The evolution of English Shipping Capacity and Shipboard Communities from the early 15th Century to Drake's circumnavigation (1577)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: Faculty of Humanities

Abstract

The last quarter of the sixteenth century witnessed much: Drake's circumnavigation (1577-8) and the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588). No wonder this time is seen as pivotal in England's growth as a maritime power. In the popular imagination it is also the time when the Royal Navy emerged as a potent force that helped created Britain's trade empire, a perception embedded into the historical discipline. For example, in October 1880 Professor J. Laughton, historian, wrote that 'it is on the navy that the wealth, safety and strength of kingdom chiefly depend.' With hindsight it is easy to see why nineteenth century historians felt supremely confident of the Royal Navy's role in Britain's growth as a world trading power. At the time Laughton wrote the Royal Navy was still basking in the glory days of Nelson and British warships had subjugated China and India. Interestingly, and notably, Laughton made no reference to the English merchant fleet. Writing at a time when the Royal Navy as an institution was over three hundred years old, and for the most part naval and commercial shipping had become separated, it is easy to see why he overlooked the role the merchant fleet played in the rise of England as a global power. Yet, is worth considering that in 1588 most of the English ships involved in the defeat of the Spanish Armada were privately owned merchant ships manned by seamen eager for booty and fame.

The lack of research on the evolution of England's merchant fleet, and the men who manned it, is staggering because while merchant ships and seamen are afforded little space in the literature their working lives cannot be separated wholly from naval activity. English monarchs relied on merchant seamen and shipping to achieve their martial and political aims. English armies that won famous victories during the Hundred Years War were largely carried to France in English merchant ships. Even when the Royal Navy existed under the Tudors merchant ships still played an enormous role in naval operations.

Today because of the global recession we are more acutely aware of the vital role played by merchant shipping in wealth creation by exporting manufactured goods to overseas markets and, conversely, for the importation of products the West is reliant on. The period covered by this project charts this development. At the start of the time-frame under investigation here (1400) English shippers tended to favour short and less commercially risky coastal voyages. At the end of this project's time-frame Drake had begun his circumnavigation and Walter Raleigh was close to planting England's first colonial settlers on Roanoke Island. How was so much achieved?

By combining naval records, which provide quantitative data on ships, with customs accounts and port books recording maritime trade, and correlating and connecting this with evidence from ship archaeology this project will add significantly to the continuing debate on what factors enabled England's rise as a global maritime power. It will also cover a long time period, thereby revealing the trajectory of maritime developments. It is the contention of this project that only by investigating the evolution of English maritime capacity, and understanding the lives of the men who worked within it, over the period of England's transition from a medieval polity to an early modern state can her rise as a global maritime power (both naval and commercial) be fully appreciated. In seeking to understand the evolution of the English merchant fleet over this time the project has two central aims:

1. To transform our understanding of the evolution of English maritime capacity through a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative assessment of the English merchant fleet over a period of crucial change in seaborne activity and ambition, c.1400-c.1577.
2. To undertake a prosopographical investigation of ship-board communities over this same period, which also witnessed social change.

Planned Impact

This project will be run in collaboration with and attached to the Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute (SMMI), an internationally recognized centre of excellence, enabling the proposers to engage with a large community of senior academics across the University and external research bodies. It will also collaborate (in the form of exhibitions and presentations) with Sea City Museum at Southampton and the Mary Rose Trust. In 2015 the research team will also be involved in a public conference at Southampton entitled: 'War on Land and at Sea: Agincourt and Renaissance Warfare in Context'. As part of the 2015 Agincourt conference the project team will organize a session of talks and plenaries on ships and mariners using the findings of this project. As one of the main outputs is a publicly accessible searchable database it is hoped that the wider impact of the project will be considerable. Four groups will benefit from the research and its outputs.

(i) Collaboration with museums and speaking at public conferences will be the principal means of communicating the project to a wider audience. In 2015 the findings of the project will feature as part of exhibition at Sea City Museum in Southampton, ensuring the project has an immediate impact with the public. Through Jon Adams (former Deputy Director of the Mary Rose Trust), we will disseminate our findings at a public speaking event organised through the Mary Rose Trust. As Seafarers serving on the Mary Rose acquired their skills in the merchant fleet, the information contained in the publications and database will add significantly more detail to the career biographies that are representative of the type of mariners that worked aboard ships like the Mary Rose. Similarly, institutions such as the National Maritime Museum will also find the projects resources valuable. In the 2015 a public conference will be held in Southampton entitled: 'War on Land and at Sea: Agincourt and Renaissance Warfare in Context'. The project team will organise a session of talks and plenaries on ships and mariners using the findings of this project.

