Evolutionary processes shaping genetic structure in Ethiopia and the Sudans

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: UCL Genetics Institute

Abstract

Individuals sampled from across the world show great diversity in their DNA. However the primary features that lead to this diversity are poorly understood. For example, it is well-known that groups residing in close geographic proximity often have similar DNA patterns relative to groups residing further away, but what sorts of anthropological or topographical features best predict these similarities? Do rivers provide gateways for promoting interactions among different groups and thus lead to DNA exchange among these groups throughout history? Do natural features such as mountains provide a major barrier to such interactions, or is not sharing a language or religion a more important barrier? Have the important features that promote genetic diversity changed over time?

The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopian, the Republic of Sudan, and the Republic of South Sudan show great cultural diversity, with for example over 100 different languages spoken and over 100 different ethnic groups living within. The history of many of these peoples are poorly understood, with historical records often incomplete or contradictory. Recent studies have shown that the DNA of these groups are also highly diverse. This DNA provides a powerful means of resolving historical inaccuracies, and identifying the aforementioned features that promote intermixing among the different groups that have shaped the genetic landscape of this region for tens of thousands of years.

In this project, we will develop and apply new, state-of-the-art statistical methodology to a novel DNA collection consisting of samples from several hundred Ethiopian and Sudanese individuals. We will identify the features that have shaped the genetic diversity of this unique region of the world, identifying historical events where different ethnic groups within these regions exchanged DNA, as well as DNA contributions from sources outside the countries' borders. Some of this methodology has been successfully used recently to explore the history of the United Kingdom, a part of the world with considerably less cultural and genetic diversity (http://www.peopleofthebritishisles.org/). Elucidating the dynamics of how groups interact genetically will have great implications for understanding how gene flow persists among populations historically and today. Understanding the genetic structure of this diverse region will also help future researchers design sampling strategies for studies testing whether particular regions of the genome are associated with common phenotypes such as height or disease status.

This region of east Africa is also vital for studying human origins, housing the earliest known human fossil remains that confirm a history going back approximately 200,000 years. It is well-established that modern humans first arose in sub-Saharan Africa, and it is believed that Ethiopia and the Sudans were the gateway for the initial migrations of peoples out of sub-Saharan Africa when colonizing the rest of the world. By careful comparison of the DNA of the groups from this region with those outside of sub-Saharan Africa, we may be able to infer the routes taken by these early explorers and map out precisely how the world was colonized by migrating humans.

Technical Summary

Although it is well established that DNA differs substantially among different world-wide groups, the principle forces driving human genetic diversity are not well understood. One of the major outstanding questions in human evolution is whether present-day levels of diversity are primarily attributable to recent intermixing among populations (i.e. admixture) or ancient substructure. In addition, we still have only a limited understanding of the impact of factors that influence DNA exchange among populations, such as topography and geographic proximity, access to rivers, or other social factors such as shared language or religion.

With this project, we will genotype 2000 individuals spanning 95 different ethnic, occupational, or regional groups sampled from the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the Republic of Sudan, and the Republic of South Sudan. Each Ethiopian and Sudanese sample has information on the donor's birthplace, first and second languages, cultural label, and religion for some samples, plus the equivalent information (excluding religion) for the donor's father, mother, paternal grandfather, and maternal grandmother. We also have cartographical and altitude information on numerous villages across these regions. We will apply novel statistical methodology to these samples to identify recent admixture events among these different groups, as well as DNA contributions from neighboring populations. We will then elucidate the anthropological and topographical features that most strongly determine which groups exchange DNA. We will infer the DNA of the ancestors of these present-day groups by subtracting out the signals of recent admixture we identify, and we will quantify the extent of genetic distinction among these ancient sources. By developing new statistical methods, we also aim to exploit the rich history contained in the DNA of this part of the world to infer details of human origins, including the early migration(s) out of Africa.

