organisation: Open University
Department Name: Classical Studies

Abstract

Hestia2 is an innovative public engagement project based on the spatial reading and visualising of texts. Involving a research team from Classics, Geography and Computing, Hestia produced two innovative outcomes: the understanding of geographic space in Herodotus's Histories in terms of connections between places and peoples rather than as points on a map; and the development and use of web technologies for visualising and thinking about a narrative. Hestia2 represents a deliberate shift from experimenting with geospatial analysis of a single text to making Hestia's outcomes available to new audiences through a variety of creative means: (i) a seminar series fostering knowledge exchange of Hestia's spatial analysis of a text between researchers and non-academic communities; (ii) an innovative online platform designed to enhance the experience for general enthusiasts, students and teachers of reading Herodotus and be extensible to other texts with spatial aspects; and (iii) a blog and free learning materials aimed at disseminating Hestia's resources and generating public interest.

With the digital medium rapidly transforming the ways in which information is viewed and processed, data visualisation is one of the key challenges to academic and non-academic groups alike. Cultural heritage groups, government agencies and firms working in the digital economy, all have to deal with the problem of presenting big data in ways that make sense to their users but that do not reduce the complexity of the data or give a misleading picture. Hestia2 uses the key intellectual outcome of the original project-the analysis of spatial relations embedded in literary texts-to discuss humanistic approaches to data visualisation which, by virtue of being based on real content that is complex and messy, can help contribute to this debate. In a four-part seminar series, Hestia2 considers: (i) network analysis techniques, methods and models used for data exploration; (ii) the role of GIS in mapping texts; (iii) digital visualisations of data, especially complex literary texts; and (iv) the extent to which digital technologies help non-academics access and comprehend research.

To promote wider engagement among teachers, students and general enthusiasts with the original project's re-imagining of the geography of Herodotus's Histories, Hestia2 brings together the disparate technological innovations into a cohesive, intuitive reading interface (called GapVis). This platform allows users to grasp the total distribution of place references at a glance, move through the narrative and see locations appearing and 'fading from memory', and focus on individual places including their relationships to other locations mentioned 'in the same breath'. By trialling Hestia GapVis with an experienced academic innovator, Hestia2 will ensure a robust and user-friendly reading interface fit for the enthusiast, student, teacher and researcher alike. In addition, by using the Pelagios project's index of references for places mentioned in Herodotus, users of Hestia will be able to link to and bring together different kinds of online data associated with those places, from other texts that mention them, artefacts and inscriptions found there, to digital photos of them.

To enhance dissemination of Hestia's outputs, all activity will be documented on the blog and disseminated via social media, while free learning materials will be produced to enrich the resource. The blog will promote continuous dissemination and discussion of the findings from the seminars as well as feedback about the GapVis reading interface. By documenting the work of adapting the Hestia dataset to GapVis, Hestia2 also sets down guidelines for other users, who may wish to repurpose GapVis for displaying a text of their own choice that has geospatial elements. Lastly, Hestia2 will work with the OU's OpenLearn unit to build free learning materials that provide context for reading Herodotus in GapVis.

Planned Impact

Each activity is directly aimed at benefiting new users who are outside the academic research community.

Cultural heritage groups, government agencies and firms working in the digital economy, all have to deal with the problem of presenting big data in ways that make sense to their users but that do not reduce the complexity of the data or give a misleading picture. Hestia2 uses the key intellectual outcome of the original project-the analysis of spatial relations embedded in literary texts-to discuss humanistic approaches to data visualisation which, by virtue of being based on real content that is complex and messy, can help contribute to this debate. In a four-part seminar series, Hestia2 addresses the concerns and interests of four particular groups: (i) English Heritage and the role of network analysis models for data exploration; (ii) Ordnance Survey and the role of qualitative GIS in informing policy debates on place and belonging; (iii) high tech industries and the role of literary texts in developing new visualisation technologies; (iv) educationalists and the role of digital technologies in helping non-academics access to and comprehension of research. These new non-academic communities will gain from using humanities content and approaches to questions of data visualisation.