(ii) Genealogists. The published database will allow searches to be made at person and settlement level. This will benefit bodies such as the Society of Genealogists and with publicity through their magazine (The Genealogists Magazine) will ensure wider use of the database. Other organisations that may wish to exploit the on-line data come under the broad definition of companies that permit members of the public to undertake investigations into 'ancestry,' the most notable being ancestry.co.uk. The proposer's existing datasets have already attracted the attention of History Research, an organisation with a specific interest in Kentish communities.
(www.historyresearch.co.uk). Broadly, it is hoped the database will have an economic impact, enabling genealogists to provide a better service for their clients.

(iii) Public bodies. The National Archive at Kew, could house a link to the database on its website, enabling researchers and members of the public to access this resource effectively. It is worth noting that there is also a heritage dimension to the project. Placing all the data into secure on-line resource ensures that the information contained in these records is preserved for future generations.

(iv) Local historical societies. Coastal communities that have a particular historical relationship to the sea can exploit the information contained within the database to highlight the changing fortunes of their town's ancestors and the growth (or decline) and evolution of their town's nautical past, findings that can feed into local tourism information and museums. Notably, the public body of Rye (Sussex) Council actively promotes its history as a means of attracting visitors and increasing economic vitality (http://www.ryetowncouncil.gov.uk/informationryehistory.aspx). The research can be disseminated to such bodies via press offices.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Work on Collection of Data

The first two years of the grant were spent collecting and collating all the data from the Port Books (The National Archives, E 190). This required photographing all the port books for the whole kingdom from 1565-1577. Concurrently to the collection of the documents was the development of the complex relational database that sits at the heart of the project. This took four months to develop and ensure the queries worked. Once the photographs were collected and the database was completed the process of data entry was started. This was a huge task and, for the period 1565-1577, amounted to the recording of over 30,000 ship-voyages undertaken out of over English 400 ports.

For the last 6 months of the project I collected and entered data relating to merchant shipping from Customs Accounts Particulars (The National Archives, E 122 which record the taxation of cargoes carried in vessels entering and leaving English ports) and local port customs (Exeter and Newcastle Local Archives) for several ports over 1400-1550. The ports were chosen (Bristol, Exeter & Dartmouth, Poole, Hull, King's Lynn, and Newcastle, with all their associated satellite ports) because the collectors of customs routinely provided the name of the ship, the home port of each vessel and the name of the man who commanded it (three key identifiers which the database needs for the database queries to work). So far this has amounted to approximately 20,000 ship voyages.

In November 2017 we officially launched the project website (medievalandtudorships.org) which offers a free to access version of the project database, as well as trade route mapping and port maps. The website allows users to visualise England's maritime trade (principally over the period 1565-1580) and locate via a map the ports from which ships sailed. This has created for the first time, a national picture of Tudor seaborne trade (c.1565-c.1580), showing voyage origins and destinations of English ships and the proportion of trade that is coastal, or overseas. I can also map the seaborne trade of individual ports and chart the careers of individual shipmasters.

Key Discoveries

One of the most important discoveries was the work I produced on the fleet that shipped Henry V's army to Agincourt. This emerged when I was looking at records in the National Archives for ships and found previously ignored documents relating to the payment of ship and mariners for the crossing. Traditional scholarly opinion is that Henry hired the ships to transport his army from Low Country ports as there were not enough vessels in England. However, I discovered that the bulk of the ships were in fact English. This made it onto the front page of the Guardian and was reported on TV and in across other media outlets. I have also written a recent article in which I show that in terms of wealth shipmasters in the late Tudor period were broadly 'middle class' and that they tended to reside in proto-sailor towns; that is they clusters in certain districts of port towns. I also go to show that careers could last decades with shipmaters using familial networks to expand their range of commercial activities.

In addition to the work on the Henry V fleet there are broader findings thus far. Firstly, that contrary to popular belief (and current academic thinking) Tudor merchant ships are smaller than previously thought. Secondly, that most trade undertaken by English ships was coastal. Thirdly, contrary to academic belief the English merchnat fleet was much larger than previously thought.
Exploitation Route The free to use searchable database that is housed on the project website allows people to exploit the data we have collected and tailor this to their own research needs. It allows users to examine the shipping capacity and investigate the careers of shipmasters from a body of c.53,000 ship-voyages, from over 600 port, over a two hundred year period. More specifically, the website provides enough information for users to be able map seaborne trade (c.1400-c.1580), showing voyage origins and destinations of English ships and the proportion of trade that is coastal or overseas. The design of the website/database allows users to easily investigate in great detail the seaborne trade, ships and mariners of the whole country, or a specific region or port. I gave received several queries via the project website email which come from people from the heritage sector (Medieval Adventures' Hall, York), educational sector and general public. The website will therefore be of great use to social, economic and demographic scholars in addition to local and maritime historians.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Transport

