Ritual, Community, and Conflict

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Social & Cultural Anthropology

Abstract

Some of the greatest atrocities have been caused by groups defending or advancing their political aspirations and sacred values. In order to comprehend and address the wanton violence of war, terrorism and genocide, it is necessary to understand the forces that bind and drive human groups.



This five year programme of research investigates one of the most powerful mechanisms by which groups may be formed, inspired, and coordinated: ritual. Studying how children learn the rituals of their communities will shed light on the various ways in which rituals promote social cohesion within the group and distrust of groups with different ritual traditions.



Qualitative field research and controlled psychological experiments will be conducted in a number of troubled regions (including Northern Ireland, the Middle East, Nepal, and Colombia) to explore the effects of ritual participation on ingroup cohesion and outgroup hostility in both general populations and armed groups. New databases will be constructed to explore the relationship between ritual, resource extraction patterns, and group structure and scale over the millennia.  These interdisciplinary projects will be undertaken by international teams of anthropologists, psychologists, historians, archaeologists, and evolutionary theorists.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Objective 1 - Cognitive foundations of ritual from a developmental perspective:
A novel experimental paradigm was developed for understanding the role of imitation in social learning. Results indicated that children show more imitative rigidity when a ritual stance (seeking out a rationale for actions based on social convention) is activated than in the case of an instrumental stance (seeking out rationale for actions based on causation). Initial studies were conducted in Austin (USA) and Oxford (UK), followed by cross-cultural studies in Vanuatu. The ritual stance also promotes executive control and the ability to delay gratification.

Objective 2 - Effects of ritual on in-group cohesion and inter-group relations:
Based on numerous studies utilizing multiple methods (e.g., experiments, longitudinal surveys), we have found substantial support for a process model that traces in-group prosociality back to its roots in group identity and the imagistic mode of group experiences. Unique group rituals or one-off events that are both shared with ingroup members and highly dysphoric in nature tend to produce rich personal reflection on the events. For example, in Northern Ireland we found that those who reflected most on 'The Troubles' had personally experienced the most harrowing events. In turn, participants imbued these memories with great personal significance and felt a sense of shared essence with their group leading to "identity fusion". Persons "highly fused" to a group have been found to engage in a wide variety of prosocial acts for their groups. In Libya, revolutionaries who experienced the most intense dysphoric experiences of warfare were also most fused to their brothers in arms were most likely to risk life and limb as frontline fighters. In the U.S., Americans most strongly fused to the nation were most likely to provide financial or socio-emotional support for victims of the Boston Marathon bombings. In follow-up experiments in controlled lab settings, priming personal memories of highly dysphoric group events temporarily amplified identity fusion and in turn, willingness to self-sacrifice for the group.

Objective 3 - Role of ritual in political evolution:
Large databases have been constructed to examine the role of ritual in the evolution of social complexity. Initial analyses of our archaeological database suggest that domestication of plants and animals in Western Asia entailed increasingly routinized forms of collective behaviour associated with increased communal rituals and the homogenization of cultural identity markers. Our global historical database (http://seshatdatabank.info) will enable us to explore the relationships between ritual, warfare and social complexity worldwide covering a period of up to ten thousand years BP. Based on complex systems analysis of the Seshat database our ambitious aims are: to establish laws of human history and sociocultural evolution (based on precise and testable hypotheses); more accurately predict patterns of state breakdown, civil war, and other forms of political instability; investigate the role of environmental pressures in the growth or decline of armed groups; clarify the relationship between the resourcing needs of armed groups and their structure, spread, and survival; analyze the weakening or strengthening effects of exerting military pressure on groups as well as the role of extra-regional support; establish what conditions lead to more cohesive, stable, and peaceful societies (as distinct from trying to impose 'democracy' everywhere); establish how groups generate collective goods necessary for state building; predict the costs and other consequences of war (including effects on free trade, movement of goods, etc.).
Exploitation Route A major focus of this project is on role of ritual in binding communities together and fuelling inter-group conflict. Our findings are expected to be useful to public policy making in the following areas: preventing radicalization; reforming violent criminals; resolving inter-group conflict; reducing hooliganism among football fans; improving motivation in the armed forces and police.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.icea.ox.ac.uk/fundedprojects/ritual00/
 
Description Falling within the ESRC's strategic challenge area on "Security, Conflict and Justice" this project also forms part of the Global Uncertainties Programme. Research conducted by PI Harvey Whitehouse and project researcher Brian McQuinn in Libya has provided unique insight into civil war armed groups operating in the region and has been used to inform national and international policy on community security and the demobilization, disarmament, and reintegration of combatants. At the behest of international policy makers, McQuinn facilitated meetings between local leaders of the military council and representatives of the international community (e.g. British Ambassador, United Nations Special Representative of the Secretary General in Libya). In 2012 McQuinn published a policy document detailing the security apparatus in Misrata and the evolution of non-state armed groups in Libya. McQuinn continues to contribute to international media accounts of the security situation in Misrata and fulfill requests from international agencies for briefings on conflict dynamics in Libya. Examples of such organizations include: the Small Arms Survey (Geneva); UN Panel of Experts on Libya (Security Council Resolution 1973 (2011)); UN OCHA; United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL); ACTED; UN Department of Political Affairs (UN DPA); IRIN (humanitarian news and analysis). Discussions of pathways to societal impact in year 2 (at a workshop organized by Whitehouse, ESRC Project PI, at Wadham College Oxford) led to the creation of a new Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflicts (CRIC) at Harris Manchester College Oxford. The new Centre, led by Lord John Alderdice in collaboration with co-founders Atran (ESRC project co-I), Whitehouse, and Richard Davis, is partly constructed around a synthesis of our objective 2 research on ritual, shared dysphoria and fusion, including also research conducted by Atran's team on the role of 'sacred values' in intractable conflicts. This process is expected to involve collaborations with policy experts, academics, politicians and other stakeholders. The expertise needed for this kind of work is currently dispersed but one of CRIC's aims will be to provide a stable and enduring platform for discussing and developing theories of intractable conflict and practical interventions. Whitehouse has also been working with criminologists and other social scientists in Australia to engage with various organs of the criminal justice system there to develop mechanisms to promote prisoner reform through fusion with mainstream, law-abiding groups creating exciting opportunities for knowledge exchange, and further potential policy impact. Meanwhile, research with football supporters by various members of the team in Brazil has enabled the development of theories that could help overcome problems of hooliganism and anti-social behaviour in fan groups and their wider communities. Other data collection work under Objective 2 has opened up new opportunities for further research in the Middle East, particularly with jihadi fighters in Jordanian prisons, and building on the groundwork of this project, key members of the team (Whitehouse and Buhrmester, in collaboration with Lee Rowland, Jonathan Jenkins and Alexis Everington) were awarded a contract to advise the Defence and Human Capability Science and Technology Centre regarding the moral components of conflict. In December 2015, Whitehouse travelled to Geneva to deliver a talk on 'The intra-group causes of inter-group conflict' during a training workshop on 'Analysing and Understanding Non-State Armed Groups' for the United Nations System Staff College. He has been repeatedly invited back to deliver more lectures to the UNSSC. He has also attended several advisory meetings in Whitehall, speaking to policymakers, civil servants, and government officials about the potential to predict future human behaviour and events from trends identified during the analysis of the Seshat Global History Databank produced under Objective 3, including leading panel sessions at World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2017 ('BetaZone: Why Facts Don't Unify Us', 'ERC Ideas Lab: The Science of Social Cohesion' and 'Ask About: The Science of Identity'). With some of his US collaborators, Whitehouse served on a steering committee set up to establish the Society for the Study of Cultural Evolution, which aims to advance the scientific study of cultural evolution and its practical applications, making research in this field relevant to a wide range of policymakers and experts.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Analyzing Islamic State - talk by H Whitehouse at Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre Workshop on Future Trends - Blavatnik School of Governance
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Harvey Whitehouse - Talk on "What motivates extreme self-sacrifice?"; - NIC/DCDC Workshop on Future Trends, Blavatnik School of Governance, University of Oxford, 4th June 2015.
 
