The role of ideology, belief and commitment in motivations, justifications and catalysts for action in the face of uncertainty

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Politics Philosophy and Religion

Abstract

This Global Uncertainties Leadership Fellowship investigates how ideologies, beliefs and commitments are employed in decision-making and subsequent public actions, both violent and non-violent, in the face of risk and uncertainty. 






  • What role do they play in people's motivations and the justifications they give for the choices they make?


  • In what ways can the role of ideologies, beliefs and commitments best be represented, conceptualised and modelled such that it is able to contribute to more rounded and reliable research on global uncertainties?


  • What needs to be done to ensure that ensuing concepts, models and resources make a contribution to policy and practice on issues relating to global uncertainty, such as terrorism, cybersecurity, financial risk, and regional instability?




The Fellowship brings together researchers and non-academic stakeholders in a programme of activities, events, briefings and reviews to showcase and identify new applications for research contributing to this theme. It also encompasses a more focused research project in which the researchers examine the connections between 'sacred' claims, boundary-making, strategies of othering, and threats of violence and violent action. How are these expressed and enacted in the discourses and spatial practices of both religious and non-religious groups (such as Islamist and far right movements)?


Planned Impact

The co-production and co-delivery of research, and its translation for users and a wider public are major aims of the Global Uncertainties Programme. They require external stakeholders to be involved throughout the research process, and not just as recipients of research dissemination.

Ideologies, beliefs and commitments are significant factors in the motivations and behaviours of individuals and groups operating in a context of risk and uncertainty. Greater understanding about their contributory role and their relationship to other motivating factors would be of considerable benefit to policy makers, think tanks, consultants and businesses involved in assessing issues of risk, security and global instability. However, as such stakeholders already have related knowledge, skills and experience, they will be engaged in different ways in the design, execution and application of the research.

Potential stakeholders include representatives of a range of public, voluntary and private sector bodies. In addition to inviting them to showcase and networking events, they will be involved selectively in the preparation of briefings and learning resources, in collaborative research meetings and in an advisory capacity. Within the first year of the Fellowship, several key partners will be identified for a more engaged role in the delivery of the research project.

Although different levels of participation are to be expected, we will seek to involve previous contacts and/or other representatives from the following government and other public bodies: Faiths Unit, DCLG; National Security Group at the Cabinet Office; Office for Security and Counter Terrorism at the Home Office; Foreign and Commonwealth Office; Chatham House; National Policing Improvement Agency; West Yorkshire Police; Lancashire Police Authority; Clarence House, the Imperial War Museum and the Armouries. Relevant think tanks and independent research units will be approached, particularly the Royal United Services Institute, Demos and Rand Europe. Award holders within the GU Programme will no doubt have their own user contacts whom we would also seek to include.

The team will work in partnership with several NGOs and private providers for delivery of events and resources, including the Institute of Ideas (Debating Matters), the Citizenship Foundation, Engage (Muslim political participation and media awareness), Global Link (development education), Michael Wakelin Consulting (religion and media), and Norman Winter (audio production). The team has previous experience of collaboration with all these organisations and individuals, as well as many of the public bodies and think tanks listed earlier.

In the context of global uncertainty, businesses as well as governments and public bodies depend on intelligence and evidence-based research, often drawing on the work of university or privately-based regional experts and strategy consultants. In order to develop relevant applicable resources and disseminate programme findings, we will build on an earlier link with P J Sage Inc (a US consultancy that studies contemporary threats including terrorism, drug trafficking and transnational gangs in order to help clients understand and adopt strategies for dealing with them), and will seek to forge links with Pacalis Associates (a UK based international company offering consultancy, bespoke training and development programmes in security, policing, violent extremism and community relations), and/or other UK consultancies that help businesses and service providers respond to cultural factors and cross-cultural communications, such as Focus Consultancy, Fortis, and The Interculturalist.
 