To promote wider engagement with the original project's re-imagining of the geography of Herodotus's Histories beyond academia, Hestia2 brings together the disparate technological innovations into a cohesive, intuitive reading interface (called GapVis). Furthermore, by trialling Hestia GapVis with an experienced academic innovator, Hestia2 will ensure a robust and user-friendly reading interface fit for general enthusiasts, students, teachers and researchers alike. The platform will allow users to grasp the total distribution of place references at a glance, move through the narrative and see locations appearing and 'fading from memory', and focus on individual places including their relationships to other locations mentioned 'in the same breath'. In short, it will allow people to 'read texts' spatially.

The Hestia2 blog will disseminate the findings from the seminars and act as a discussion forum of key issues for policy makers, digital technologists and educationalists interested in data visualisation. In addition, by promoting dissemination of Hestia GapVis, the blog will allow the broad user community of teachers, students and general enthusiasts to give feedback and recommend improvements. In particular, the blog will allow key collaborators to reflect publicly on their experience of the project. This will enable the blog to act as an important forum for discussion among different user communities about the qualitative investigation of spatial relations embedded in literary texts, or the use of an integrated suite of visualization tools for reading a text spatially. Similar uses of previous project blogs have met with demonstrable success at both addressing the needs of, and in some ways constructing, user communities: the GAP project has had approx. 30,000 individual visits, while the Pelagios project has had almost 40,000. Both the Hestia2 blog and Hestia GapVis will have Google Analytics installed in order to keep a record of the number, type and geographical spread of the visits, and will use Facebook and Twitter in order to disseminate the project's outputs.

Lastly, by building free online learning materials around the Hestia GapVis resource, OpenLearn will greatly increase public awareness of and engagement with this output. In fact, by fully documenting the process of adapting the Hestia dataset to GapVis, the blog will permit anyone else to extend this reading platform to other texts of their choice, which have a geospatial component. This extensibility will have most impact on teachers and students; but publishers may also be interested in this reading platform for viewing texts on e.g. tablet computers.
 
Description Involving a team of researchers from Classics, Geography and Computing, Hestia analyses spatial data embedded in Herodotus's Histories in order to reconstruct the geography of a literary narrative. Challenging the usual abstract Cartesian mapping of the ancient world, Hestia draws attention to the connections between places underpinning Herodotus's narrative. The results eschew schematic spatial distinctions in favour of conceptual model based on networks and flow.
Exploitation Route Hestia's experimental use of new technologies to visualise and analyse geospatial data in a narrative may be of use for the wider community (public agencies, high-tech industries and educationalists) interested in data visualisation, especially of geospatial concepts, and the challenge of making sense of 'messy data'.
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://hestia.open.ac.uk/
 
Description Tools and methods that we have developed have led to a collaboration with Google (http://googleancientplaces.wordpress.com/) and have been used in classrooms both at university (http://hestia.open.ac.uk/reading-herodotus-spatially-in-the-undergraduate-classroom-part-i/) and at school (http://hestia.open.ac.uk/hestia-meets-a-virginia-us-high-school-latin-class-part-i/). Key intellectual outcomes have also contributed to policy discussion by various international bodies, including The Scholarly Communications and Information Technology (SCIT) Program funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the workgroup on Information Visualisation in the Digital Humanities for the European Science Foundation-funded Network for Digital Methods in the Arts and Humanities, and the workgroup on Research Communities and Research Infrastructures in the Humanities, European Science Foundation Standing Committee for the Humanities.
First Year Of Impact 2010
Sector Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Research Communities and Research Infrastructures in the Humanities
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description Workgroup for Scholarly Communications and Information Technology (SCIT) Program, funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Geographic Reach North America 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
 
Description Workgroup on Information Visualisation in the Digital Humanities, funded by the European Science Foundation
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guidance committee
 
Description AHRC Amplification Award (Pelagios 4)
Amount £63,852 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/M002225/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2014 
End 08/2015
 
Description Follow on funding (Hestia 2: Reading Texts Spatially)
Amount £64,084 (GBP)
Funding ID Follow-on funding 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2013 
End 06/2014
 