Description Harvey Whitehouse speaks at UN System Staff College, Geneva
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact On 10 December 2015, Prof. Harvey Whitehouse led a session entitled 'Anthropology of Armed Groups' at a training workshop on Analysing and Understanding Armed Groups for the United Nations System Staff College at the UNESCO International Bureau of Education in Geneva.
URL http://www.icea.ox.ac.uk/latest/news/article/date/2015/12/prof-harvey-whitehouse-speaks-at-the-un-sy...
 
Description Issue Brief 'Physical Security and Stockpile Management: The Practices of Selected Non-state Actors,' (2; Geneva: Small Arms Survey)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The case studies reported on highlighted the need for adjustments to conventional physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) best practices to make them more applicable to a broader array of armed actors.
URL http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/?highlight-ad-hoc-arsenals
 
Description Militia evolution and structure in Misrata during the Libyan revolution - B McQuinn
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Presentation at the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), Tripoli, Libya.
 
Description Panel discussion Brian McQuinn
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Panel discussion - The Middle East and International Affairs Research Group and the Austrian Society for Policy Analysis. Provided policy makers with detailed research findings on challenges and risks faced in Libya's post-conflict transition.
 
Description Policy impact in post-revolutionary Libya
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Provided policy makers with detailed research findings on challenges and risks faced in Libya's post-conflict transition.
 
Description Research briefings on findings in Libya
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Research briefing, hosted by United Nations Support Mission in Tripoli, Libya, to UN personnel and five different embassies, including the U.S., U.K., Canada, UAE and Qatar. Brian McQuinn
 
Description Success and Failure in State-Building by Armed Groups - invited talk by H. Whitehouse at the Foreign Office, London
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description The Anthropology and Psychology of Ritual and Conflict - training session delivered by H. Whitehouse at the Analyzing and Understanding Non-State Armed Groups workshop, United Nations System Staff College, Amman, Jordan.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description The Anthropology of Armed Groups - training session delivered by H. Whitehouse at United Nations System Staff College workshop on Analyzing and Understanding Non-State Armed Groups, Nairobi, Kenya.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description ERC Advanced Grant
Amount € 2,350,443 (EUR)
Funding ID 694986 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2021
 
Description Funding Competition (Axial Age Religions)
Amount $924,002 (USD)
Funding ID ID 488188 
Organisation The John Templeton Foundation 
Sector Academic/University
Country United States of America
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Description Horizon2020
Amount € 4,000,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2015 
End 01/2018
 
Description John Fell OUP Research Fund (Grant 1)
Amount £59,188 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 02/2014 
End 01/2015
 
Description John Fell OUP Research Fund (Grant 2)
Amount £68,047 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2012 
End 09/2015
 
Description Kindness.org
Amount £39,240 (GBP)
Organisation The Neon Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 07/2016 
End 09/2016
 
Description NSF
Amount $407,500 (USD)
Organisation National Science Foundation (NSF) 
Sector Public
Country United States of America
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Natural Governance Programme
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Department Oxford Martin School
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Religion's Impact on Human Life: Integrating Proximate and Ultimate Perspectives (£1,010,484 awarded by the John Templeton Foundation)
Amount £1,010,484 (GBP)
Organisation The John Templeton Foundation 
Sector Academic/University
Country United States of America
Start  
 
Description TIN 3.193 Understanding the moral component of conflict
Amount £31,320 (GBP)
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 02/2016 
End 03/2016
 
Description Templeton World Charity Foundation
Amount £1,519,217 (GBP)
Funding ID TWCF0164 
Organisation Templeton World Charity Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Bahamas, Commonwealth of the
Start 02/2017 
End 01/2020
 
Title Database of ritual and social cohesion during the Agricultural Transition in South-west Asia and North-west Europe 
Description The purpose of this specifically designed relational database (that integrated both archaeological and ethnographic material culture database) was to engage in a meta-analysis of the various types of evidence for ritual activity, social complexity and agricultural intensity in south west Asia and north-western Europe, as derived from representative samples of the archaeological record and the eHRAF electronic ethnographic data files. This database was used as a framework to statistically test hypotheses concerning the role of ritual activity during the Neolithic transition; examined the role of ritual activity as a mechanism for group cohesion in the context of increased sedentism and an expanding social network directly associated with the agricultural transition in both south-west Asia (20,000- 5, 300 BC) and north-western Europe (8,000-2,300 BC). In terms of sampling, this research focuses on the collection, classification and analysis of a sample of: 1. 60 well documented archaeological sites from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Pottery Neolithic in south-west Asia (20,000 BP- 7,300 BP) 2. 40 archaeological sites from the Upper Palaeolithic to the late Neolithic in north-western Europe (12,000 BP- 4,500 BP) 3. 40 ethnographic cultures from the eHRAF ethnographic database [classified as imagistic, transitional or doctrinal via Atkinson and Whitehouse (2011)] For the most part, this research was funded by a National University of Ireland (NUI) Travelling Studentship in Humanities and Social Sciences DPhil thesis under 3-year University Embargo Associated publication: Gantley, M. Whitehouse, H. and Bogaard, A. 2017. Ritual, Group Cohesion and the Agricultural Transition. In Watkins, T and Beuger, C. (eds). The Long Revolution: Becoming Neolithic in southwest Asia. Cambridge: University Press. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The analysis of the database made it possible to determine to what extent (if any) a major religious transition (from an imagistic to an increasingly doctrinal religion) is connected with the agricultural transition in in south west Asia and north-western Europe. Thus, using a methodological framework that incorporated archaeological material, ethnographic material database management and statistical analysis, this research extended current knowledge by engaging in a comprehensive assessment of the causal link between social cohesion through ritual practices and the increased controlled utilisation of resources in the context of the agricultural transition in south-west Asia and north-western Europe. 
 
