Experimental Particle Physics

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: School of Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

The three-year timescale is particularly exciting with the possibility of imminent Higgs discovery at the LHC and the opening of a new energy frontier as part of the upgrade programme: we will focus our efforts on Higgs analysis, discovery and interpretation, and the search for new physics in CP violation and rare B decays. Improved analysis techniques, well-calibrated detectors, increased computing power and theoretical input will be essential and we are at the forefront of the required developments in these areas.
All academics are heavily involved in the LHC programme and our strategy is to generate leading-edge physics results from two experiments (ATLAS and LHCb) based upon expertise developed in those experiments as well as from CDF. We will provide timely first results in Higgs limit setting and discovery for ATLAS, based upon our current expertise. Having secured high-quality completion on CDF, where we set earlier limits in the Higgs analyses, we will ensure that this experience will underpin future ATLAS publications. Based on our earlier work, we will be key players in answering questions concerning the origin of mass and the nature of CP violation. For LHCb, we will discover rare two body B decays, search for CP violation in charm and make precison measurements of CP violaton in the Bs sector with early data samples. In the longer term we will measure the CKM angle gamma from loop-mediated processes which offer significant new physics sensitivity.
We continue to invest in and promote a world-class Detector Development activity to enable longer-term initiatives and our Grid strength is aimed at maximising our impact in LHC physics as well as promoting new areas such as NA62 and the linear collider. We additionally lever support through Scottish Funding Council (SFC) and the College in these areas. We have set up physics analysis streams for ATLAS and LHCb, using the Grid, and will continue to fully exploit the 2011-12 LHC data. We will also maintain our involvement in longer-term initiatives where we have leadership roles. We presently participate in the LHCb upgrade, the ATLAS-FP initiative, the super-LHC intensity upgrades and future neutrino initiatives. We anticipate greater involvement in work, contingent upon discoveries made at the LHC. Over the next three years we will develop these areas and progress those where early investment will become most productive, consistent with the highest priority of LHC physics exploitation.
To enhance the priority programme, we will gain through the second phase of SUPA. This will ensure that we can meet our priorities in silicon detector development via substantial funding in support of the LHC upgrade programme, known as SUPA-LHC. We anticipate investing £800k in equipment, shared equally with the IGR where we gain from joint facilities. This strategy is well suited to the skills and capacity of our core group. We believe the associated additional effort will be essential at a critical point in the evolution of UK particle physics.

Planned Impact

Knowledge Exchange (KE) activities have always occupied a crucial place in the strategy of the group. These manifest themselves most obviously in the activities undertaken by Detector Development and the Grid where there is potential for greater industrial engagement. This engagement with KE enables additional funding streams for activities that both deploy technology developed for particle physics and also promote and develop technology and skills that will be required for the design and build of upgrades and future experiments. This leveraged funding benefits all parties involved and especially helps the particle physics agenda through providing measurable impact for societal good - a singularly difficult thing to achieve in the area of blue skies scientific research.

The group has maintained a very high level of KE activity throughout the reporting period and intends to grow this further in the future. The expertise on pixel detectors built up by the group through its long-standing Medipix activity helps us to play a leading role in the move in the UK to become involved in future pixel programs for HEP. This has been recognised through the recent award of a PRD grant for the development of pixel detectors for the LHC.

The Medipix activity provides a bridgehead for the group to create impact through the generation of new ideas and novel methods to measure a variety of phenomena that are of commercial interest. We have just developed a novel technique that has the potential to revolutionise the way that radiopharmaceuticals can be produced - the IP behind these ideas is in the process of being protected by the University.

The detector group has participated in 4 EU framework projects over the last decade and worked with a variety of UK and European industries (e.g. Acreo, Applied Scintillation Technologies, Canberra, Kromek, Oxford Instruments, Photek, Panalytical, SensL and VTT). It has been working on a PIPSS funded project with Kromek (a spin-out from Durham University) to develop wafer scale CZT processes and the company is currently in negotiation with the University to set up an industrially sponsored research centre in the School to carry out research on radiation imaging detector systems that are focused upon more immediate industrial applications.