Description Geospatial Engagement and Community Outreach programme (Pelagios)
Amount £44,006 (GBP)
Funding ID Geospatial Engagement and Community Outreach programme 
Organisation Jisc 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 03/2011 
End 11/2011
 
Description Google Digital Humanities Research Grant (Google Ancient Places phase 2)
Amount £30,988 (GBP)
Organisation Google 
Sector Private
Country United States of America
Start 01/2012 
End 04/2014
 
Description Google Digital Humanities Research Grant (Google Ancient Places)
Amount £21,689 (GBP)
Funding ID Google Digital Humanities Award 
Organisation Google 
Sector Private
Country United States of America
Start 10/2010 
End 12/2011
 
Description Open Humanities Awards
Amount € 7,000 (EUR)
Organisation Open Knowledge Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Resource and Discovery programme (Pelagios phase 2)
Amount £153,496 (GBP)
Funding ID Resource and Discovery programme 
Organisation Jisc 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 12/2011 
End 07/2012
 
Description Scholarly Communications and Information Technology (Pelagios 3: Early Geospatial Documents)
Amount £311,352 (GBP)
Organisation Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 
Sector Private
Country United States of America
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2015
 
Title HestiaVis 
Description HestiaVis is an interface for exploring and reading texts that reference ancient places. It includes maps and data visualisations that show what locations are referred to a different points in the narrative and allows you to dig into the details to learn more. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This visualisation interface has been adopted (and adapted) by several independent projects, including the Hellespont project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: http://gapvis.hellespont.dainst.org/#index. 
URL http://www2.open.ac.uk/openlearn/hestia/index.html#index
 
Title A database has been compiled from the digital text of Herodotus 
Description A database of place names in the Histories of Herodotus, openly available online here: http://hestia.open.ac.uk/database/data_view.php?ftr_mode=standard&retftrset=4 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database is part of a suite of open educational resources openly available here: http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/classical-studies/herodotus-the-histories 
URL http://hestia.open.ac.uk/database/data_view.php?ftr_mode=standard&retftrset=4
 