Planned Impact

Collaborator Endashaw Bekele is Professor at Addis Ababa University and Director of the Human Genetic Variation Center (HGVC) at the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia. The HGVC has a remit from the Ethiopian government to encourage the study of human genetic variation in Ethiopia by overseas researchers, with a view to developing local expertise in undertaking clinical trials that take account of sub-Saharan genetic diversity. For example, Bekele and collaborator Neil Bradman have collected blood and phenotype data from 300 Ethiopian samples, including 25 individuals from each of five distinct Ethiopian groups who are being whole genome sequenced (WGS) by collaborators Luca Pagani and Chris Tyler-Smith. This phenotype information includes height, weight, BMI, standard anthropometric data, blood pressure, spirometer, colorimeter, spirobank, bio-impedance readings, urine analysis, personal disease histories and lifestyle information, as well as sociological data for the subject and the subject's parents and grandparents as recorded in the larger collection described in this study. The proposed study will elucidate the genetic diversity among over 80 additional ethnic and regional groups from Ethiopia and the Sudans, thus defining sampling strategies for forthcoming similar phenotype collections. All samples and our results exploring genetic diversity will be made freely available to researchers upon publication of the first primary manuscript (anticipated at the end of year 1-2). The PI will also visit Addis Ababa University as a guest of Prof Bekele during years 1-3 of the project, explaining the primary results of our studies into the genetic landscape of Ethiopia and the Sudans and advising on sampling strategies for future phenotype collections.

Dr. Bradman is Chairman of Henry Stewart Talks Ltd (http://hstalks.com/), which publishes The Biomedical and Life Sciences Collection of over 1,600 specially prepared online seminars by leading world experts. These seminars are provided for free to over 75 universities in sub-Saharan Africa, including 15 from Ethiopia. Subscribers to the collection includes most of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies as well as research institutes and universities in over 40 countries. We will provide at least one seminar describing our project's findings, anticipated for year 2-3 of the project.

The post-doc employed on this project will develop and apply state-of-the-art statistical techniques to a large-scale genetic data collection, as well as lead an international collaboration. Any new methodology developed during this project will be made freely available to academic researchers upon publication of methods. Visits to Addis Ababa University may lead to collaborations between UCL and Ethiopian PhD students, similar to UCL Prof Dallas Swallow's on-going co-supervision of Tamiru Oljira of Addis Ababa University on projects studying allelic heterogeneity in lactase persistence among Ethiopian groups (e.g. Ingram et al 2009, J Mol Evol 69:579-588).

Finally, understanding human history, including the genetic legacies of known population migrations, is of enormous interest to the wider public. The PI has participated in two public presentations of a similar study to the one proposed here that instead uses United Kingdom samples (POBI). This work featured in both The Royal Society Summer Exhibition 2012 (http://sse.royalsociety.org/2012/exhibits/genetic-maps/) and the Big Bang UK Young Scientists and Engineers Fair 2013 (http://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/). We anticipate similar interest from the public and media from this project, from our initial publications describing the genetic structure of Ethiopia and the Sudans in years 1-2 of the project to our findings on ancient human demography anticipated for year 3.

Publications

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Broushaki F (2016) Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent. in Science (New York, N.Y.)

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Hofmanová Z (2016) Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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López S (2015) Human Dispersal Out of Africa: A Lasting Debate. in Evolutionary bioinformatics online

 
Description Our BBSRC grant has still not yet completed (end date Sept 2017), but we recently presented preliminary results of our analyses to academics and non-academics across 8 different cities in Ethiopia. Specifically, we reported new results that form part of a long-standing collaboration with researchers in Ethiopia, that studied the genetic information of over 1,100 Ethiopian individuals representing over 70 different ethnic or social groups. For the first time, we have reported the detailed genetic structure of these groups, illustrated how strongly genetic relatedness correlates with geography, common language, ethnicity, and religious affiliation. We further illustrated how the DNA of these Ethiopian individuals relates to DNA from thousands of additional present-day individuals sampled across the world (some collected as part of this project, and others publicly available). In particular we showed how some DNA of different Ethiopian groups is closely related to that found among peoples in west Africa (Sierra Leone, Nigeria) and Yemen, and determined that ancestors of these different world-wide groups intermixed in the past. By dating when this intermixing occurred, our analyses show how these genetic links could be related to the historical migrations of peoples from west Africa and west Eurasia into present-day Ethiopia, e.g. enabled by the Kingdom of Axum and/or the migrations of Bantu-speaking peoples thousands of years ago.