Title Ganesha: the global comparative database of information technology by Mullins and Whitehouse 
Description Ganesha: the global comparative database of information technology by Mullins and Whitehouse builds on the cross-sectional sample of societies identified in the Ritual Database by Atkinson and Whitehouse to examine the role that rituals and information technology may have played in facilitating social cohesion and increases in organizational complexity around the globe. Large-scale qualitative data analysis techniques are being used to extract and code ethnographic and historical material and construct this database. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Ganesha: the global comparative database of information technology by Mullins and Whitehouse is designed to be of interest to three primary groups: literacy campaigners, government civil servants and policy makers. Each of these target groups are benefitting from this research database because it enables them to demonstrate the wide-reaching role that literacy plays in facilitating social cohesion both within the UK and elsewhere around the globe. 
URL https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:98d1f155-c96d-4ba0-ac36-c610d3d7454c
 
Title The Seshat: Global History Databank 
Description The Seshat: Global History Databank systematically collects what is currently known about the cultural and organizational systems of past human societies to examine variation and patterns in these systems and reveal how civilizations have evolved over time. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The Seshat: Global History Database contends that the best way to provide meaningful answers to some of the most critical problems confronting the modern world is to study the past through well-established scientific techniques. To accelerate impact, this database brings historical experts together with community leaders and policy-makers to solve real-world problems and answer some of humanity's most important questions - how and under what circumstances does prosocial behaviour evolve in large societies? What roles do religion and ritual activities play in group cohesion and cultural development? What is the impact of climatic and the environmental factors in societal advance? What mechanisms translate economic growth into quality of life improvements for the average person? 
URL http://seshatdatabank.info/
 
Title Tolstoy 
Description Tolstoy is a relational database containing statistically analysable variables on non-state armed groups. Information categories include ethnic and linguistic composition, longevity, shared customs and practices, type of leadership, number of hierarchical levels, relationship to the local population, type of resource extraction, and links with other actors. There are no direct legal or ethical constraints to make these data public. Several datasets on non-state armed groups are in the public domain. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This database enables researchers to do large-N research on non-state armed groups. In first instance, it addresses questions about group structure and resource use. The database will also enable research on links/exchanges between armed groups (the network structure of groups). The aim is to generate peer-reviewed publications from this, to inform the wider scientific community about said topics. 
 
Description Ac_Auckland 
Organisation University of Auckland
Department School of Chemical Sciences
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) collaborated closely with Atkinson in all aspects of the research work detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Quentin Atkinson was involved in Objective 3 of the project. He collaborated with Whitehouse and other project researchers on various aspects of implementation and writing up. He also undertook fieldwork with Whitehouse and Mazzucato at Catalhoyuk. This research has partially focused on the role of writing and recordkeeping in cultural evolution. Recent insights garnered from behavioural economics, palaeography, grammatology, evolutionary psychology, and anthropology suggest that writing and recordkeeping helps to solve the problem of cooperation in large groups by transcending the severe limitations of our evolved psychology through the elaboration of four cooperative tools - (1) reciprocal behaviours, (2) reputation formation and maintenance, (3) social norms and norm enforcement, and (4) group identity and empathy.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2012.12.017 Modes of religiosity and the evolution of social complexity at Çatalhöyük The Cultural Evolution of Religion Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, history, cultural and social evolution, archaeology
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_Bath 
Organisation University of Bath
Department Department of Politics, Languages and International Studies
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) collaborated closely with Bryson on the research detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Joanna Bryson contributed to the project under Objective 2, conducting research in conjunction with Whitehouse (PI) and Hochberg (collaborator, Montpellier). This empirical work involved designing and implementing studies to demonstrate the benefits of using social simulations to understand and communicate the consequences of theories of religion and other sociocultural systems. Particular focus was given to Whitehouse's theory of Divergent Modes of Religiosity, for which social simulations of the patterns of religious transmission and transformation it predicts enabled the discovery of numerous aspects that were underspecified, generating new hypotheses for investigation in future empirical research. Overall, the studies demonstrated that this back-and-forth between simulation and theory testing has the potential to accelerate progress in the scientific study of religion.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2012.691033 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, computer science, computer programming, religious studies
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_Bing 
Organisation Binghamton University
Department Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) and other members of the project team have had input to the design and implementation of the collaborative work, and have jointly written arising publications.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. David Sloan Wilson was involved in Objective 3 of the project. He fulfilled an advisory role for the researchers on this part of the project and contributed to various aspects of implementation and writing up. This collaboration consisted of research into cultural evolution, particularly questions such as whether cultural traits are adaptations, and if so, at what level(s) of selection, and more broadly how cultural traits and groups change over time. A new, more comprehensive approach to studying cultural diversity has been developed, which emulates the study of biological diversity and adds considerable value to the 'axis' approach. Part of this has involved advocating the establishment of field sites for the study of religious and cultural diversity comparable to biological field sites.
Impact To Understand Present Day Cultures We Must Study the Past: a Commentary on David Sloan Wilson. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2015.1132243 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0070 The Cultural Evolution of Religion. Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, religious studies, cultural evolution, sociology, history
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_Brunel 
Organisation Brunel University London
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) worked with Russell and Gobet to design, implement, analyse and write up the study described below.
Collaborator Contribution Yvan Russell and Fernand Gobet were collaborators on the project under Objective 2. They contributed to a study run with Whitehouse (PI) using game playing as a proxy for religious ritual in order to investigate the differential effects of euphoric and dysphoric mood, focusing on expertise and analogical reasoning.The study examined the effect of mood on analogical transfer in four conditions: 1) expert euphoric; 2) expert dysphoric; 3) nonexpert euphoric; and 4) nonexpert dysphoric. Overall the team found that expertise and dysphoria have special cognitive functions in ritual.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2014.921861 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, social psychology, sociology, religious studies
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ac_Conn 
Organisation University of Connecticut
Department Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) has been involved in the direction, design and writing up of all the work detailed below. Other members of the Oxford team have also liaised with staff at University of Connecticut (UConn).
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Peter Turchin has been involved in Objective 3 of the project. He has fulfilled an advisory role for the researchers on this part of the project and has also contributed to various aspects of implementation and writing up. He has undertaken fieldwork with Whitehouse, Atkinson and Mazzucato, and contributed to several major publications. The most prominent aspect of this collaboration has been the development of a Historical Database of Sociocultural Evolution, now known as Seshat: Global History Databank. Seshat is a comprehensive dataset covering human cultural evolution since the Neolithic and is constructed in such a way as to allow researchers to use it to tackle big questions that play out over long time scales while also drilling down to the detail to place every single data point in both its historic and historiographical context. This work has brought together the available historical and archaeological data in such a way as to facilitate the rigorous testing of hypotheses concerning the origin of ultrasociality. Through this database, researchers are now able to test such theories as those that explain how modern societies evolved from ancestral ones, why modern societies vary so much in their capacity to satisfy their members' basic human needs, why economies decline or fail to grow, etc. Turchin has also collaborated with Whitehouse (PI) and Pieter Francois (UK collaborator) to investigate the role of ritual in the evolution of social complexity. An additional strand of the collaborative work with UConn has consisted in research collaborations between Whitehouse (PI) and his student Martha Newson, and Dr Dimitris Xygalatas and his student Gabriela Pinto at UConn, made up of two studies. Study 1 measured euphoric and dysphoric arousal and synchronous movement among fans in a basketball stadium as the predictor variables and the dependent variables included identity fusion with various target groups as well as various physiological measures including heart rate GSR. Study 2 was conducted in the lab and measured game-by-game levels of euphoric and dysphoric arousal longitudinally among fans who watch away games on live transmission, with follow up measures taken via SMS or other suitable means. It quantified fusion and social cohesion based on psychological and behavioural measures using sociometric badges designed at MIT. The deliverables were the datasets arising from each study, plus the results summaries and resulting publications.
Impact A Historical Database of Sociocultural Evolution https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127917 https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127473 https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6229624 A Macroscope for Global History: Seshat Global History Databank, a methodological overview https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0070 The Cultural Evolution of Religion Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, evolutionary biology, ecology, cultural evolution, history, sociology
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_Cov 
Organisation Coventry University
Department Centre for Technology Enabled Health Research (CTEHR)
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) has worked closely with both van Mulukom and Jong since their respective moves to Coventry.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Valerie van Mulukom was previously a postdoctoral researcher on Objective 2 of the project in the Oxford team. Since moving to Coventry University she has continued to collaborate on the project, designing, implementing, analysing and writing up studies on highly significant autobiographical memories, reflection and identity fusion. Dr Jonathan Jong was an advisor to the project at Oxford, and since moving to Coventry University has continued to contribute to Objective 2. Jong is a social psychologist, and has collaborated with Whitehouse (PI), Rybanska (research student) and other collaborators to design, implement, analyse and write up lab and field studies investigating ritual practices in children and adults, in relation to religion, early development, identity fusion and group identification, and social bonding.
Impact The Event Opacity Scale and the Event-Specific Rumination-Reflection Scale", Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Human Memory Conference, Cluj-Napoca, Romania The evolution of extreme cooperation via intense shared experiences http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12762 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12165 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149880 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, social psychology, developmental psychology, sociology, religious studies
Start Year 2016
 