Description In this Global Uncertainties Leadership Fellowship on 'Ideology, belief and commitment in the move to violence' we achieved the following objectives.
• We brought together researchers from diverse disciplines and practitioners & policy-makers with an interest in ideology and the move to terrorist violence
• synthesized international research on ideology and the move to violence in a multidisciplinary review
• engaged collaboratively in research with stakeholders (particularly practitioners and policy-makers)
• disseminated research on ideology, radicalisation and security issues to relevant communities
• maximised the impact of relevant research by opening it up to wider publics through schools workshops, debates, podcasts, new web content and teacher resources
• undertook original research on ideological movements, analysing the connections between sacred claims, boundary-making, strategies of othering, and threats of violence and violent action
• and provided coherence and strategic direction for research on ideology, belief and commitment and the move to violence.

Although there is still some disagreement about the role that ideology plays in terrorism and political violence, and on how best to study that role, there are some good reasons for researching it further.
1. Focusing on ideology allows us to cross the boundary between the religious and the secular and to examine and compare collectively held ideas, beliefs and values irrespective of whether they are religious or political.
2. It allows us to take ideas, beliefs and values seriously (just as actors themselves do), to analyse what role they play and how they materialise in narratives, discourses and practices.
3. Ideas, beliefs and values and their expression play a part in attracting and connecting like-minded people, generating us and them identities, communicating and explaining things to insiders and outsiders, building cognitive and emotional spaces.
4. Engaging cultural with social and psychological factors provides a more nuanced and convincing account of radicalisation and the move to violence than focusing on psychological or social factors alone.

We answered the question, 'Does ideology really contribute to radicalisation?', with the following points.
Yes, but radicalisation is not all about religion ('bad religion'/Islam).
Political as well as religious ideologies have inspired extremism, but not all radicals act violently on the basis of their beliefs.
People who do so are morally motivated ('moral extremists'), often believing their concerns to be non-negotiable ('sacred').
Individuals/groups are more likely to be attracted to extremist beliefs and acts at times of personal and global uncertainty.
But, extremists do not act solely on the basis of ideas, beliefs and commitments: grievances, capability & networks are also important.

And, finally, we agreed that further research is still needed, on three aspects in particular:
Moral commitment: What are the moral pressure points that lead to extremist involvement and action, and when do they arise? How are such values and commitments expressed?
Regulation: In what ways do ideologies serve to regulate individual and group identities and actions?
Transmission: How are ideas, beliefs and values shared? What processes, places, persons/roles enable them to be transmitted?

Research on these issues is being taken forward through our involvement in the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST).
Exploitation Route Our work on ideology, radicalisation and the move to violence can be drawn on in other national contexts.
Practitioners and policy-makers can benefit from some of our findings, provided these are made accessible in relevant formats.
We can collaborate with others working on these issues, particularly practitioners working in government and the wider security sector.
The public issues arising from this research can be discussed more broadly, e.g. in public debates, in schools and universities.
These opportunities are being pursued by the Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/
 
Description We were commissioned by DSTL (via BAE) to produce a case study which was then used in their research on the ideology of threat groups. One of our studies was developed as an illustrative case in the Annual Report of the Government Chief Scientific Advisor 2014. We stimulated discussion on ideology and radicalisation among practitioners and policy makers in government and other public bodies, and brought together practitioners who had not previously engaged on the subject. Through our collaboration and co-funding with Debating Matters we contributed to a debate and topic guide for schools on security v. privacy which was then used in the International Schools Debating Final. Through Radicalisation Research.org we produced materials drawn on by media and other public users. We contributed to a film made in association with an EC project TerRa on terrorism and radicalisation the aim of which was to enhance de-radicalisation programmes used by government and civil society organisations. We gave briefings and presentations to politicians and policy-makers on ideology, radicalisation and the move to violence which generated discussion and requests for further information and research. Evidence of these impacts and the knowledge we generated on ideology, radicalisation and the move to violence contributed to our successful bid to run a national hub on research and evidence on security threats, funded by the Security and Intelligence Agencies. This Centre (CREST) will ensure that the research and activities undertaken as part of this grant will continue to have an impact in future years.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Contribution to Annual Report of Government Chief Scientific Advisor
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
 
Description ESRC Centre call: Understanding, Countering and Mitigating Security Threats: Research and Evidence Hub
Amount £5,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N009614/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2018
 
Description National hub for understanding, countering and mitigating security threats
Amount £4,350,000 (GBP)
Funding ID ES/N009614/1 
Organisation Economic and Social Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2018
 