The GridPP project, led from the University of Glasgow, provides another pathway to impact that has been very successful. Despite a focus on Particle Physics, GridPP also supports many other disciplines and negotiated the donation of ten FDTD Solutions Engine licenses to ScotGrid by Vancouver-based Lumerical Solutions to the benefit of researchers who use our Grid from the field of photonics. GridPP has had close relationships with several large computer manufactures such as IBM, SuperMicro, and more recently DELL computers, which has included testing new prototype products (lately, Interlargos-based PC's) and new technologies (SSDs and GPUs) in real-life environments. Beyond wealth-creation, GridPP has had impact on "Quality of Life" issues by supporting biomedical research VO searches for new drugs against diseases such as avian flu and malaria.

A further strand of our impact activities is our extensive work to inspire the public about particle physics and raise awareness of STFC science. We have been developing close links with Scottish physics teachers, providing CPD through the IOP Scottish network and consulting for the Scottish Government agency Education Scotland. Over the last three years, four hundred school pupils have visited the group for the Particle Physics Masterclass, and in 2011 we raised external funding to send ten pupils from areas identified by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation as having low opportunities to CERN for three days, providing an experience that has the potential to be life-changing.

Publications

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Allport P (2014) Development of planar pixel modules for the ATLAS high luminosity LHC tracker upgrade in Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment

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Buckley A (2016) Constraining top quark effective theory in the LHC Run II era in Journal of High Energy Physics

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Buckley A (2015) Global fit of top quark effective theory to data in Physical Review D

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Eklund L (2016) Physics benchmarks of the VELO upgrade in Journal of Instrumentation

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Maneuski D (2017) On the use of positron counting for radio-Assay in nuclear pharmaceutical production. in Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine

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Tarn MD (2016) Positron detection in silica monoliths for miniaturised quality control of PET radiotracers. in Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)