Description Ac_EI 
Organisation The Evolution Institute
Country United States of America 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI), the Oxford research team, and collaborators at UConn, Binghamton, Hertfordshire and elsewhere have carried out the research that has been disseminated through the Evolution Institute's channels, as detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution For details of other collaborations involving members of the Evolution Institute, please see the entries for the University of Connecticut, the University of Hertfordshire, and SUNY Binghamton. In addition, Joe Brewer of the Evolution Institute has helped to disseminate key findings from the project through the newly formed Society for the Study of Cultural Evolution (SSCE) - which has 1100 founding members from more than 50 countries - and also across the media platform hosted by the Evolution Institute, through the web venues of the SEF, TVOL magazine, and other communication channels. Considerations of group cohesion, inheritance of behavioural practices and social norms, and intergroup conflict resolution have been reflected in the "grand challenge" survey responses from SSCE members about the mission and scope for the society. As such, it has been and will continue to be a ready and eager audience for debate and open dialogue for the unique data and key findings of the project. The readerships of SEF and TVOL are comprised of academic researchers, journalists and bloggers, and members of the public with an interest in evolutionary studies.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-017-0070 Seshat: Global History Databank (database) Also see outputs from UConn, Binghamton and Hertfordshire. Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, history, cultural and social evolution, evolutionary biology
Start Year 2015
 
Description Ac_Exe 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department School of Psychology
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) and members of the Oxford team have worked closely with Currie on research relating to the Seshat sub-project, as detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Thomas Currie has contributed to the project under Objective 3. As a specialist in Cultural Evolution, Currie has been principally involved with Seshat: Global History Databank, which involves the systematic organisation of the vast amount of historical and archaeological knowledge about the cultural evolution of past human societies since the Neolithic period, in order to render it accessible for empirically testing theories about cultural evolution and historical dynamics. For example, what evolutionary mechanisms were involved in the transition from the small-scale, uncentralized societies, in which humans lived 10,000 years ago, to the large-scale societies with an extensive division of labour, great differentials in wealth and power, and elaborate governance structures of today? Why do modern states sometimes fail to meet the basic needs of their populations? Why do economies decline, or fail to grow? The data in Seshat has allowed the project team and others to test theories explaining how modern societies evolved from ancestral ones, and why modern societies vary so much in their capacity to satisfy their members' basic human needs. The platform can be used to tackle big questions that play out over long timescales whilst allowing users to drill down to the detail and place every single data point in both its historic and historiographical context.
Impact Seshat: Global History Databank (database) https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127917 https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127473 A Macroscope for Global History. Seshat: Global History Databank: a methodological overview. Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, cultural and social evolution, evolutionary biology, history
Start Year 2013
 
Description Ac_Harvard 
Organisation Harvard University
Department Graduate School of Education
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) has been heavily involved in the collaborative work carried out with Prof. Paul Harris at Harvard.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Paul Harris was involved in Objective 1 of the project. He fulfilled an advisory role for the researchers on this part of the project and also contributed to various aspects of implementation and writing up. In particular, studies benefiting from this collaboration have involved investigating the kinds of cues that increase imitative fidelity in early childhood, task-specific effects of third-party ostracism on imitative fidelity in early childhood, whether imitative fidelity is influenced by cues to interpret behaviour as instrumental vs conventional, and whether children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behaviour in response to being ostracized by in-group members.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.08.010 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, child development, developmental psychology, social psychology, early education
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_Mont 
Organisation University of Montpellier
Department Institute of Evolutionary Sciences (ISEM)
Country France, French Republic 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) has collaborated closely with Hochberg on the research detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution Michael Hochberg has contributed to the project under Objective 3. As a population biologist, he has been involved in both empirical work, and data analysis and database development. The empirical work involved designing and implementing studies to demonstrate the benefits of using social simulations to understand and communicate the consequences of theories of religion and other sociocultural systems. Particular focus was given to Whitehouse's theory of Divergent Modes of Religiosity, for which social simulations of the patterns of religious transmission and transformation it predicts enabled the discovery of numerous aspects that were underspecified, generating new hypotheses for investigation in future empirical research. Overall, the studies demonstrated that this back-and-forth between simulation and theory testing has the potential to accelerate progress in the scientific study of religion. Hochberg's other work involved commentary on the value of studying the past in order to fully appreciate and understand present day cultures, broadly supporting the project's advocacy of the importance of historical and archaeological data, and its proper reference and manipulation, for studying cultural and social evolution. In terms of applied research, Hochberg contributed to research investigating one of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution: how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. The team developed a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, they built a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. They found that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. The results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. This research laid the groundwork for future enhancements of the model which should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. The team suggested that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2012.691033 To Understand Present Day Cultures We Must Study the Past: a Commentary on David Sloan Wilson. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138496 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, computer science, computer programming, history, social and cultural evolution
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_NUS 
Organisation National University of Singapore
Department Department of Psychology
Country Singapore, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI), Jong (previously Oxford advisor, now Coventry collaborator), and Lanman (collaborator, QUB) worked closely with Tong and Reddish at NUS on all aspects of the studies detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Eddie Tong and Dr Paul Reddish have contributed to the project under Objective 2, designing, implementing, analysing and writing up studies on collective synchrony and prosociality. Previous research had found that behavioural synchrony between people leads to greater prosocial tendencies towards co-performers. In Reddish and Tong's study, the team investigated the scope of this prosocial effect: did it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity. After the task, half of the participants had the opportunity to help an extended ingroup member; the other half had the opportunity to help an outgroup member. The team found a main effect of the synchrony manipulation across both help targets suggesting that the prosocial effects of synchrony extend to non-performers. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher proportion of participants willing to help an outgroup member after moving collectively in synchrony. Overall, the study showed that under certain intergroup contexts synchrony can lead to generalized prosociality with performers displaying greater prosociality even towards outgroup members.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12165 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, social psychology
Start Year 2015
 