Description Threat group cases study: Aum Shinrikyo
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 09/2013 
End 03/2014
 
Description Threat group cases study: Aum Shinrikyo
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation BAE Systems 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 10/2013 
End 02/2014
 
Description Collaboration with Saima Afzal Solutions 
Organisation Saima Afzal Solutions
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Collaboration re mutual research and communications interests relating to policing and security, and minority and diaspora issues.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Debating security, privacy and uncertainty in a globalised world 
Organisation Debating Matters
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The collaboration has involved (a) a debating day for Bradford schools on Uncertainty in a Globalised World, (b) the development of a new topic guide on Security v. Privacy, (c) use of new topic guide and judge for International Schools Debating Matters Final in 2014, and (d) judging of regional final and other debates in 2015. Global Uncertainties project has contributed funding (about £8,000), staff and knowledge resources (in the form of speakers, chairs and judges for debates).
Collaborator Contribution In addition to providing staff resources, venues and meals (funded by Global Uncertainties), the Institute of Ideas (Debating Matters) has advertised Global Uncertainties/PaCCS, provided meeting space and other venues, and publicity information.
Impact Schools day of debating (Bradford) International Schools final (topic guide and debate)
Start Year 2013
 
Description Ideology, radicalisation and violence 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Department Human Systems Group
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution A collaboration with Sarah Knight and Jenni Wingrove, Behavioural Science - Influence Team (Human Systems Group) at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory for sharing of unclassified research information.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Radicalisation and schools debate 
Organisation Westminster Faith Debates
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our project team ran an afternoon event for practitioners and policy makers on 'What have we learnt about radicalisation?'. For the evening debate on 'What should schools do about radicalisation?', we identified the speakers and helped plan the event. We funded the venue, technical support and reception. We covered the event in The Conversation and on Radicalisation Research.org.
Collaborator Contribution Westminster Faith Debates ran the evening debate, provided the hosts (Linda Woodhead and Charles Clarke), advertised to their mailing list etc, dealt with media coverage, and made video and podcasts available on their website.
Impact http://theconversation.com/teachers-on-the-frontline-against-terror-what-should-schools-do-about-radicalisation-43942. http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/guides/what-can-schools-do-about-radicalisation/
Start Year 2015
 
Description Uncertainty and innovation in religious movements 
Organisation INFORM, Information Network on Religious Movements
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaboration between Global Uncertainties team and INFORM for public seminar, book symposium and publication in INFORM series (Ashgate). Our contribution was to fund, organise and direct the book symposium, to identify contributors, and edit the book.
Collaborator Contribution INFORM's contribute was to fund, organise and direct the public seminar (Innovation, Violence and Paralysis: How Do Minority Religions Cope with Uncertainity?), to provide venues for events, and to provide staff resources and expertise on new religious movements.
Impact Public seminar; invited book symposium. Edited book (in progress) Disciplines: sociology, religious studies, history, politics and IR, anthropology.
Start Year 2015
 
Description 'Dewsbury case reminds us we have much to learn about how extremism spreads', The Conversation, 16/6/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article in The Conversation to spark discussion about ideological transmission of extremism. Picked up on Facebook and Twitter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://theconversation.com/dewsbury-case-reminds-us-we-have-much-to-learn-about-how-extremism-spread...
 
Description Article: Abu Hamza sentenced to life in prison after years of abusing the limits of free speech 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article for The Conversation on non-negotiable sacred values - in this case freedom of speech and the sanctity of the Prophet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Authority 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel discussion sparked questions and discussion.

None yet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://leedssalon.org.uk/index.php/9-sept-2014-salon
 
Description Debating Matters Day for Bradford Schools 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Got school students thinking and debating on issues related to security.

Encouraged increased interest in debating in participating schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.debatingmatters.com/projects/debating_matters_global_uncertainties_day_of_debate/
 
Description Debating Matters International Final 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Our funded topic guide provided material for an international debate between pupils from an Indian school and an English school.

Encouraging debate among school children in the UK and India.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.debatingmatters.com/projects/debating_matters_india/
 
Description Debating Matters topic guide 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The RCUK Global Uncertainties programme funded the topic guide on 'Security and Privacy' which will be used with school students from 2014 onwards.