URL http://www.medievalandtudorships.org/
 
Description My findings for the Agincourt fleet made into several major newspapers, including a front page on the Guardian. It also appeared on Radio 4 and BBC Breakfast News. I have also been involved in a series of consultations with the National Maritime Museum on their New Tudor and Stuart Gallery, which will open in 2018. In 2015 I collaborated with National Lottery Funded 'Road to Agincourt' Project run by the Culture Team at Eastleigh Council. This involved using the research from this grant to provide biographies of ships, shipmasters and shipowners which were then used in a travelling exhibition. Over 2015 the exhibition was visited by over 5,000 people. Throughout the award I have spoken about the project at several public events; including Eastleigh Council's 'Medieval Festival' which was attended by over 2,000 people. I have also fully engaged and lectured at several local history societies across the region. The talk at Hamble History Society in 2015 has led to some collaboration with two members of the Society who are interested in late medieval Hamble's maritime history (I have provided them with information and expertise as a direct product of this research). I have also delivered a talk to GCSE, A-Level students, and their parents, at St Peter's School in Christchurch entitled 'Digital Approaches to History' in which I discussed the project and showed students alternative ways of investigating historical problems. In February and March 2018 the launch of the project website also featured in several national and regional newspapers and I spoke to BBC Radio Solent and BBC Radio Guernsey about the project website. Since it launch in November 2018 the website has had over 6,700 visits and continues to generate much public attention. I receive emails on a daily basis which ask for further information on shipping and port communities, invites for me to talk at local societies and more general queries about the location of some ports.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Higher Education Innovation Fund (HEIF) Research Collaboration Stimulus
Amount £18,778 (GBP)
Organisation Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK)
Start 11/2015 
End 05/2016
 
Title Shipping Database and Website 
Description A free to access searchable database of 53,000 ship-voyages undertaken out of over 600 English, Welsh and Channel Islands ports and creeks from c.1400-c.1580. In addition to voyage details the website also includes information on each individual ship that is recorded: such as its name, the name of its commander, and its tonnage. The website has an interactive 'port map' which allows users to visually search for ports or clusters of ports they might be interested in researching. It also has an interactive 'voyage map' which shows the direction of English seaborne trade (c.1565-c.1580) using GIS mapping. The website will have several uses and will be of importance to local historians, members of the public, professional historians and students. It's also a really great resource for genealogy research. Since its launch the website has had 6,731 visits (launched in November 2017 count check on 12/03/12018). 
Type Of Material Data handling & control 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This is changing people's view on how to approach investigating English shipping and trade in the medieval and early modern period. In short its offering a new methodological approach the field of maritime history. It provides a large body of quantitative and qualitative data that will be of great benefit to local historians, profession historians, students, and genealogists. I have recent enquires from the Merchant Adventurers' Hall in York who are keen to create research and other related engagement links. This is the email Dear Craig My name is Lauren Marshall and I am the Hall Manager at the Merchant Adventurers' Hall in York. The Hall was built 1357 and is still owned and run by the Company of Merchant Adventurers of the City of York. They initially started out as a religious fraternity dedicated to our Lord Jesus Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary before changing their name in 1430 (by Royal Charter) to 'The Mistry of Mercers', their current name comes from an Elizabethan Charter in 1581. A number of the Mercers were involved in shipping and we know of John and Marion Kent, Thomas Beverley and Thomas Scauseby amongst others that owned ships coming and going from York, Hull and other regional ports. We have through your fantastic website already pinpointed the Trinite, Mary and Julian as belonging to the merchants mentioned. We have ourselves done some research around this, so we do know what was being imported and what duties were paid (I expect this is information you will already know about as this was from The Customs Accounts of Hull). There is a possibility we have other documents in our archives which may be helpful? We are also in the very early stages of an interpretation project which will feature the importance of maritime trade and commerce to York and we would love to at the appropriate time speak to you about this? 
URL http://www.medievalandtudorships.org/
 
Description Gave data to aid academic publication 
Organisation Victoria County History
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I provided detailed list of ships and shipmasters from Minehead and Dunster in the period 1565-1580 including their trading activity, to the Victoria County History .
Collaborator Contribution They published a volume entitled: M. Siraut, with contributions from M. Bristow and A. Chapman, A History of the County of Somerset, vol. XII: Minehead and Dunster with Carhampton Hundred (Boydell)
Impact M. Siraut, with contributions from M. Bristow and A. Chapman, A History of the County of Somerset, vol. XII: Minehead and Dunster with Carhampton Hundred (Boydell)
Start Year 2015
 