Description Ac_Otago 
Organisation University of Otago
Department Department of Psychology
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) worked closely with Halberstadt on the research detailed below.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Jamin Halberstadt has contributed to the project under Objective 2, designing, supervising and writing up studies on social group formation in an effort to answer basic persistent questions about group formation, structure, and change. The approach of Halberstadt and his team has been to argue that the problem is methodological. Until recently, there was no way to track who was interacting with whom with anything approximating valid resolution and scale. Halberstadt and Whitehouse's team describe a new method that applies recent advances in image-based tracking to study incipient group formation and evolution with experimental precision and control. Using this method, termed "in vivo behavioral tracking," the team tracked individuals' movements with a high definition video camera mounted atop a large field laboratory. They reported results of an initial study that quantifies the composition, structure, and size of the incipient groups. They also applied in-vivo spatial tracking to study participants' tendency to cooperate as a function of their embeddedness in those crowds. Overall they found that participants form groups of seven on average, are more likely to approach others of similar attractiveness and (to a lesser extent) gender, and that participants' gender and attractiveness are both associated with their proximity to the spatial center of groups (such that women and attractive individuals are more likely than men and unattractive individuals to end up in the center of their groups). Furthermore, participants' proximity to others early in this study predicted the effort they exerted in a subsequent cooperative task, suggesting that submergence in a crowd may predict social loafing. The team concluded that in vivo behavioral tracking is a uniquely powerful new tool for answering longstanding, fundamental questions about group dynamics.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149880 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, sociology, social psychology
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_QUB 
Organisation Queen's University Belfast
Department School of Mathematics and Physics
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) worked closely with both Lanman and Buhrmester throughout the work described below. In addition, Buhrmester was a postdoc in the Oxford team, seconded to QUB.
Collaborator Contribution The department at QUB hosted Dr Michael Buhrmester (Oxford postdoc) on a secondment during the project. Michael worked on Objective 2 of the project, taking over as Co-ordinator for the objective part way through the project. He designed and implemented field and laboratory studies in order to determine the nature of ritual's effects on identity fusion, cooperation and outgroup hostility. He collaborated with psychologists and anthropologists who formed part of the project's international network of collaborators and worked with the research coordinator in Oxford in relation to ethical approval, participant recruitment etc. He also contributed to data analysis and writing up of results and findings. Michael's work in particular focused on investigating: what motivates the altruism of exceptional individuals who rush to the aid of victims of group tragedy; relationships between personal and group identity; cognitive representations of group members; and personally costly pro-group actions. Dr Jonathan Lanman has collaborated with Buhrmester to design, run, and write up three studies on the role of fusion with a religious tradition on willingness to pay very high cost for the benefit of that religion and its adherents. While four existing studies support their claim that fusion with religion is a much better predictor of self-sacrifice than any particular religious beliefs (e.g. fundamentalism, rewarding afterlife beliefs, etc.) these final studies were needed to help demonstrate causality and to make the subsequent paper more suitable to higher-impact journals. More broadly, Lanman's work on the project has involved investigating: the precise nature of 'ritual' and 'social cohesion' and the claim that participating in collective rituals promotes social cohesion; integration of the theories and findings of the social and evolutionary sciences in this regard; the development of a general and testable theory of the relationship between ritual, cohesion, and cooperation that more precisely connects particular elements of "ritual," such as causal opacity and emotional arousal, to two particular forms of "social cohesion": group identification and identity fusion; contextual work to ground this theory in an evolutionary account of why particular modes of ritual practice would be adaptive for societies with particular resource-acquisition strategies. In addition, Lanman worked with Whitehouse (PI) and other collaborators to develop a more comprehensive approach to studying cultural diversity that emulates the study of biological diversity and adds considerable value to the 'axis' approach. This also involved advocating the establishment of field sites for the study of religious and cultural diversity, comparable to biological field sites. Finally, Lanman contributed to work on collective synchrony, working with Whitehouse and others to investigate the scope of this prosocial effect: does it extend beyond the performance group to an extended ingroup (extended parochial prosociality) or even to other people in general (generalized prosociality)? Participants performed a simple rhythmic movement either in time (synchrony condition) or out of time (asynchrony condition) with each other. Before and during the rhythmic movement, participants were exposed to a prime that made salient an extended ingroup identity. After the task, half of the participants had the opportunity to help an extended ingroup member; the other half had the opportunity to help an outgroup member. The team found a main effect of the synchrony manipulation across both help targets suggesting that the prosocial effects of synchrony extend to non-performers. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher proportion of participants willing to help an outgroup member after moving collectively in synchrony. This study showed that under certain intergroup contexts synchrony can lead to generalized prosociality with performers displaying greater prosociality even towards outgroup members.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/678698 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2014.992465 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2015. 1132243 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12165 The evolution of extreme cooperation via intense shared experiences Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, social psychology, religious studies, sociology
Start Year 2012
 
Description Ac_RHUL 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) and members of the research team worked closely with Ryan McKay throughout the project, collaborating on study planning and design, implementation and writing up. Whitehouse co-supervised research student Rybanska with McKay.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Ryan McKay carried out research on the project full time for years 1,2 and 3 and remained involved in an advisory capacity thereafter. His work related primarily to objective 2, and was conducted in collaboration with other project participants. As part of Objective 2, a series of psychological experiments were run at Royal Holloway, under Ryan's supervision. These included studies on dysphoric arousal, psychological kinship, as well as future neuroimaging studies. Ryan was also responsible for supervising a lab administrator and research assistants. The studies at RHUL investigated: religious rituals, and particularly whether religious rituals of atonement and absolution are, from the perspective of religious groups, counterproductive mechanisms for addressing the moral transgressions of group members; the relationship between religion and morality - arguing that to make progress with studying that relationship, the two categories must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants; the nature of prosociality and the prospects for non-parochial 'religious prosociality'; and whether engagement in ritualistic behaviours improves children's executive functioning, in turn improving their ability to delay gratification. Ryan also undertook co-supervision duties with Whitehouse (PI) for a research student on the project (Rybanska).
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2153599X.2012.739410 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038455 http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X15000503 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12762 The evolution of extreme cooperation via intense shared experiences Intelligent Design Versus Random Mutation? (A comment on Steven Pinker) Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, developmental psychology, social psychology, religious studies, morality, sociology, cultural and social evolution
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_Stanford 
Organisation Stanford University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) worked closely with Hodder and other collaborators to conduct fieldwork at the site, and in writing up a book chapter on this research.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Ian Hodder was involved in Objective 3 of the project. He fulfilled an advisory role for the researchers on this part of the project and also contributed to various aspects of implementation and writing up. This work concerned ritual and religion in neolithic society, with a particular focus on the site at Çatalhöyük, Turkey. Research focused on modes of religiosity and the evolution of social complexity using this site as a case study.
Impact Modes of religiosity and the evolution of social complexity at Çatalhöyük Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, history, cultural evolution, archaeology
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_TCD 
Organisation Trinity College Dublin
Country Ireland, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) and members of the Oxford team have collaborated closely with Brennan and Feeney to design and structure the Seshat sub-project, and to further develop the database as it has been populated and put into use.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Rob Brennan and Dr Kevin Feeney of the TCD Knowledge and Data Engineering Group have contributed to the design and programming of the Seshat: Global History Databank initiative, under Objective 3 of the project.
Impact Seshat: Global History Databank (database) https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127917 A Macroscope for Global History. Seshat: Global History Databank: a methodological overview Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, cultural and social evolution, sociology, history, evolutionary biology, computer programming, computer science, information science
Start Year 2015
 