The first impact was the use of this topic guide for the Debating Matters International Final 2014 (between winners of the UK and India competitions).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.debatingmatters.com/topicguides/topicguide/security_vs_privacy/
 
Description Dialogue: meeting with National Offender Management Service 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Met with staff at the National Offender Management Service (NOMS, part of the Ministry of Justice) to discuss how our research and project could inform their work. Led to future collaboration on knowledge-transfer events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Evolution of Extremist Ideologies 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Workshop organised by DSTL: participants from academia, government, security services.

Our participation contributed to policy thinking about the role of ideologies in extremist groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Expert discussion: Radicalisation (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Upto 50 leading academic experts, civil servants and practitioners (including from the U.S.) were invited to a closed roundtable on radicalisation. Six expert papers were delivered which were also recorded for audio podcasts and the audio and print versions of these were publicly disseminated via the website Radicalisation Research. This led to further requests from media, meetings with civil servants and practitioners tasked with tackling radicalisation through policy and practice. Excellent feedback was received from the non-academic practitioners and policy-makers about the usefulness of the day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/debate/2015-radicalisation-briefings/
 
Description Extremism on Campus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Short article for public audience on faith and public policy website, publicspirit.org.uk

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Faith debate on 'What should schools do about radicalisation?', 1/7/16 (run collaboratively with Westminster Faith Debates) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public debate followed by questions and discussion. Audience between 100-200, but available on video and podcast after the event, with teacher's guide and pupil resources (GCSE/A Level) available (so significantly extending the audience reach).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://faithdebates.org.uk/debates/what-should-schools-do-about-radicalisation/
 
Description Film on radicalisation (TerRa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Contribution to a film on radicalisation to be used by journalists, police, social workers and others seeking to enhance de-radicalisation of vulnerable individuals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Foreign fighters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Manchester interview sparked further enquiries.

Not yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Foreign fighters in Iraq and Syria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with DW.de sparked interest and comments.

Not yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description From tomatoes to stones and bombs: mutation in the move to violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Panel paper, European Association for the Study of Religion



In this paper I will draw on my research into the move to violence in religious and nonreligious groups. Through several case-studies I looked at how beliefs changed over time, including in ways that came to justify or motivate violent action. In these case-studies I

focused on the public utterances of these groups and mapped out examples of nonnegotiable, or 'sacred' beliefs.

The title of the paper builds on an article by Ulrike Meinhof from the Red Army Faction. In this paper I will draw on examples from this case to contrast with religious groups to both explore how beliefs change over time and also to show how religious beliefs - often

suggested to lead to a unique kind of violence - are not so different in these regards from secular beliefs. The role of external and internal pressure in the context of a particular (often dichotomous) world-view will be discussed as a key theme in how beliefs change in relation to violence.

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description GU/INFORM Book Symposium on Uncertainty and Innovation in Religious Movements 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The symposium provided an opportunity for book contributors (researchers and members of religious groups) to share ideas and comment upon one another's work. The result will be a better edited book.

Feedback to contributors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description GU/INFORM Seminar on Innovation, Violence and Paralysis: How Do Minority Religions Cope with Uncertainity? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Speaker presentations sparked discussion; members and ex members of religious movements engaged with researchers.

A book symposium and edited book followed this event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.inform.ac/node/51
 
Description Guide and briefings on 'What have we learnt about radicalisation?', on RadicalisationResearch.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Series of linked briefings updating media and other audiences of state of research on radicalisation. Widely accessed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/debate/2015-radicalisation-briefings/
 
Description How do we distinguish the 'talkers' from the 'doers' online? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Second Global Uncertainties and Demos Roundtable on 'From Ideological Radical to Violent Extremist' with 11 participants from Lancaster, Demos, Open University, University of Huddersfield, Home Office (RICU), CISCO Consulting Services, INFORM, Institute of Strategic Dialogue, and the Humanist and Cultural Muslim Association.

Contacts for further networking and involvement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description How do we prevent radicalisation? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Follow up from media; and more viewers of RadicalisationResearch.org

Not yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.theosthinktank.co.uk/comment/2014/09/26/how-do-we-prevent-radicalisation-by-matthew-franc...
 
Description Ideology and the move to violence roundtable 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Interdisciplinary research roundtable held at Lancaster University with speakers from Computing and Communication, Linguistics, Criminology, and Politics, Philosophy and Religion.

None known as yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description If you could really 'brainwash' young Muslims, ISIS would have a lot more British recruits 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sparked comments.

impact on visits to RadicalisationResearch.org
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/if-you-could-really-brainwash-young-muslims-isis-would-have-a-lot-more-br...
 
Description Interview: BBC News Channel: sanctions on jihadists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for BBC News (TV) on government introduced sanctions on jihadists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview: BBC Wales. Sanctions on jihadists 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for drive-time programme on BBC Wales about government introduced sanctions on British jihadists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview: Kristeligt Dagblad: radicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview for Danish newspaper on causes of radicalisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.kristeligt-dagblad.dk/udland/religion-forklarer-kun-en-flig-af-radikalisering
 
Description Interview: Mainichi Newspaper: Prevent duty 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for Japan's second largest circulation newspaper for a story on radicalisation and the Prevent strategy in the UK. Interview in Dec 2015. Article printed 4/1/16. Request for follow up interview alongside Japanese security expert.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://mainichi.jp/articles/20160104/ddm/007/030/081000c
 
Description Interview: ONReligion: Understanding Radicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for a feature on two radicalisation experts explaining what radicalisation is. Further engagement and questions following publication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interview: OZY Religious change 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for a piece on religious change and radicalisation, by OZY/TED
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ozy.com/fast-forward/chelsea-shields-and-the-revolution-inside-the-temple/66035
 
Description Interview: Research Professional: Models of radicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for article in Research Professional on theories and models of radicalisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview: Sunday Post: Religious Education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed for article on religious literacy and radicalisation in the Sunday Post.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description James Foley murder: inside the mind of Britain's jihadis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sparked discussion

Not known as yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/james-foley-murder-inside-the-mind-of-britains-jihadis-30735
 
Description Kanishka presentation on 'Ideology, radicalisation and the move to violence', Canada House London, 14/12/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation to mixed international audience including other academics, practitioners and policy makers, particularly from Canada, US and UK. Sparked discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Large centre grant pre-call grant meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited attendance at ESRC-organised pre-call meeting for a multi-million funding call for a national hub on security threats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Matthew Francis: 'Teachers on the frontline against terror', The Conversation, 30/6/16 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A thought-provoking article to generate discussion about the new requirements for schools/teachers on safeguarding pupils from radicalisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://theconversation.com/teachers-on-the-frontline-against-terror-what-should-schools-do-about-rad...
 
Description Matthew Francis: Guide on 'What can schools do about radicalisation?', Radicalisation Research.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Online guide featuring available resources. Widely accessed and led to a later workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/guides/what-can-schools-do-about-radicalisation/
 
Description Men who killed Lee Rigby in Woolwich are murderers not 'soldiers of Allah' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Short article in 'The Conversation' on the verdict in the trial of Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale on the role of ideology and Islam in the move to violence

This led to invitations for media interviews
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://theconversation.com/men-who-killed-lee-rigby-in-woolwich-are-murderers-not-soldiers-of-allah-...
 
Description Non-negotiable Beliefs: Making a Useful Distinction between the 'Sacred' and 'Religion' in Constructions of Religious Violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this paper, Francis challenges the privileged place given to religion in many discourses on violent and/or terrorist organisations. In its place, he suggests that an analysis of the non-negotiable beliefs of groups, both secular and religious, provides a more meaningful and constructive approach to understanding the potentialities of violence developing from group's ideologies.



Many accounts of groups, including al Qaeda and Hizb ut-Tahrir, have focused on the role that religious beliefs have played in violent discourses and actions. In this paper, Francis discusses how he examined the statements of these groups to understand the context and details of their beliefs, and where these might suggest the potential for violent conflict with their perceived enemies. This approach suggests a shift from a focus on 'religious' discourses to those of sacred values and beliefs, which might equally be shared in form and or content by non-religious groups. In making this distinction, he demonstrates a framework that provides a more nuanced understanding of the move to violent beliefs which, in turn, can provide a more intelligent response to this move by policy makers and other non-academic professions.