Description Part of the editorial team for the Hakluyt Edition Project 
Organisation Hakluyt Society
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been asked to be a member of the editorial broad. I have supplied information on ships and mariners to the project. This information has come as a direct result of creating the project database. In particular I have been helping with the medieval section of the edition and helped identify some of the men and ships involved in the Muscovy Company and Frobisher's voyages to find the North-West passage in the 1570s.
Collaborator Contribution They have appointed me a full member of the editorial board and will use my input (fully referenced to the AHRC funding) in the edition to be published by Oxford University Press, which will produce the first critical edition of Richard Hakluyt's The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation.
Impact Richard Hakluyt's The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation (OUP, forthcoming)
Start Year 2015
 
Description Road to Agincourt with Eastleigh Council 
Organisation Eastleigh Borough Council
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have contributed over 10,000 words of written research and a blog to Eastleigh Borough Council's website as part of their commemorations of the 600th Anniversary of the Battle of Agincourt. This involved a substantial document detailing Henry V's ships, how troops were shipped, and a series of biographies of people responsible for constructing and caring for Henry's ships. I also provided a series of written notes to help guide the actor Samuel West, who is responsible for narrating a series of stories on the website. I have also conducted a series of short films which will appear on the website in due course. I am now helping Eastleigh prepare a mobile exhibition, which will tour Hampshire over 2016 and 2017. This involves my project team provided historical information on ships and on the Hampshire ports that were involved in shipping the 1415 army. The Road to Agincourt involves a wider partnership with the Arts Council UK, the Heritage Lottery Fund and Berry Theatre (who are showing a series of plays based on the Agincourt Campaign). The AHRC logo appears on the website and my project details are fully available on the bog entry.
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided the digital expertise and created the website. They have also provided free advertising material in the form of leaflets and flyers. They also provided the expertise for filming and editing the pieces that will appear on the website over the coming year.
Impact I have contributed over 10,000 words of written research and a blog entry. The 10,000 words provided Eastleigh with the information on William Soper (one of the short films) and included a series of notes to inform Samuel West who is narrating the events of 1415. I provided data to inform a public exhibition in 2106-17 that toured local schools and other Hampshire locations associated with the events of 1415 (i.e. Portchester Castle). This was visited by over 5,000 people. The exhibition was multi-disciplinary as part of the exhibition involved linking with Professor Jonathan Adams who is a maritime archaeologist working on Henry V's great ship (The Grace Dieu) which lies as a wreck in the River Hamble. I provided the necessary information from the historical documents while Professor Adams will use the latest techniques to better understand how the ship was constructed. On 21/07/2015 there was a piece on local TV which used the research from the AHRC-funded project on Henry's fleet (700 ships and 20,000 horses). This is the email I received from Cheryl Butler, our partner at Eastleigh: There is a piece going out on BBC South tonight. The Times and The Stage have featured and hopefully this will drive people to the website for the rest of the events, and there has been quite a bit of radio and regional print coverage so all very positive so far!
Start Year 2015
 
Description Blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I write a bog, using data from the AHRC-funded project on Henry V's transport fleet of 1415.

This has produced a full academic article that will be published in an Open Access Journal in October 2015. It has also led to me offering similar pieces to an Agincourt MOOC in October 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://agincourt600.com/index.php/history/146-d-day-1415-can-we-know-the-size-of-henry-v-s-fleet-in-...
 
Description Conference Paper for the Agincourt 600 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact After the talk I was asked by Geoffrey Wheeler (Qualified Tourist Guide in Southampton) to participate in some work in Harwich on medieval and Tudor ships.

I have formed a collaboration with Geoffrey Wheeler
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.southampton.ac.uk/agincourt2015/index.page
 
Description Conference Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I presented a paper at the Leeds International Medieval Congress on the project. I described how we undertook the project and went through the relational database we have developed and showed a proto-type of the website that will be launched soon and which will house the free to access searchable database of ships and mariners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://imc.leeds.ac.uk/dbsql02/AQueryServlet?*id=30&*formId=30&*context=IMC&chosenPaperId=NA&sessio...
 
Description Conference Presentation on 18/10/2015: For the Royal Archaeological Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the Ships and Shorelines: Maritime Archaeology for the 21st Century, 16 - 18 October 2015 for Royal Archaeological Society Conference. I was approached close to the event to fill a gap left by a previous participant. The talk was entitled: 'Investigating the Tudor merchant fleet: Some new Findings on the size of ships'

The talk generated a lot of interest, not least as archaeologists saw how and on what ways the use of historical documents can impact on their understanding of ships of the period.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.royalarchinst.org/conferences
 
Description Consultation session for the 'Tudor and Stuart Seafarers' gallery at the National Maritime Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On 8 February I was invited by James Davey, curator at the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, to act as an expert consultant (based on my current research into Tudor seafarers and ships) to advise them on content for museum's forthcoming Tudor and Stuart Seafarers gallery which will open in 2018.