Description Ac_Texas 
Organisation University of Texas at Austin
Department Department of Psychology
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) has collaborated closely with both Legare and Swann throughout the project. All studies detailed below were jointly conceived and written up between the collaborator and members of the Oxford team.
Collaborator Contribution Cristine Legare (Co-I) worked full-time throughout the first five years of the project, in collaboration with the PI, to investigate the cognitive foundations of ritualized behaviour by adopting a developmental perspective cross-culturally. The allocated work involved designing and implementing psychological experiments to tease apart some of the main cues for activation of the 'ritual stance' in childhood. Experiments have been conducted at the collaborating university and then been replicated in a variety of field locations around the world. In particular, studies have involved investigating the kinds of cues that increase imitative fidelity in early childhood, task-specific effects of third-party ostracism on imitative fidelity in early childhood, whether imitative fidelity is influenced by cues to interpret behaviour as instrumental vs conventional, and whether children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behaviour in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Legare has played a leading and coordinating role for Objective 1 of the project, including line managing a Lab Manager and Staff Research Scientist based in Austin. The role of the research scientist was to assist the PI and Co-I in the design and implementation of experimental studies examining the cognitive underpinnings of ritualistic behaviour. Prof. William Swann has been involved in Objective 2 of the project. He has fulfilled an advisory role for the researchers on this part of the project and also contributed to various aspects of implementation and writing up focused around the following investigations: theory of identity fusion; what motivates ordinary civilians to sacrifice their lives for revolutionary causes, particularly in Libya; what motivates altruism among individuals who rush to the aid of the victims of group tragedy; the relationships between personal and group identity; cognitive representations of group members; personally costly pro-group actions; the development of a computer-based measure of identity fusion; and the impact of genetic relatedness in fostering a powerful feeling of union between twins that predicts sharing, tolerance and self-sacrificial behaviour toward each other. The Department of Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin has also hosted various secondments for project researchers, particularly postdocs, undertaking cognitive developmental studies. Their work has included participant recruitment, data collection and analysis, the implementation of research protocols and procedures, training junior RAs, and presenting results at conferences.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2013.08.010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.01.004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2015.05.020 https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797615607205 https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028589 https://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1416284111 https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2014.992465 https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894439314566178 https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2017.1296887 Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, social psychology, developmental psychology, sociology, religious studies
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ac_UH 
Organisation University of Hertfordshire
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Pieter Francois was originally a postdoctoral researcher in the Oxford team before he moved to take up a permanent position at the University of Hertfordshire. As such, he has worked closely with Whitehouse (PI) and the rest of the Oxford team throughout the project. Whitehouse has supervised and collaborated on the design, implementation and writing up of all the work described below with Francois, and other collaborators.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Pieter Francois was previously a postdoctoral researcher in the Oxford team, but moved to the University of Hertfordshire and became a collaborator there mid-way through the project. His work throughout has contributed to Objective 3 of the project, particularly with regard to database development and longitudinal data analysis. He has supervised data collection for a wide range of variables on social complexity, warfare and ritual over the past 5000 years by research assistants in the UK and in the field, and has contributed to the writing up of research findings. The most prominent aspect of Dr Francois's work has been the research focused around Seshat: Global History Databank, which involves the systematic organisation of the vast amount of historical and archaeological knowledge about the cultural evolution of past human societies since the Neolithic period, in order to render it accessible for empirically testing theories about cultural evolution and historical dynamics. For example, what evolutionary mechanisms were involved in the transition from the small-scale, uncentralized societies, in which humans lived 10,000 years ago, to the large-scale societies with an extensive division of labour, great differentials in wealth and power, and elaborate governance structures of today? Why do modern states sometimes fail to meet the basic needs of their populations? Why do economies decline, or fail to grow? The data in Seshat has allowed the project team and others to test theories explaining how modern societies evolved from ancestral ones, and why modern societies vary so much in their capacity to satisfy their members' basic human needs. The platform can be used to tackle big questions that play out over long timescales whilst allowing users to drill down to the detail and place every single data point in both its historic and historiographical context. With Whitehouse (PI) and Turchin (Collaborator, UConn), Francois has also undertaken work on the role of ritual in the evolution of social complexity, and the connections between ritual, emotion and power in middle and modern European history.
Impact Seshat: Global History Databank (in databases section) https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127917 https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127473 http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4836f93g A Macroscope for Global History. Seshat: Global History Databank: a methodological overview Ritual, Emotion and Power Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, evolutionary biology, ecology, sociology, history, cultural evolution
Start Year 2014
 
Description Ac_UNED 
Organisation UNED - Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia
Country Spain, Kingdom of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse has worked closely with Gomez on all the research described below.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Angel Gomez has fulfilled an advisory role for the researchers on Objective 2 of the project and also contributed to various aspects of implementation and writing up focused around the following investigations: theory of identity fusion; development of a computer-based measure of identity fusion; and the impact of genetic relatedness in fostering a powerful feeling of union between twins that predicts sharing, tolerance and self-sacrificial behaviour toward each other.
Impact http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2017.1296887 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894439314566178 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028589 The evolution of extreme cooperation via intense shared experiences Multi-disciplinary: anthropology, social psychology, sociology
Start Year 2013
 
Description Ac_Yale 
Organisation Yale University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Whitehouse (PI) worked closely with Manning on various research activities connected with the Seshat sub-project.
Collaborator Contribution Prof Joseph Manning contributed to the project as an advisor under Objective 3. He has been particularly involved in the work on Seshat: Global History Databank, which involves the systematic organisation of the vast amount of historical and archaeological knowledge about the cultural evolution of past human societies since the Neolithic period, in order to render it accessible for empirically testing theories about cultural evolution and historical dynamics. For example, what evolutionary mechanisms were involved in the transition from the small-scale, uncentralized societies, in which humans lived 10,000 years ago, to the large-scale societies with an extensive division of labour, great differentials in wealth and power, and elaborate governance structures of today? Why do modern states sometimes fail to meet the basic needs of their populations? Why do economies decline, or fail to grow? The data in Seshat has allowed the project team and others to test theories explaining how modern societies evolved from ancestral ones, and why modern societies vary so much in their capacity to satisfy their members' basic human needs. The platform can be used to tackle big questions that play out over long timescales whilst allowing users to drill down to the detail and place every single data point in both its historic and historiographical context.
Impact https://doi.org/10.21237/C7clio6127917 Seshat: Global History Databank (database)
Start Year 2013
 
Description 'How do sacred values and identity fusion affect conflict prevention and resolution?' Interview with H Whitehouse, Radio Adelaide 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Discussion of research with H Whitehouse
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://soundcloud.com/icea/adelaide-radio-interview
 
Description 'Rituale' an article in GEO by F. Langer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article discusses the work of H Whitehouse and B McQuinn
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description A land of militias, Libya struggles to build a military 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact research mentioned

The Christian Science Monitor
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2013/0224/A-land-of-militias-Libya-struggles-to-build-a-m...
 