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Non-negotiable beliefs: Making a useful distinction between religion and the sacred 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Paper at INFORM 25th Anniversary New Religious Movements Conference

This led to a collaboration with the charity INFORM.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Non-negotiable beliefs: making a useful distinction between the 'sacred' and 'religion' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Paper at INFORM Conference on Religious Minorities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Non-negotiable beliefs: making a useful distinction between the 'sacred' and 'religion' in constructions of religious violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this paper, Francis challenged the privileged place given to religion in many discourses on violent and/or terrorist organisations. In its place, he suggested that an analysis of the non-negotiable beliefs of groups, both secular and religious, provides a more meaningful and constructive approach to understanding the potentialities of violence developing from group's ideologies.

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description POSTnote: Addressing Extremism 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Contributed to UK Parliamentary briefing on extremism to accompany the Government's counter-extremism strategy. Initial publication due 2015, but delayed to May 2016 (in line with Parliamentary calendar for discussion of Government's proposals). Briefing audience is MPs & Lords and their researchers, but is also publicly available.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Paper: Does ideology really contribute to radicalisation? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Delivered paper to audience of academic experts, practitioners, policy-makers and politicians. Paper also subsequently available to download publicly as was podcast. Led to further engagement and projects with practitioners as well as questions and requests for more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/debate/francis-ideology-radicalisation/
 
Description Policy briefing note on 'Religion and Contemporary Security Challenges', prepared by T. Riley-Smith (PaCCS). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Policy briefing (on my work and that of other Global Uncertainties leadership fellows) circulated to those who attended workshop on 'Religion and Contemporary Security Challenges' and made available online. Purpose: to encourage those who make policy on security issues and work in security-related fields to take religion and religious issues seriously. Impact not yet known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation by Kim Knott on 'Radicalisation and the move to violence' in a policy workshop on 'Religion and Contemporary Security Challenges', PaCCS, 21/9/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The presentation and discussion was the culmination of research and engagement activities undertaken as part of my Global Uncertainties Leadership Fellowship. The event was organised by PaCCS and the purpose was to consolidate and report on work bringing together religion and security challenges. It was attended by a wide-range of policy-makers and practitioners from government but also NGOs. There was workshop discussion and debate; a policy briefing was prepared.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.paccsresearch.org.uk/news/policy-workshop-role-religion-contemporary-security-challenges/
 
Description Presentation by Kim Knott on 'Security, Religion and Radicalisation' at breakfast meeting of All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Uncertainties, House of Commons, 16/6/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion. Purpose: to engage with policy-makers and politicians on security and religion issues, particularly the importance of considering ideological transmission. Sparked questions and discussion, and future invitations to talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Q&A panel: Political Interaction Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Political interaction event for international students associated with Lancaster University (focus on terrorism and international affairs) Held in London at the Cavendish Conference Centre. Other panelists included Lord Falconer and Eric Ollerenshaw MP.

Held in London at the Cavendish Conference Centre. Other panelists included Lord Falconer and Eric Ollerenshaw MP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Radical ideology isn't what makes extremists turn violent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Sparked comments and requests for media interviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/radical-ideology-isnt-what-makes-extremists-turn-violent-27006
 
Description Radicalisation Research website relaunch 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The relaunch has increased hits on the site, further requests for information and interviews, and participation in the site.

Being monitored.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/
 
Description Radicalisation and foreign fighters 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for BBC Breakfast.

Aired widely but impact not yet known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Radio interview: BBC Lancashire: Schools and radicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed on the new duties for schools, to do with reporting pupils vulnerable to extremism.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Religion, Migration, Integration 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Primary Audience
Results and Impact Keynote lecture addressing academic and policy issues, European Association for the Study of Religions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Risk case study on Aum Shinrikyo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Informing policy makers of risks associated with some extremist minorities