James Davey sent this email after the event:

Dear Craig,

Thank you for coming to the consultation session at the National Maritime Museum yesterday. I found it hugely useful, and highly stimulating too, and I have already started following up some of the ideas and leads you offered. I will doubtless be in touch again as the gallery continues to be developed, particularly to talk about your database and how we might use it in the gallery.

With very best wishes,

James

jdavey@rmg.co.uk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I provided expert advice and research from the AHRC project to help create an exhibition. The central aim of the exhibition was to showcase Henry V's Agincourt campaign. I provided all the information relating to Henry's transport fleet and the background to naval expeditions of the period, as well as information on Henry's fleet of royal warships. I worked in partnership with Eastleigh Council on this exhibition. The exhibition will run for several months from 17/07/2015 and is sparking much local interest. Since it started I have been asked to give a talk on Henry's ships to the Hamble Local History Association, which will happen in February 2016. This is in fulfilment of the intention to create an exhibition as noted in the Pathways to Impact.

So far I have been asked to give a talk to the Hamble Local History Association.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.roadtoagincourt.co.uk/interactive-exhibition-brings-history-to-life/
 
Description Full Session at the Leeds International Medieval Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The session was fully affiliated with the project and the AHRC.

This session was planned to present the early findings of the project entitled 'The Evolution of English Shipping Capacity and Shipboard Communities, 1400-1577'. Each paper drew significantly from the database that is currently recorded. It was designed to use all facets of the source material we are collecting. Through these presentations the database, and how it can be used to answer significant questions, was showcased. Paper one examined seafarer communities within a more personal social context and more closely within regional economies and county communities. Paper two looked at the shipping contributions made by the Cinque Ports to the wars over this period, including an analysis of the demographic impact naval recruitment had on these communities. Paper three examined the interconnectedness through seaborne commerce and will draw extensively on the medieval custom accounts and Tudor port books that record maritime trade.

It stimulated a great amount of interest, especially in the database and how it could be used to look into other areas of maritime activity.

We have made a connection with a Norwegian academic team who are interested in collaborating on a future research bid which will involve expanding the scope of our current project to include foreign ships, especially those from the Low Countries, Norway and Denmark.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://imc.leeds.ac.uk/dbsql02/AQueryServlet?*id=30&*formId=30&*context=IMC&conference=2015&session...
 
Description Great Yarmouth and the Battle of Sluys: Yarmouth Ships and Men, 1300-1575; Triumph or Tragedy? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The talk was well received. I challenged the established theory of Yarmouth's decline by looking at its merchant fleet over the long period, as well as discussing the town's involvement in key activities. Interest was overwhelming. I have several offers to return and speak on Norfolk's maritime history and made several contacts with local people. I am in the process of helping members of the Great Yarmouth Local History Association conduct further research by sharing my data.

Advance excitement was generated by discussion of the talk in the local press: on page 23 of the Eastern Daily Press 10/6/2015.

I continue to engage with GYLHA who ask me for advice on matters concerning their town. For example, on 14 February 2016 I received this request from their president:

Dear Dr, Lambert,

Re Joas Johnson if Middleberg

I apologize for troubling you again but at a committee meeting of GYLHAS it was thought you were the best person to help re the above.

As you may be aware Great Yarmouth had great difficulty in keeping a channel open to the sea in the middle of the sixteenth century. Therefore the Corporation employed Joas Johnson, a Dutch engineer of Middleberg on the River Scheldt 'a man of rare knowledge and experience in works of that' nature' to make a new haven for the port. It was recorded that he was paid 4 shillings a day whereas a carpenter was paid 1/- a day.

That is the only information we have on a man who was instrumental in keeping the Port of Yarmouth open to this day and preventing inland flooding over much of east Norfolk and north Suffolk. I suggest this part of his work was nearly as important as Vanmuyden's famous works on the Fens.

I enquired of Joas Johnson in a letter to the Mayor of Middleberg in December hoping he would pass on to a Dutch organization similar to your own but have had no reply to date.

I wonder if you can let us have the name of a contact who might know any further information on Joas Johnson.

We are researching this matter so that we might put up to Johnson and the vital work he did for Yarmouth Harbour.