Description An interview with Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Harvey Whitehouse
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=782&v=jqEnGM3Wdt8
 
Description Analysis: Libya's long road to disarmament 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In 'Humanitarian news and analysis', a service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

Brief discussion of B McQuinn research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.irinnews.org/report/94559/analysis-libya-s-long-road-to-disarmament
 
Description Analyzing Islamic State - Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Harvey participated in a workshop on the current trajectory and future implications of Islamic State

Centre for the Resolution of Intractable Conflict
Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.harveywhitehouse.com/events/2016/1/21/analyzing-islamic-state
 
Description Article - Pacific Standard "What motivates extreme self-sacrifice?" by Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Essay in the magazine, Pacific Standard - What Motivates Extreme Self-Sacrifice?
New work in the field of anthropology says violent extremism isn't really motivated by religion-but by fusion with the group.
By Harvey Whitehouse.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Article on PsyPost - 'Religious priming does not increase the ability to delay gratification: study' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Discussion of R McKay and J Harrison' article 'Do Religious and Moral Concepts Influence the Ability to Delay Gratification? A Priming Study' in Journal of Articles in Support of the Null Hypothesis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.psypost.org/2013/07/religious-priming-does-not-increases-the-ability-to-delay-gratificati...
 
Description Audio interview HW Rites from the Start Nature Podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Nature Podcast
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.harveywhitehouse.com/multimedia/
 
Description Being 'forgiven' makes people more generous, psychologists find 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact mentions research

The Telegraph
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/religion/9727182/Being-forgiven-makes-people-more-generous-psycholog...
 
Description Catholic absolution of guilt boosts donations to church 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact mentions research

CBC News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/story/2012/12/07/catholic-guilt-donations.html
 
Description Causal opacity, cultural transmission, and social glue. H. Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop Exploring the Cultural Constitution of (Causal) Cognition, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, Bielefeld University, Germany.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Debate - delusions are radically different from normal beliefs. R. McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Power and pitfalls of psychopathology: Marking 100 years since the publication of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. The Royal Society of Medicine, London, UK.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Delusional Inference by Ryan McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar presentation at University of Bath

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Delusions and Shared Delusions by Ryan McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to Dept of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Der Sinn von Ritualen: Beispiel Religion by H Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article in Spektrum der Wissenschaft, Spezial , by H Whitehouse

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Durkheimian Anthropology and the Cognitive Science of Religion - H Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Durkheimian Studies Workshop, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description End of Anonymity: A way to stop online abuse - including interview with R McKay in New Scientist 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Discussion of research - New Scientist, 220(2940), pp 34-37
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22029400.700-the-end-of-anonymity-a-way-to-stop-online-abuse.h...
 
Description Evaluating ritual efficacy: Evidence from the supernatural by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation, Institution Theater, Austin, Texas

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Explaining Irrational Belief and Behaviour 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop on the Differential Diagnosis of Delusions. Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Explaining Misbelief - R McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact School of Psychology, Research Seminar, Brunel University, London.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Explaining the role religion played in the rise of social complexity. An introduction to Seshat: Global History Databank by Pieter Francois 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Religious Research Group Seminar, Liverpool

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Feature article in Nautilus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Feature article in online Science magazine, Nautilus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://nautil.us/issue/17/big-bangs/to-understand-religion-think-football
 
Description Fightcast Podcast #262 - BJJ Grading Rituals, C Kavanagh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Discussion with C Kavanagh about gathering data about BJJ belt ceremonies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://thefightworkspodcast.com/2012/10/21/262-metamoris-promoter-robert-zeps-and-brazilian-jiu-jits...
 
Description Findings in Libya by Brian McQuinn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at Swedish National Defence College, Stockholm

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Forgiving could lead to more giving for fearful parishioners 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact research mentioned

Independent.ie
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.independent.ie/world-news/forgiving-could-lead-to-more-giving-for-fearful-parishioners-28...
 
Description Fusion and Delusions: Understanding Departures from Rational Belief and Behaviour. R. McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Colloquium given at the Psychology Department, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.


Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Fusion, Delusions, and Positive Illusions. R. McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar given at the Psychology Department, University of Portsmouth, UK.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Fusion, delusions, and positive illusions: Understanding departures from rational belief and behaviour. R. McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Centre for Excellence in Cognitive Disorders (CCD) Annual Workshop. Australian Hearing Hub, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description HW interview A Walk in the Park 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact New Atheism - 'A Walk in the Park' - video interview

New Atheism - "A Walk in the Park" - video interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=400&v=xf26Ku9GcQI
 
Description HW interview Religion Past and Present 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk and discussion - questions from the audience taken by panel.

Interview at International Convention of Psychological Science, Amsterdam.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=5353&v=URzjiqYy7lw
 
Description HW video Why are rituals important? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Filmed interview with Harvey Whitehouse - Why are rituals important?

Interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.harveywhitehouse.com/multimedia/
 
Description Harvey Whitehouse interview Radio Adelaide 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on Ritual, Community and Conflict with Radio Adelaide

Radio interview
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://radio.adelaide.edu.au/professor-harvey-whitehouse-ritual-community-and-conflict/
 
Description Imitative Foundations of Cultural Learning by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at University of Bielefeld

Discussion of Research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Inside a rebellion: the emergence and evolution of armed groups in Libya by Brian McQuinn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Middle Eastern Studies Research Colloquia Series, St Antony's College, University of Oxford

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Inside a revolution: an ethnography of the revolutionary brigades in Misrata, Libya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact School of International Development, University of East Anglia

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interview Jon Lanman in the New Science of Religion series - Youtube 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact YouTube interview with Jon Lanman - 'Belief, identity and sacrifice'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4XnCnK7kdf8&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Liberation and Resistance Movements: Strengthening their Capacity for Peacemaking by Brian McQuinn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Berghof Foundation, Berlin

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Libya official says militia commander led raid on U.S. mission 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in Los Angeles Times. Libya official says militia commander led raid on U.S. mission

Los Angeles Times
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://articles.latimes.com/2012/oct/17/world/la-fg-libya-consulate-justice-20121018
 
Description Libyan attack: it should have been clear deposing Gaddafi was the easy bit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in The Guardian mentions the Small Arms Survey work.

The Guardian
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/sep/12/libyan-attack-fire-cannot-extinguish
 
Description Libyan revolutionary fighters develop a 'national army-in-waiting' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact University of Oxford Press Release. New research examining how armed groups formed in Libya to topple Colonel Muammar Gaddafi says the revolutionary brigades are still a cohesive military force.

University of Oxford Media Page
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.ox.ac.uk/media/news_stories/2012/120705.html
 
Description Libyans enthusiastic about elections despite violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article refers to research conducted in Libya

The Scotsman
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/libyans-enthusiastic-about-elections-despite-violence-1-2...
 