Not yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Roundtable for stakeholders on 'Far Right Extremism', London 20/11/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Roundtable to bring together international researchers and UK security practitioners. Expected to produce briefing summary and online special issue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Roundtable for stakeholders on 'Foreign Fighters', London, 2/7/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited roundtable to bring together international academics and UK security practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Roundtable for stakeholders on 'Schools and radicalisation', London, 28/11/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Roundtable to bring together range of experts and practitioners working in schools, Prevent teams, educational trusts etc to discuss how schools can respond to new government directive on duty to the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act. Participants found the opportunity to share ideas very helpful. Aim to follow up with further events/research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Roundtable on Religion and Security 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact London stakeholders roundtable, Global Uncertainties Fellowship on religion and security (John Wolffe)

Not known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Sacred Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Upto ten experts in the theoretical study of the sacred, discussed this at a seminar which sparked further research possibilities and also to a commitment to co-author a journal special edition on the topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sacred, religion and violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion

Opportunities for future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Stakeholder workshop organised on 'What have we learnt about radicalisation?', London 1/7/15 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Event organised for invited stakeholders from Government (including several MPs/Lords, and practitioners/policy-makers from the Home Office, OSCT, MoD, DfE, DSTL etc) and other organisations. Stimulated discussion but also introduced stakeholders to one another who had not met before. Chaired by high profile public figures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.radicalisationresearch.org/debate/2015-radicalisation-briefings/
 
Description Suspending the norm: using the 'sacred' to explore 'apocalyptic thought' in religious and secular groups 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This research is based on earlier work exploring the move to violence in religious and non-religious groups, which is currently being updated as part of a Global Uncertainties funded leadership fellowship exploring the role that beliefs play in justifying, motivating and catalysing actions in the face of risk and uncertainty. This paper will also introduce this project as well as focusing on how the above approach fits into the broader aims of the project.

None in particular
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description TV Interview: BBC Breakfast: Radicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interviewed on BBC Breakfast news about radicalisation, after the murder of James Foley.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Terror on the streets of London, but don't jump to conclusions yet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article post-Woolwich terror attack on the role non-negotiable ideas play in motivations or justifications for violent action. Overly simple explanations, such as the role of Islam - or of religion in general - in triggering violence, have been shown to be false

Article led to other media invitations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://theconversation.com/terror-on-the-streets-of-london-but-dont-jump-to-conclusions-yet-13883
 
Description Terrorism conference (Boston, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Delivered paper on "A new model for understanding the role of non-negotiable beliefs in terrorist behaviour" to international audience of academics, practitioners (police, etc) and policy-makers. Requests for further information and interest in research project followed on, as did beginnings of partnership with practitioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The non-negotiability of sacred spaces 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talked sparked questions.

Not yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The secular sacred and the move to violence 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Short interventions followed by discussion

N/A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Think piece on religion and security 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Intervention for discussion at symposium

This intervention led to publication in an official project report for public circulation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Threat Group Case Study Presentation: Aum Shinrikyo 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/parliamentarians
Results and Impact Final presentation to funder and stakeholders of research on violent religious group. (In association with DHCSTC project TIN 3.073).

Impact on stakeholders' thinking about religious threat groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Tony Blair is wrong: teaching children to respect religion isn't the answer to radicalisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Media follow up.

Not yet known
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://theconversation.com/tony-blair-is-wrong-teaching-children-to-respect-religion-isnt-the-answer...
 
Description What role do ideologies and beliefs play in the move to violence? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Uncertainties and Demos Roundtable on 'From Ideological Radical to Violent Extremist' with 12 participants from Lancaster, Demos, City University, University of Kent, DSTL, Ministry of Justice/ACPO, and Home Office (Extremism Work Force).

See below
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description What should schools do about radicalisation? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Upto 120 people attended a debate co-organised with the Westminster Faith Debates and held in Whitehall, London. The debate included experts and practitioners discussing what should be done about the new laws requiring teachers to report pupils vulnerable to extremism. The event was recorded for audio and video podcasts. The event led to further questions and discussions with media and policy-makers (e.g. from Department for Education) and invites to further events in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://faithdebates.org.uk/debates/what-should-schools-do-about-radicalisation/
 
Description Woolwich murderers were killers not 'soldiers of Allah' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog in The Huffington Post (copy of article from The Conversation) on the verdict of Woolwich murderers and the role of ideology and religion in their decision to kill

This led to invitations to give media interviews.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/the-conversation-uk/lee-rigby-woolwich-murder_b_4474154.html?utm_hp_...