Many thanks,

Yours sincerely



Andrew Fakes (President)

The key outcome was research contacts with 4 members of the Great Yarmouth Local History Association. I am now sharing excerpts from my database relating to Norfolk shipping with these individuals. After the conference we unveiled a blue plaque in the town commemorating Yarmouth's involvement at Sluys.

I was later sent this email by Michael Boon (Doctoral Candiate at Royal Holoway):

Dear Craig
It was good to meet you in Yarmouth at the Sluys conference since I had been discussing your
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL http://www.edp24.co.uk/news/how_did_yarmouth_get_its_half_lion_half_fish_coat_of_arms_1_4106429
 
Description Interview and Piece for Exeter University Student Newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I did an interview for Exeposé Features, part of the University of Exeter's student newspaper on the research project. This was the email the editors sent:

Dear Dr. Lambert,

I am writing to you on behalf of Exeposé Features, part of the University of Exeter's student newspaper. We were wondering if it would at all be possible if we could arrange an interview with you, on the subject of the 600th anniversary of Agincourt, and your research into the event?

The reason we ask this of you is due to the fact that, as a leading historian of this period, we would be greatly interested to hear your views on the subject, and how it impacted the history of Britain. In addition, we would be very interested to discuss your research, which drastically reduces the envisioned size of the British fleet that sailed to Agincourt.

Were you willing, an interview would last for around 20 or 30 minutes, either by Skype or by phone. The interview itself would be primarily focused around the Battle of Agincourt, its anniversary, and your research into the aforementioned.

Yours sincerely,

Theo Stone and Jessica Stanier,
Exeposé Online Features Editor

I have now received offers to do another piece after the project has finished as away of providing a timeline to the project with Exeter Students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Interview for BBC Radio Solent 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed for BBC Radio Solent Drivetime slot on Monday 29 January. The interview can be found here: https://dropoff.soton.ac.uk/pickup.php?claimID=voHeDTqSfYDvfhdQ&claimPasscode=pj6PtjzaE284BkVn&emailAddr=p.franklin%40soton.ac.uk. I discussed what the project has revealed and linked this to the AHRC-funding. The main point of discussion was centred on the website and what it reveals about the Hampshire area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for Road to Agincourt Project with Eastleigh Council 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I have received requests for further information and been invited to speak at the Local History Association

After the interview I was approached by Hamble HA and I will give a live lecture to them in February 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://vimeo.com/160085634
 
Description Media Coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The recently launched website (www.medievalandtudorships.org) was recently featured on the BBC Regional website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/localnews/2637487-Southampton/0
 
Description Media Interest (Henry V's Agincourt Fleet) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was asked by The Guardian if they could interview me and use for an article some of my Research on Henry V's fleet that took his army to France in 1415. The piece has sparked a lot if interest, especially from other academics.

On 28/07/2015 this made the front page of The Guardian, with a more detailed spread on p.13. It also featured in the paper review on BBC Breakfast (28/07/2015, with Bill Turnbull and Louise Minchin).

The story was also featured on p.21 of The Daily Mail (28/07/2015)

on 28/07/2015 it was also published on The Times website ( http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/uk/article4510593.ece)

It was on Radio 4 in the morning of 28/07/2015

It was on Radio Solent Drive Time on 28/07/2015

It featured in other media outlets:
Daily Echo -http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/news/13502403.New_Agincourt_discovery_to_be_unveiled_at_Southampton_conference_ahead_of_battle_s_600th_anniversary/

Daily Mail - http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3176682/Happy-won-Agincourt-fewer-New-research-finds-number-ships-carrying-soldiers-battle-650-half-previous-estimate-1-500.html

VoiceFm - http://www.voicefmradio.co.uk/community/news/new-agincourt-discovery-to-be-unveiled-at-southampton-conference-ahead-of-battles-600th-anniversary


The Guardian were impressed at the breadth and depth of work that went into the research. This will be published in the Journal of Medieval History in 2017.

Immediately afterwards I was contacted by Sarah Knapton, Science Editor at the Telegraph, who requested information for a specific paper that my findings might be linked to.

Since publication I have received a letter from Mr Robert Graham Williams (robert.williams292@yahoo.com) who said 'I was very interested to read your article in t
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/jul/27/henry-v-agincourt-fleet-invasion-france
 
Description Media coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The recently launched website (www.medievalandtudorships.org) was featured in the Salisbury Journal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.salisburyjournal.co.uk/news/national/15900077.Map_shows_medieval_shipping_routes_which_fo...
 
Description Media coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The recently launched website (www.medievalandtudorships.org) was featured in the Belfast Telegraph.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/uk/map-shows-medieval-shipping-routes-which-forged-british-m...
 