Description Mail on Sunday article about Farmer, McKay and Tsakiris study on trust and self-merging. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Mail on Sunday article about Farmer, McKay and Tsakiris study on trust and self-merging.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.mailonsunday.co.uk/femail/article-2492495/When-trust-imagine-look-like-says-new-study.htm...
 
Description Militia evolution and structure in Misrata during the Libyan revolution - B McQuinn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), Tripoli, Libya.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Misrata Katiba Structures: order within the chaos - B McQuinn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact College for Industrial Technology, Misrata Libya

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Online article- Boston bombing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Online article for the Huffington Post - by Swann and Buhrmester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.huffingtonpost.com/william-b-swann-jr/boston-bombing-shows-the-_b_7054690.html
 
Description Online blog - Developing the Field Site Concept for the Study of Cultural Evolution: An Anthropologist's View 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Extended blog entry for the Social Evolution Forum, curated by the Evolution Institute in the USA.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Online blog - Response to commentaries on "Five predictions and a drum roll" - Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A response to commentaries on The Role of Ritual in the Evolution of Social Complexity: Five predictions and a drum roll
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://evolution-institute.org/commentary/response-to-commentaries/?source=sef
 
Description Online blog: The role of ritual in the evolution of social complexity - Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Role of Ritual in the Evolution of Social Complexity: Five predictions and a drum roll
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://evolution-institute.org/focus-article/the-role-of-ritual-in-the-evolution-of-social-complexi...
 
Description Online commentary - Whitehouse and McKay 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Online commentary on Pinker's 'The False Allure of Group Selection.' - Whitehouse and McKay
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://edge.org/conversation/the-false-allure-of-group-selection#hwrm
 
Description Oxford Research: Former Revolutionary Fighters in Libya Develop a 'National Army-in-Waiting' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Mention of research is made in the Chicago online newspaper

eNews Park Forest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.enewspf.com/opinion/analysis/34820-oxford-research-former-revolutionary-fighters-in-libya...
 
Description Podcast Interview Jon Lanman Religious Studies Project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Jon Lanman podcast interview with the Religious Studies Project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.religiousstudiesproject.com/podcast/practice-what-you-preach-creds-and-cruds/
 
Description Public Lecture on Atheism and Cognitive Science (BHA and CFI) by Jon Lanman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public Lecture on Atheism and Cognitive Science (BHA and CFI)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YSZCnNjqkEY&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Public lecture - How Do Rituals Motivate Prosociality? Harvey Whitehouse - Australian Hearing Hub 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture - How Do Rituals Motivate Prosociality? Harvey Whitehouse - Australian Hearing Hub
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Radio Interviews - Brian McQuinn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviews with Associated Press Television, BBC Scotland, Radio France International regarding Libya.

Information shared with a wide international audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://soundcloud.com/radiofranceinternationale/tripoli-or-tobruk-libyan-kingmakers-of-two-minds
 
Description Religion's Impact on Human Life by Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at UBC, Vancouver

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Research briefings on findings in Libya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Research briefing, hosted by United Nations Support Mission in Tripoli, Libya research briefing, hosted by United Nations Support Mission in Libya, to UN personnel and five different embassies, including the U.S., U.K., Canada, UAE and Qatar. Brian McQuinn

research briefing, hosted by United Nations Support Mission in Libya, to UN personnel and five different embassies, including the U.S., U.K., Canada, UAE and Qatar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Ritual and Group Bonding. H. Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Department of Behavioral Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Ritual and Instrumental Stances on Tanna, Vanuatu. H. Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Institute of Cultural Evolution and Anthropology, University of Oxford.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Ritual and the Evolution of Social Complexity by Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at project workshop, Storrs

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Ritual as Social Glue: An interview with Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Discussion of research with H Whitehouse with This View Of Life - http://www.thisviewoflife.com/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.thisviewoflife.com/index.php/magazine/media/ritual-as-social-glue-an-interview-with-harve...
 
Description Ritual in the transition from foraging to farming - H Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Ritual, Community and Conflict project, Centre for Anthropology and Mind, University of Oxford

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Ritual, Cohesion, and Conflict. H. Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop on Preventing and Resolving Intractable Conflicts, Wadham College, Oxford.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Ritual, Community and Conflict by H Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture presented to the Harold Schlosberg Colloquium, Providence

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Ritual, Community and Conflict by Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture, Singapore

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Ritual, Community and Conflict. J Lanman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Green College Residents' Members Series, University of Columbia, Vancouver

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Ritual, Community, and Conflict. H Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Department of Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Ritual, Community, and Conflict: Investigating the Consequences of Ritual on Ingroup Cohesion and Intergroup Relations by Jonathan Lanman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Anthropology Seminar Series, Belfast

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Ritual, Community, and Conflict: The Role of Rituals in Ingroup Cohesion and Intergroup Relations - M Matthews, J Lanman 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Social Area Seminar, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Ritual, Intra- and Inter-Group Relations. H. Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Culture, Social Ecology, and Psychology Lab, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Ritual, community, and conflict: Investigating the consequences of ritual for ingroup cohesion and outgroup stability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation at the Social Psychology Workshop Series, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Seshat - Policy Implications Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seshat: Policy Implications - Workshop on Seshat: Global History Databank, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.icea.ox.ac.uk/latest/news/article/date/2015/07/workshop-ritual-memory-and-identity/?cHash...
 
Description Seshat. A Historical Database of Sociocultural Evolution by Pieter Francois 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar presentation at Queens University Belfast

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Shadow army takes over Libya's security 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in Financial Times quotes input by B McQuinn

Financial Times
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/8f865f1c-c75a-11e1-849e-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2LsJN2KSl
 
Description Small Arms Survey podcast #8 'In Transition: Armed groups in Libya' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact B McQuinn discusses research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/about-us/multimedia/podcasts.html
 
Description The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to Austin Atheist Group, University of Texas, Austin

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Centre for Inquiry, University of Texas, Austin

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Brown University, Providence

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Coexistence of Natural and Supernatural Explanations across Cultures and Development by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at University of Texas

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Cultural Evolution of Technology: Facts and Theories - Boyd, R. ,Richerson, P. and Henrich, J. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ernst Strüngmann Forum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Evolution of Prosocial Religions: querying some recent arguments by Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at Ernst Strüngmann Forum, Frankfurt am Main

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Evolution of Social Complexity in Western Asia by Harvey Whitehouse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at Our Place in the World, International Workshop, Urfa, Turkey

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Imitative Foundations of Cultural Learning by Cristine Legare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at University of California, San Diego

Discussion of Research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description The Puzzle of Ultrasociality, How Did Large-Scale Complex Human Societies Evolve? - By P Turchin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ernst Strüngmann Forum, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Trusting what you're told: How children learn from others by Paul Harris 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ICEA invited lecture, Oxford

Discussion of research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Video of HW interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact 'Rituals as Social Glue: An Interview with Harvey Whitehouse' - Youtube

Sharing information with the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OIzsRlqcRXg
 
Description Workshop- Ritual, Memory and Identity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Sharing Self-Defining Memories as a Pathway to Fusion; - Workshop on Ritual, Memory and Identity, School of Anthropology, University of Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.icea.ox.ac.uk/latest/news/article/date/2015/07/workshop-ritual-memory-and-identity/?cHash...