Description Collaboration with Connected Past group 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing network analysis methods for qualitative research in the humanities, social sciences and other groups (including local government and cultural heritage institutions).
Collaborator Contribution Hosted a one-day workshop and invited speakers from a range of US, Europe and UK universities, as well as representatives from local government, English Heritage and Ordnance Survey.
Impact The collaboration is multi-disciplinary: Classical Studies, Archaeology, History, Geography, Data Science.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Stanford Literary Lab 
Organisation Stanford University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing methods of data visualisation and analysis for research in the humanities, social sciences, and the digital economy.
Collaborator Contribution Organised a two-day workshop working with humanities and social science groups, with invited contributions from the digital economy and information services.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary with contributions from Classical Studies, English, History, Geography, Archaeology, Digital Humanities, Library studies, Data Science.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with TOPOI, Berlin 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Worked with the Common Sense Geography group of Berlin's Excellence Cluster Topoi (http://topoi.org), funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Commented on and proof read Geus, K. & Thiering, M. (eds.) (forthcoming). Features of Common Sense Geography: Implicit Knowledge Structures in Ancient Geographical Texts (Münster).
Collaborator Contribution Established a monthly seminar series, helped provide the intellectual framework for the Hestia OUP volume, Barker, E., Bouzarovski, S., Pelling, C. and Isaksen, L. (eds.) (In Press): New Worlds out of Old Texts: Approaches to the Spatial Analysis of Ancient Greek Literature. Oxford.
Impact Barker, E., Bouzarovski, S., Pelling, C. and Isaksen, L. (eds.) (In Press): New Worlds out of Old Texts: Approaches to the Spatial Analysis of Ancient Greek Literature. Oxford. Collaboration is multi-disciplinary: history, classics, geography, cognitive science.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with the Informatics group at Leipzig 
Organisation University of Leipzig
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Worked with the Informatics group, providing data and a series of challenges; organised and delivered lectures on the spatial humanities.
Collaborator Contribution Investigated alternative ways of analysing spatial information, including developing different webmapping interfaces.
Impact Provided the technological framework for the Hestia project's OUP output, Barker, E., Bouzarovski, S., Pelling, C. and Isaksen, L. (eds.) (In Press): New Worlds out of Old Texts: Approaches to the Spatial Analysis of Ancient Greek Literature. Oxford. Collaboration is multi-disciplinary: literature, Classics, geography, digital humanities, e-science.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with the National Hellenic Research Foundation 
Organisation National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF)
Country Greece, Hellenic Republic 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Working to facilitate the development and linking of all research being conducted at the NHRF under the heading of the KRIPIS project (over 40 separate individual initiatives), funded by the Onassis Foundation.
Collaborator Contribution Providing an intellectual framework for new research into spatial understanding that extends beyond the ancient world.
Impact Collaboration is multi-disciplinary: classics, byzantine studies, modern Greek studies, literature, archaeology, digital humanities.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Google Ancient Places 
Organisation University of California, Berkeley
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing an automated means of discovery places in texts and then visualizing them in a single-page application.
Collaborator Contribution Helped to develop the means of extracting place name data from texts and of visualising the results in a single-screen interface.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from Classical Studies, Archaeology, Informatics and Design.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Google Ancient Places 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department School of Informatics Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing an automated means of discovery places in texts and then visualizing them in a single-page application.
Collaborator Contribution Helped to develop the means of extracting place name data from texts and of visualising the results in a single-screen interface.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from Classical Studies, Archaeology, Informatics and Design.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Google Ancient Places 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing an automated means of discovery places in texts and then visualizing them in a single-page application.
Collaborator Contribution Helped to develop the means of extracting place name data from texts and of visualising the results in a single-screen interface.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from Classical Studies, Archaeology, Informatics and Design.
Start Year 2010
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Austrian Institute of Technology
Country Austria, Republic of 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation English Heritage
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation German Archaeological Institute
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Heidelberg University
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation King's College London
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Max Planck Society
Department Max Planck Institute for the History of Science
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Ordnance Survey
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation The British Library
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation Tufts University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation University of Leipzig
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Pelagios 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing guidelines and schema for annotating, cataloguing and visualizing references to ancient places, and assisting people working with ancient world data to make their resources more discoverable, accessible and usable to other researchers and the general public.
Collaborator Contribution Revising their data standards and formats to join our infrastructure network.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from all humanities disciplines, geography, data science, technology.
Start Year 2011
 
Title HestiaVis 
Description HestiaVis is an interface for exploring and reading texts that reference ancient places. It includes maps and data visualizations that show what locations are referred to a different points in the narrative and allows you to dig into the details to learn more. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact This visualisation interface has been adopted (and adapted) by several independent projects, including the Hellespont project, funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft: http://gapvis.hellespont.dainst.org/#index. 
URL http://www2.open.ac.uk/openlearn/hestia/index.html#index
 
Description Herodotus OpenLearn course 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This new online course is designed to spark interest in the ancient world through the use of new technologies.

We ran a trial of some of these resources with an undergraduate class in the US. Extensive feedback was provided, which demonstrated the extent to which the students engaged with the tools and analysed the material in a new light. Full documentation of those trials and the feedback gained from them are freely available on our blog, here:
http://hestia.open.ac.uk/reading-herodotus-spatially-in-the-undergraduate-classroom-part-i/
http://hestia.open.ac.uk/reading-herodotus-spatially-in-the-undergraduate-classroom-part-ii/
http://hestia.open.ac.uk/reading-herodotus-spatially-in-an-undergraduate-classroom-part-iii/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.open.edu/openlearn/history-the-arts/history/classical-studies/herodotus-the-histories
 
Description School visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 20 pupils attended for a school visit, in which we explored ways of mapping Herodotus's Histories using contemporary digital technologies, focused on the topic of oracles. The discussion sparked questions and discussion afterwards, and the school reported increased interest in related subject areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015