Description On line MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I wrote one of the key pieces for the Agincourt Myth and Reality MOOC. My contribution focused on maritime logistics, information that was produced from the AHRC funding. Over 7,000 people registered for the course. This course ran again on 22 February 1016

Comments from participants on my article were of this nature:

This level of organization is quite incredible to think about really.

Hadn't even considered the logistics of medieval warfare before. The level of organisation is quite impressive.

The amount of carefully planned and thought out logistics that went into this campaign is something I have never been made aware of. It is easy to think of just the battle and never give a moments thought into how tricky an operation it must have been for such an embarkation.


I have received a email from Chichester Museum to help with a visit day in February in which I will talk about my work on the Agincourt fleet and meet members of the public for informal discussions throughout the day.

By 06/11/2015 I had 712 comments on my article for the MOOC. These are the kinds of responses:

This article really brings home how vast an undertaking it was to ship an army to the Continent. No wonder kings ended up spending vast sums trying to defend/regain French territo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/agincourt/1/steps/51060
 
Description Podcast on how to study maritime history using databases 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I recorded a podcast interview which was then disseminated through Twitter and Facebook. I was contacted by several people asking for further information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://generic.wordpress.soton.ac.uk/southamptonhistoryspeaks/2016/09/19/episode-7-craig-lambert-and...
 
Description Public Conference at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The presentation was entitled: The Internal Dynamics and Geographical Distribution of the Tudor Merchant Fleet. The aim was to showcase our database and present our methodological approaches. Talk created an immense interest. Dr Cheryl Fury (a recognised expert on Tudor and Stuart shipping) said afterwards that the 'work you are doing is incredible'.

Potential research collaboration with Dr Fury and a publication in the form of conference proceedings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.britishnavalhistory.com/conference-programme-the-emergence-of-a-maritime-nation-britain-i...
 
Description Public Lecture At a Medieval Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Approximately 50 people attended a talk I gave on medieval ships and naval logistics for Eastleigh's Medieval Festival. In addition to my talk the Mayor of Eastleigh also officially opened the Great Ships Trail which has been created to provide a virtual museum that will allow members of the public to explore the wreck of one of Henry V's ships that lies in the River Hamble (The Grace Dieu). I was approached by several members of the public who asked further questions. One lady is doing a small research project on people from the Hamble area who lived in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries and I have since provided her with lost of information ion shipmasters from this ears as well as crew lists I found during the course of the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.roadtoagincourt.co.uk/medieval-weekend-2017/
 
Description Public Lecture and Questions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact There were forty people from the Lifelong Learning group at the University of Southampton who came to hear my talk (07/05/2016) on Trade, Ships and Seafarers: South Coast Maritime Communities, 1565-1577. Many questions were sparked afterwards and people asked for help with their own research interest in the local area (Hampshire).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.southampton.ac.uk/lifelonglearning/news/events/2016/05/07-landscapes.page
 
Description Public Lecture, Essex Record Office: Essex Ports in the Hundred Years War 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a public lecture on the involvement of Essex ports in the Hundred Years war. Below is the email from Neil Wiffen, Public Services Team Manager

Following on from the very successful conference held at the Essex Record Office on Saturday March 8 this year, I am now writing to you with an update on the post-conference publication which you have expressed an interest in contributing your paper to.



A publication was produced (currently in press).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016
URL http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_news_2030.html
 
Description Public Lecture, Winchelsea Archaeological Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 50 people attended for the talk on Sussex Ports and Ships, 1550-1600. Much interest was generated. I shared the data I have on Winchelsea and other surrounding ports, and have since been asked for more information for Hastings and Pevensey.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public Lecture, Winchelsea Archaeological Society: Winchelsea Ships and Mariners in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries: A Naval Perspective 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Below is the message from the chairman of the Association:


Craig

Our thanks to you for sparing your time. It was meaty stuff and several members have come to me and said we need more 'real' historical research like this. What you said has really helped put Winchelsea's history in context and explain a number of inconsistencies about its decline. Grateful for any advice on the Butler's records. This is something we would be keen to explore. I also mentioned the possibility of a student project so let me know if there is any interest.




Once again, many thanks.