 
Description Glasgow-led highlights of the reporting period include:
• Publication of the search for [AC51], discovery of [AC31,AC45] and first properties of [AC68,AC69] the Higgs Boson.
• Publication of first ATLAS measurement on VH,H?bb [AC1].
• First results on ATLAS search for ttH,H?bb [AC20].
• Publication of world best limits in searches for ttbar resonances at 7 TeV [AC29].
• Assembly and characterisation of quad module for ATLAS upgrade [AP9].
• World's best measurement of the Bs ? K+K- effective lifetime that constrains the CP violating phase in BS mixing [LC3,LC4].
• Precision measurements of the D0 mixing parameters A? and yCP [LC1,LC2].
• Measurement of properties of orbitally excited states of Bs mesons [LC11,LC12].
• Successful operation and determination of performance of the ATLAS SCT, LHCb RICH and VELO detectors and the ATLAS and LHCb triggers during the LHC Run 1 [AC67,AP33,DP2,DP4,DP5].
• Determination that a neutrino factory offers best possibility for discovery of neutrino CP violation [NC1,NC4].
• Building and characterisation of the muon beam for MICE [NC5,NC6].
Exploitation Route The photon counting techniques developed by the group have been used with success for radiopharmaceutical (FDG) production: a novel material characterisation technique (Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction - EBSD) has been greatly improved by using this technology in work performed with Strathclyde. In addition, these devices have and will continue to be used to great effect to characterise the material quality of CdTe in beamtests carried out at a number of synchrotrons in the UK and Europe. The initial work done on qualifying the pixel detectors for dosimetry has led to the devices being used in ATLAS to measure the radiation environment around the experiment - this is particularly satisfying as Medipix was a spin out from particle physics. The dosimetric function of Medipix has found more widespread use with NASA being a key partner and the technology is now used on the International Space Station to provide dosimetry for the Astronauts and is undergoing evaluation for use in the Deep Space Capsule for the planned mission to Mars. The active charge sharing compensation implemented on Medipix3 has the potential to overcome the scattering effects present in the higher energy electron microscopes. A device has just been installed in the Jeol 200 kV MagTEM used by the Kelvin Nanocharacterisation Centre in Glasgow with very promising initial results. The detector group has very strong links with industry and currently collaborates with Applied Scintillation Technologies, e2v, LabLogic, Kromek, Micron Semiconductors, NHS Glasgow, Probe Test Solutions and SensL to promote its technological advances and has several proposals for further work with industrial partners under development.
Our public engagement activities will build on the key themes of LHC physics at CERN, and cosmic rays - supporting the teaching of particle physics in schools will remain a priority. Our annual Particle Physics Masterclasses, our CERN visit competitions targeted at disadvantaged areas around the West of Scotland, and our support of teacher-led visits to CERN are important outreach activities for us. We will continue to expand the use and geographical reach of our cloud chamber kits, which provide a key classroom resource for the Higher and Advanced Higher courses. Our cosmic ray theme will be expanded through the acquisition of our first HiSparc detector, a cosmic ray detector that will be constructed by local schools and will join an international network. We will also support and expand the use of school Medipix sets situated in Scotland for cosmic ray and other experiments.
The GridPP project, led from the University of Glasgow, provides another pathway to impact that has been very successful. Despite a focus on Particle Physics, GridPP also supports many other disciplines. For example, at Glasgow, we have continued many years of support for the BioMed community, working with a local NHS group to port simulation code and resulting in publications on computing the tomography dose index for conic beams. Another group supported locally were the EPIC virtual organisation for the Epidemiology and Control of Animal Diseases. Assistance was provided to the lead developer of a framework and model that allowed simulation of disease spread based on tracing data of real cattle. More recently, we have started to develop a project with social scientists working on a joint UK-Australian Smart Cities project (AURIN) to enable simulations to run for short periods on large numbers of Grid CPUs as a demonstrator. To that end, we have brought forward planned work and deployed an OpenStack instance at Glasgow as an internal Cloud provision.
The Glasgow team has continued to work with industrial partners in several areas. The design and installation of a new networking infrastructure between the machine rooms in the Kelvin building with LAN3 and Extreme Networks, allowed both companies to demonstrate new capabilities, issue press releases and receive industry nominations and awards for innovative projects. The companies were able to attract new business based on the work done at Glasgow. More recently we have been in discussion with Dell (a long-time collaborator) for joint work on a new architecture for low-power computing nodes (AVOTON). Finally, over the last two years we have engaged in a dialogue and exchanged visits with Codebase (formally TechCube), which is now the largest UK tech incubator, based in Edinburgh. At GridPP30 in Glasgow in 2013, the CEO gave a talk about the perceptions of academia from a startup's perspective. GridPP visited the new headquarters in Edinburgh and met with a number of tech startups. Although a joint project involving funding from the City of Edinburgh's Smart Cities initiative was not ultimately possible, the process has laid the groundwork for future collaboration.
In terms of public outreach, the University of Glasgow contributed to the Turing Festival of Science in Edinburgh for three years, with talks and practical demonstrations related to Grid Computing, Higgs discovery, and Particle Physics. GridPP and Glasgow are also contributing to the CERN@School programme: The GridPP dissemination officer, based at Queen Mary, is playing a leading role in enabling analysis of cosmic-ray data (taken with the medipix chip based at schools and in space) on GridPP resources. Glasgow was the first site to enable this work to run at scale.
Members of the group are active in leadership roles in physics analysis, detector development and GridPP and are committed to growing their roles to provide leadership in their respective fields of expertise and contributing to the formation of relevant policy through participation on Advisory Committees and Panels at National, European and International levels.
All investigators will play an active role in the generation of impact and knowledge exchange and will ensure that appropriate training is provided to all researchers associated with the group activities in the key aspects of communication, public engagement, media engagement, intellectual property protection and commercial exploitation.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://inspirehep.net/author/profile/A.T.Doyle.1
 