Overall we have curated a large collection of genome-wide DNA data for over 2000 individuals sampled from Ethiopia and the Sudans and surrounding regions, including parts of West Eurasia. This is now one of the current most comprehensive genome-wide data collections covering these parts of Africa. As noted above, these data are currently being analysed to explore the genetic history of these (and other) regions, both on our own and with collaborations including researchers from University of Tehran and Johannes Gutenburg University that are currently underway. For example, analysis of genetic information from Iran obtained through this project demonstrated how, relative to other modern Iranian groups, the DNA of Iranian Zoroastrians is similar to that found in an Iranian farmer that lived ~10,000 years ago (DOI:10.1126/science.aaf7943). Furthermore, as these regions of Africa cover the likely routes by which modern humans would have first left Africa, the PDRA (Dr. Saioa Lopez) and I have written a review article on the current genetic and archaeological evidence on mysteries surrounding these initial migrations out-of-Africa (DOI: 10.4137/EBO.S33489).
Exploitation Route As part of our 9 lecture tours across Ethiopia, we gave a radio interview (105.3 Afro FM) and distributed 500 pamphlets intended for lay (English-speaking) audiences, that explained the results of our studies into the genetic structure and ancestral history of Ethiopian peoples. These pamphlets were distributed to audience members (academic and non-academic), participants who provided DNA for this study, and libraries across Ethiopia. We hope that this information will provide a greater understanding to the academic and public sectors in Ethiopia about how DNA can be used to trace our ancestry, and how different Ethiopian ethnic groups are related genetically to one another. Our detailed discussions with academic and non-academic audience members following our lectures suggested we changed opinions and perceptions on how DNA evidence can contribute to aspects of Ethiopian history. Through collaboration with our contacts in Ethiopia, we plan to disseminate these findings further. For example, one of the original aims of the Ethiopian sample collection was to enable forthcoming studies to identify genetic variants associated with disease risk, which require a detailed understanding of the genetic structure of Ethiopian peoples. We have now provided this genetic information and are in discussions with Ethiopian academics to help them write future grants to perform such genetic association studies.

Furthermore, our newly genotyped data collection, perhaps the most comprehensive collection of genome-wide DNA from African individuals in terms of number of different ethnic groups sampled (and certainly the most comprehensive collection of samples from Ethiopia and the Sudans) will be made freely available to academics upon publication of our first paper analysing these data. Our review paper on the initial migrations of humans out of Africa, which was assessed by nine different reviewers, provides a comprehensive collation and summary of the literature on genetic and archaeological findings on this vital aspect of human history. DNA from Iranian individuals included as part of this grant has already been made freely available to academics, upon our publication of a paper comparing this DNA to that of the world's first farmers from the Fertile Crescent. This latter analysis showed, for the first time, how two very genetically different groups of people in the Fertile Crescent were nonetheless both agriculturalists, perhaps demonstrating how farming technology was transferred among ancient communities without involving the large-scale genetic intermixing of these groups.
Sectors Education,Healthcare,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description distribution of 500 pamphlets (about genetic structure and history of Ethiopian peoples) to academics and lay audiences in Ethiopia
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description University College London
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 11/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Title African (Ethiopian/Sudanese) genotypes 
Description We have currently genotyped 2184 samples from over 200 ethnic groups sampled across Africa, including 113 groups from Ethiopia and the Sudans, as part of the BBSRC grant. Specifically, these data were genotyped on the Affymetrix Human Origins chip, which allows them to be incorporated with over 200 additional world-wide groups genotyped on the same chip that are presently publicly available. We are currently genotyping ~1000 individuals from Sub-Saharan Africa, in order to learn more details about the ancestry of Ethiopia and Sudans and other regions. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact All samples genotyped as part of the BBSRC grant will be made publicly available to academic researchers upon our first publication related to analysing these data. 
 
Title SOURCEFIND 
Description As part of this project, I have developed a new tool, in R, called "Sourcefind" that can identify which groups share recent ancestry (e.g. due to admixture). This tool is very fast, easy-to-use and flexible relative to current approaches. It is presently being used by members of my research group. But one of my PhD students has incorporated it into software that will be released soon, to be freely available to academics. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This new code was used to infer sources of ancestry in new data generated as part of this grant, for example for data from Ethiopian individuals. Results have been disseminated to academics and non-academics in Ethiopia via talks and with the distribution of two different pamphlets (500 copies total), one intended for lay audiences and one for genetics-based scientific audiences, and a manuscript on these results for publication in an academic journal is currently in preparation. 
 
Description Ethiopian researchers 
Organisation Addis Ababa University
Country Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution During the period 27/2/17 to 11/3/17, the PDRA (Dr. Saioa Lopez) and I undertook a series of nine lectures at nine different venues across Ethiopia, as part of our BBSRC grant. This included talks at University of Gondar, Hawassa University, Arsi University, Adama Science and Technology University, Axum University, Haramaya University College of Health and Medicine, Haramaya University main campus (Harar), Addis Ababa University, and the Ethiopian Academy of Sciences (EAS). The latter EAS lecture was for a broad audience of over 100 people that included Ethiopian academics, politicians, university students, high school students and lay people. These lectures disseminated the early results from our analysis of the DNA of over 1,100 Ethiopian individuals representing over 70 ethnic and social groups. We met with Ethiopian academics from each of the above institutions. We also provided a radio interview to 105.3 Afro FM (http://www.afro105fm.com/i/index.php) in Ethiopia. I also recorded an interview following the EAS presentation, to be aired on local television. Also as part of this trip, Dr. Lopez and I wrote two versions of a pamphlet that summarized the key findings. One "simplified" version was 13 pages long and offered a simplified report of our findings appropriate for a very broad, lay audience without scientific training. The other "extended" version was 33 pages long and offered a more detailed report appropriate for a scientific (e.g. university) audience. The printing of this pamphlet was paid for using £1000 in funds won by Dr. Lopez from a "Focus on the Positive" program contest arranged through UCL, which allowed the printing of 400 "simplified" versions and 100 "extended" versions. These pamphlets were distributed to the audiences that attended our lectures, with some "extended" versions provided to our academic hosts to provide to campus libraries and to people (e.g. their students) with more technical backgrounds. We further left copies of the pamphlets at other venues, including airports and a library in Harar.
Collaborator Contribution Our tour of nine lectures across Ethiopian institutions were followed by debates and discussions that lasted from 30 minutes to 1 hour and 30 minutes per lecture. As these lectures were attended by Ethiopian academics with specialist knowledge in linguistics, history, anthropology and other fields, we were provided with invaluable feedback about (i) how to into interpret our genetic findings, (ii) how best to relay this information to the public in light of ethnic sensitivities within Ethiopia, and (iii) a list of specific hypotheses, involving relationships within and among different ethnic groups, to test using genetic evidence. Furthermore our contacts in the above universities enabled the above lectures to take place. In particular, Dr. Ayele Tarekegn of Henry Stewart Talks, a resident of Addis Ababa, accompanied us on our entire trip. Dr. Tarekegen acted as an interpreter for Amharic-to-English, a guide (with a degree in history), and an invaluable resource as someone who (i) did the vast majority of sample collection across Ethiopia and (ii) has recently translated a book recording the oral traditions of groups in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Regions (SNNPR) that was initially printed (in Amharic) by the Council of Nationalities of the SNNPR. He also arranged our flight and car travel and hotel accommodation, in addition to arranging the final times and locations of each lecture.
Impact (1) the printing and distribution of 500 pamphlets "Exploring the genetics and ancestry of peoples in Ethiopia" relaying early results of our genetic findings on Ethiopian samples included in this project (2) a radio interview with 105.3 Afro FM (3) a recorded interview for local Ethiopian TV
Start Year 2016
 
Description Naser Ansari Pour academic visit 
Organisation University of Tehran
Country Iran, Islamic Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have welcomed Dr. Naser Ansari Pour (University of Tehran) as a visiting academic at University College London, collaborating with him on analysis and interpretation of whole genome data on African individuals collected as part of this BBSRC grant.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Ansari Pour has provided expertise from his studies at UCL on Y chromosome and mitochondrial data from African individuals taken from the same UCL collection that we now have genome-wide genotype data for as part of this grant. This expertise will enable us to use our genetic data to test specific hypotheses based on cultural and historical traditions and understandings.
Impact No outcomes yet -- collaboration just began in February 2016.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Paleogenetics group Mainz 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We (in particular the PDRA Dr. Lopez) have analysed ancient DNA samples provided by Prof Joachim Burger's group at Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz) using our in-house techniques, in order to shed light on early Neolithic communities in Europe and the Near East. This works constitutes a major aspect of a consortium including collaborators from the universities listed above.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided expertise and samples, in particular DNA from ancient human remains sampled from modern-day Iran, Turkey and Greece.
Impact We currently have a manuscript in second round of review at PNAS, and a second manuscript in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Paleogenetics group Mainz 
Organisation Stony Brook University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We (in particular the PDRA Dr. Lopez) have analysed ancient DNA samples provided by Prof Joachim Burger's group at Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz) using our in-house techniques, in order to shed light on early Neolithic communities in Europe and the Near East. This works constitutes a major aspect of a consortium including collaborators from the universities listed above.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided expertise and samples, in particular DNA from ancient human remains sampled from modern-day Iran, Turkey and Greece.
Impact We currently have a manuscript in second round of review at PNAS, and a second manuscript in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Paleogenetics group Mainz 
Organisation University of Fribourg
Department Department of Biology
Country Switzerland, Swiss Confederation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We (in particular the PDRA Dr. Lopez) have analysed ancient DNA samples provided by Prof Joachim Burger's group at Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz) using our in-house techniques, in order to shed light on early Neolithic communities in Europe and the Near East. This works constitutes a major aspect of a consortium including collaborators from the universities listed above.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided expertise and samples, in particular DNA from ancient human remains sampled from modern-day Iran, Turkey and Greece.
Impact We currently have a manuscript in second round of review at PNAS, and a second manuscript in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Paleogenetics group Mainz 
Organisation University of Geneva
Department Department of Anthropology and Sociology of Development (ANSO)
Country Switzerland, Swiss Confederation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We (in particular the PDRA Dr. Lopez) have analysed ancient DNA samples provided by Prof Joachim Burger's group at Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz) using our in-house techniques, in order to shed light on early Neolithic communities in Europe and the Near East. This works constitutes a major aspect of a consortium including collaborators from the universities listed above.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided expertise and samples, in particular DNA from ancient human remains sampled from modern-day Iran, Turkey and Greece.
Impact We currently have a manuscript in second round of review at PNAS, and a second manuscript in preparation.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Reich lab 
Organisation Harvard University
Department Harvard Medical School
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As part of this BBSRC grant, we have currently curated a dataset of over 2000 individuals, primarily sampled from Africa, as outlined in the grant proposal. These data will be used in our group and the Reich group for studies on evolutionary history, with a focus on groups from Africa, before being made freely available to other academics. For example, we are currently collaborating to compare the DNA of our modern day samples to that from ancient human remains from Africa in the Reich lab.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaboration with Dr. Reich enabled a discount on his Affymetrix Human Origins chip when genotyping the samples we collected as part of this BBSRC grant, as well as the ability to incorporate these samples into a larger collection he has accumulated on the same chip. Relative to other genotyping centers we contacted prior to sending off our samples, this gave us a savings of up to £33,348 on our ~£120,000 purchase. This resource will be made freely available to academics upon publication of our first manuscript, making a major contribution to available human genome-wide DNA resources, for which African groups are under-represented. In addition, Dr. Reich's group performed quality control on our samples.
Impact We will be (but have not yet) releasing a collection of samples genotyped on the Affymetrix Human Origins chip that includes over 2000 samples genotyped as part of this BBSRC grant. This dataset will be on the same chip of an earlier dataset from the Reich lab consisting of over 200 world wide groups, as well as additional forthcoming samples collected by David Reich's laboratory and collaborators. Our samples will be released upon publication of our first manuscript analysing our samples.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Ethiopian Academy of Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Through contacts involved with this BBSRC-funded project, I arranged to give a seminar at the Ethiopian Academy of Sciences (EAS), through invitation by Non-voting Member and Secretary, Professor Masresha Fetene. This seminar was chaired by Professor Endashaw Bekele of Addis Ababa University and took place on March 9, 2017. The presentation was attended by over 100 academics, non-academics, high school students, politicians and other Ethiopian individuals. After a one-hour presentation relaying key results from this BBSRC-funded project (specifically on "Exploring the genetics and ancestry of different groups in Ethiopia"), Prof Bekele and I had ~1 hour of discussion and question answering with audience members. This was followed by interviews with reporters for local television stations in Ethiopia. As part of this presentation, we handed out ~50 pamphlets the postdoctoral research assistant Dr. Lopez and I had written. These pamphlets are intended for a broad lay audience and outline the key results discussed in the talk. I met with several people after the talk who noted their views on Ethiopian genetic history had been changed and that in general they had a better understanding of what we can learn about history from genetics and what drives the genetic structure of Ethiopian peoples today.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.eas-et.org/new/index.php
 
Description Focus on the Positive 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The postdoctoral research assistant on the project, Dr. Saioa Lopez, presenting preliminary findings about the genetic history of groups in Ethiopia at a lecture to the general public in east London. This talk was organized by "Focus on the Positive" at UCL, and resulted in audience members voting on who would receive £1000 or £2000 in funding for a particular activity. Dr. Lopez was awarded £1000, to be spent on printing pamphlets that relay the preliminary findings of our analysis of DNA of Ethiopian peoples to a lay (English-speaking) audience. In the end, we printed 500 copies of these pamphlets and distributed them to academics, high school students, participants who contributed DNA, other members of the public, and libraries across Ethiopia during February 26 - March 11, 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/public-engagement/creating-change/projects/focus-on-the-positive
 
Description UNESCO conference -- Great migrations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to a conference on "Great Migrations in Ancient Asia Minor: Circulation, Exchange and Social Transformation" that was held in UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France, on 29-30 November 2016. This conference was part of the framework of the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Cultures (2013-2022) and formed part of the achievement of this framework's Action Plan. I gave a talk to an audience consisting of the general public and experts on Asia Minor from other fields (archaeology, linguistics, history), with my topic about what we have learned from the history of modern-day populations in Asia Minor based on studying their DNA. This was followed by a panel discussion, with questions from academics and audience members. The presentations have recently been compiled into a book for publishing, with the organizer of this conference noting that this would mark an important "tool for Global Citizenship Education (GCED) also - in particular during the World Humanities Conference (WHC) to be held in Liege, Belgium from 6 to 12 August 2017." This talk included analyses conducted by my postdoctoral research assistant (Dr. Saioa Lopez) using data developed through this project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2016
URL http://en.unesco.org/events/international-conference-great-migrations-ancient-asia-minor-circulation...
 
Description radio interview with 105.3 Afro FM (Ethiopia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The postdoctoral research assistant (PDRA) Saioa Lopez and I were invited to give a radio interview with 105.3 Afro FM, an Ethiopian radio station. The topic of this interview was a discussion of key findings from our analysis of the DNA from over 1,100 Ethiopian individuals representing over 70 different ethnic and social groups, funded by this BBSRC grant. We answered the interviewer's questions and discussed the main findings of our study to date, and in general discussed the information we have learned about human history (and in particular Ethiopian history) using DNA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.afro105fm.com/i/index.php