Richard

-----Original Message-----
From: Lambert C.
To: Comotto
Sent: Sun, 15 Jun 2014 13:41
Subject: RE: Forthcoming Talk


After my talk we discussed funding opportunities. In particular WAS were keen to fund some work on Winchelsea's involvement in the wine trade. Following subsequent discussions my Post-Doctoral Assistant undertook a investigation into the wine trade of Winchelsea by using a selection of the Butler's Accounts, which record taxation on wine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Public Talk at The Weald and Downland Museum in Sussex 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 21/02/2016 I gave a 30 minute talk to members of the public at the museum. I stayed at the museum most of the afternoon and answered questions. The talk had two sections. In the fist part I discussed the current AHRC-funded project and then use the case study of the findings I have recently uncovered on the naval operations for the Agincourt campaign.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.wealddown.co.uk/events/understanding-agincourt-activities-2016/
 
Description Public Talk to The Hamble Historical Association 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 4 February I gave a public talk on Henry V's ships for the Hamble History Association. This is significant to the local area as one of Henry's ships (The Grace Dieu) lies in the River Hamble as a wreck. The talk was popular and they couldn't fit everyone in the room so I gave a second talk on 11 February. The talk was featured in local press: for example, The Southern Daily Echo and The Scene, a bi-monthly community news magazine.

The Chairman of the Association wrote this in an email:

Dear Craig

You could see how popular your talk was last evening and how very well it was received. I certainly found out more about the fascinating history of the Hamble River at that time.

I have checked the availability of our meeting venue, the Roy Underdown Pavilion, next week so that the 10-12 people who could not be accommodated last evening can hear your talk. Our preference would be Thursday evening as that is the day most of these people said they were available. Please could you check your diary to see if you are you available at this time? If not the meeting room is available on Wednesday (or Tuesday) evening.

I attach the article which appeared in the Wednesday Echo.

I will be writing an article about your talk for the Village Magazine, the deadline being next Thursday. When I have completed it I will send you a copy to ensure I have got everything correct.

Once again many thanks

Ian

ian.underdown@hambleparishcouncil.gov.uk
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/heritage/archives/14250413.Historian_to_talk_about_Henry_V_s_ships/
 
Description Public lecture to the Fareham Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 100 people attended a talk I gave on the maritime history of Hampshire and Fareham c.1400-c.1577.This took over 2 hours as many questions were asked. i was asked by one attendee (Judy Ekins) for more information relating to Titchfield ships. I went back to the office next day and discovered one Titchfield ship in the database. i emailed her back to let her know. She replied with this:

Dear Craig. thank you so much for taking the trouble to search this out...its most useful and interesting and I shall share the info with Ken Groves .....warm regards Judy (judy.ekins@gmail.com)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Publication of Website in Media 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The website that was produced as part of the project appeared in the Daily Echo (26/01/2018: http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/news/national/15900077.Map_shows_medieval_shipping_routes_which_forged____British_maritime_empire___/) ) and in the Daily Mail (online; 26/01/2018). This produced a range of enquires from other press outlets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/pa/article-5316311/Map-shows-medieval-shipping-routes-forged-Britis...
 
Description Published an Article for the Navy Records Society Online Magazine: England's Reserve Navy: The Ship Survey of 1572 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this article I edited part of an Elizabethan Ship Survey and wrote 1,000 words of text explaining the document.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.navyrecords.org.uk/magazine_posts/englands-reserve-navy-the-ship-survey-of-1572/
 
Description Regional Press coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The recently launched website (www.medievalandtudorships.org) was featured in the Lancashire Telegraph.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.lancashiretelegraph.co.uk/news/15900077.Map_shows_medieval_shipping_routes_which_forged__...
 
Description School Visit/Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On 14 March I gave a talk at St Peter's Catholic Comprehensive School in Christchurch entitled 'Alternative Approaches to History: Digital History and the Tudor Maritime'. There were numerous questions afterwards and I hope to maintain contact with the school as some students presented an interest in doing an extended project qualification (EPQ) using the projects website and database.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://st-peters.bournemouth.sch.uk/news/historical-lecture-series-2/
 
Description Short Research Piece for AHRC Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact To commemorate the naming of the The RSS Sir David Attenborough I wrote a piece for the AHRC website which looked at versions of ship names from the late medieval and Tudor periods and addressed issues such as naming practices and conditions aboard ships that sailed the seas in the period 1400-1577.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/research/readwatchlisten/features/ship-shape-and-boaty-fashion/
 
Description Talk to the Stakeholders of the Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton (SOES). I presented a talk on my AHRC-Funded Research Project and addressed its wider implications and potential. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ocean and Earth Science at the National Oceanography Centre Southampton (SOES) has a Stakeholders Advisory Group of industrialists, famous alums, and colleagues from policy units and government departments, who provide the SOES with feedback on all aspects of SOES activities.

This is the email received form the co-ordinator of the event:

Dear All

I just wanted to say thanks again for your efforts yesterday it was much appreciated by both the stakeholders and ourselves. We are keen to give the stakeholders (including those that were not able to make it yesterday) both copies of your presentations and, if you have any, recent relevant publications either you or your supervisors have produced on the topics you discussed yesterday. Consequently, could you forward
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014