Description Pathways to Impact Introduction The generation of impact has always been a critically important part of the activities of the Glasgow group. We recognised the importance of having a dedicated resource to help with this and were among the first groups in the UK to apply for and win funding for an IPS Fellowship. This Fellowship has been immensely useful in providing advice and help with writing grant applications as well as raising the profile of what we do, fostering new collaborations across Scotland. We will continue to generate impact though efforts focused on Knowledge Exchange, Communication and Engagement as well as providing leadership in our respective fields of expertise. The application of technical advances made in particle physics to solve problems in other areas has always been a very fruitful way to create impact and we plan to extend this. The principle activities that contribute to Knowledge Exchange in the group are from Detector Development and GridPP where technology and computing advances are deployed to solve problems in other disciplines and promote industrial uptake where appropriate. The photon counting techniques developed by the group have been used with success for radiopharmaceutical (FDG) production: a novel material characterisation technique (Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction - EBSD) has been greatly improved by using this technology in work performed with Strathclyde. In addition, these devices have and will continue to be used to great effect to characterise the material quality of CdTe in beamtests carried out at a number of synchrotrons in the UK and Europe. The initial work done on qualifying the pixel detectors for dosimetry has led to the devices being used in ATLAS to measure the radiation environment around the experiment - this is particularly satisfying as Medipix was a spin out from particle physics. The dosimetric function of Medipix has found more widespread use with NASA being a key partner and the technology is now used on the International Space Station to provide dosimetry for the Astronauts and is undergoing evaluation for use in the Deep Space Capsule for the planned mission to Mars. The active charge sharing compensation implemented on Medipix3 has the potential to overcome the scattering effects present in the higher energy electron microscopes. A device has just been installed in the Jeol 200 kV MagTEM used by the Kelvin Nanocharacterisation Centre in Glasgow with very promising initial results. The detector group has very strong links with industry and currently collaborates with Applied Scintillation Technologies, e2v, LabLogic, Kromek, Micron Semiconductors, NHS Glasgow, Probe Test Solutions and SensL to promote its technological advances and has several proposals for further work with industrial partners under development. Our public engagement activities will build on the key themes of LHC physics at CERN, and cosmic rays - supporting the teaching of particle physics in schools will remain a priority. Our annual Particle Physics Masterclasses, our CERN visit competitions targeted at disadvantaged areas around the West of Scotland, and our support of teacher-led visits to CERN are important outreach activities for us. We will continue to expand the use and geographical reach of our cloud chamber kits, which provide a key classroom resource for the Higher and Advanced Higher courses. Our cosmic ray theme will be expanded through the acquisition of our first HiSparc detector, a cosmic ray detector that will be constructed by local schools and will join an international network. We will also support and expand the use of school Medipix sets situated in Scotland for cosmic ray and other experiments. The GridPP project, led from the University of Glasgow, provides another pathway to impact that has been very successful. Despite a focus on Particle Physics, GridPP also supports many other disciplines. For example, at Glasgow, we have continued many years of support for the BioMed community, working with a local NHS group to port simulation code and resulting in publications on computing the tomography dose index for conic beams. Another group supported locally were the EPIC virtual organisation for the Epidemiology and Control of Animal Diseases. Assistance was provided to the lead developer of a framework and model that allowed simulation of disease spread based on tracing data of real cattle. More recently, we have started to develop a project with social scientists working on a joint UK-Australian Smart Cities project (AURIN) to enable simulations to run for short periods on large numbers of Grid CPUs as a demonstrator. To that end, we have brought forward planned work and deployed an OpenStack instance at Glasgow as an internal Cloud provision. The Glasgow team has continued to work with industrial partners in several areas. The design and installation of a new networking infrastructure between the machine rooms in the Kelvin building with LAN3 and Extreme Networks, allowed both companies to demonstrate new capabilities, issue press releases and receive industry nominations and awards for innovative projects. The companies were able to attract new business based on the work done at Glasgow. More recently we have been in discussion with Dell (a long-time collaborator) for joint work on a new architecture for low-power computing nodes (AVOTON). Finally, over the last two years we have engaged in a dialogue and exchanged visits with Codebase (formally TechCube), which is now the largest UK tech incubator, based in Edinburgh. At GridPP30 in Glasgow in 2013, the CEO gave a talk about the perceptions of academia from a startup's perspective. GridPP visited the new headquarters in Edinburgh and met with a number of tech startups. Although a joint project involving funding from the City of Edinburgh's Smart Cities initiative was not ultimately possible, the process has laid the groundwork for future collaboration. In terms of public outreach, the University of Glasgow contributed to the Turing Festival of Science in Edinburgh for three years, with talks and practical demonstrations related to Grid Computing, Higgs discovery, and Particle Physics. GridPP and Glasgow are also contributing to the CERN@School programme: The GridPP dissemination officer, based at Queen Mary, is playing a leading role in enabling analysis of cosmic-ray data (taken with the medipix chip based at schools and in space) on GridPP resources. Glasgow was the first site to enable this work to run at scale. Members of the group are active in leadership roles in physics analysis, detector development and GridPP and are committed to growing their roles to provide leadership in their respective fields of expertise and contributing to the formation of relevant policy through participation on Advisory Committees and Panels at National, European and International levels. All investigators will play an active role in the generation of impact and knowledge exchange and will ensure that appropriate training is provided to all researchers associated with the group activities in the key aspects of communication, public engagement, media engagement, intellectual property protection and commercial exploitation.
Sector Chemicals,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Healthcare,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic