Innovating in Combat: telecommunications and intellectual property in the First World War

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Sch of Philosophy

Abstract

As the centenary of the First World War approaches we can no longer draw upon the testimony of first-hand witnesses. Historians now more than ever need to scrutinise anew primary sources to develop fresh interpretations. This project considers in unprecedented depth the crucial role of innovative telecommunications in battlefront strategy, a topic previously devolved solely to signals historians. Hitherto, little scholarly attention has been paid to the (open or secret) patenting of such new communications devices, their strategic value in combat, or the sometimes enormous profits they generated.

The capacity of military units to communicate securely, i.e. without interception, has underpinned successful combat strategy for centuries, and the First World War was no exception. The vulnerability of telecommunications was well illustrated by the British interception of the Zimmerman telegram from Germany in 1917. Yet in contrast to the popular Second World War stories of Bletchley Park's interception and breaking of Enigma codes, these issues have not been systematically explored in any public or academic history of First World War Britain. While recent historians (such as Gary Sheffield) have certainly reasserted the inventiveness and adaptability of the British forces during the First World War, such revisionist accounts have not extended to the inventive production and use of telecommunications, nor to the issues of intellectual property that they involved. A fortiori these issues are not covered in any military or civilian museum exhibits, nor in extant online teaching resources.

Inroads have recently been made, however, by Gooday's AHRC project (2007-10) 'Owning and Disowning Invention' in understanding how intellectual property systems operated in the First World War. This Follow-On project will work in collaboration with the Oxford Museum of History of Science, and three project partners (Institution of Engineering and Technology, Porthcurno Telegraph Museum and BT Archives) to create public-facing resources on four specific themes:

i) battle strategy in the First World War at times depended in important ways both on innovative (if risky) use of civilian-originated telecommunications (telegraph, telephone, radio) and on new combat-inspired technologies such as the Fullerphone, developed in 1915-16, in order accomplish secure communications in the face of innovative enemy techniques of interception.

ii) patterns of innovation in First World War telecommunications need to be understood within the patent system for managing intellectual property rights. These extend both to the rights of the state over those of civilian and military patentees, and the pressure put on the management of that system by the priorities of war. Only by this means can we understand how the Fullerphone was produced for the British and other armies as the subject of a secret patent in 1916.

iii) there was a subtly differentiated range of rewards available for militarily useful innovations in telecommunications: patent royalties, government purchase, promotion, medals or post hoc awards from the Royal Commission etc. The Fullerphone acts once again as an ideal case study, since most of such rewards were accrued by its inventor, Algernon Clement Fuller.

iv) after the Great War difficult questions arose regarding the legitimate profit from wartime manufacture. The project resources focus on an important yet little studied case: the Marconi company's long legal dispute with the State over mass wartime 'infringement' of its wireless telegraphy patent rights, the large settlement from which funded the creation of the Cable and Wireless Co.

This proposal is modelled on the PI's recent AHRC-funded Knowledge Transfer Project partnered with the Thackray Museum in Leeds, "Patently Innovative: Re-interpreting the history of industrial medicine" AH/I027339/1, also drawing on 'Owning and Disowning Invention'.

Planned Impact

The principal beneficiaries from this follow-on project include eight distinctive groups:

Telecommunications-focused and other museums that hold WW1 materials
Curators and exhibition designers will have available to them downloadable materials on telegraphy, telephony and wireless radio, as well as advice from the PI, Co-I and PR on how to develop and apply these resources in preparation for their First World War commemorative exhibits. At the same time this project will give them the opportunity to make full use of communications equipment in a way that is much more intriguing - thanks to contemporary concerns about communications/electronics/computing companies' use and abuse of intellectual property - than standard hardware focussed narratives of war time communication.

Archives holding collections relating to telecommunications in the First World War
They will have select materials digitized and interpreted ready for them to use in any developing plans for a First World War Centenary as well as receiving advice from the PI, Co-I and PR on how to develop and apply these resources in preparation for First World War commemorative exhibits.

Secondary education sectors - teachers of physics/technology and of history
Teachers will be able to download resources tuned to their needs, enabling them to adopt fresh perspectives in classroom activities. While current secondary curriculum approaches are under reconsideration, at present Key Stage 3 and 4 European and World History address the impact of significant political, social, cultural, religious, technological and/or economic developments and events on past European and world societies, as well as the changing nature of conflict and cooperation between countries and peoples and the lasting impact of war including the nature and impact of the two world wars.

School pupils
They will benefit from being able to use their own expertise in telecommunications (mobile phones, IPads etc) to interpret key aspects of First World War history that go beyond issues of death and brutal injury and consider how developments on the front line are continuations of, and interacting with, changes in telecommunications technologies in the civilian world.

Amateur/Hobbyist historians of First World War
The project will help them better understand the work of those involved in military telecommunications during the First world War and will also bring to light characters of interest who were involved in patenting or other inventive activities.

Community groups specializing in First World War studies. A key example here is the project AH/J013315/1 "Legacies of War 1914-18/2014-18" led by Professor Alison Fell at the University of Leeds, and on which Graeme Gooday was a co-applicant. This project works with local community groups in Leeds to explore the legacy of the First World War in civic civilian contexts, and groups for this project will be involved in commenting on the publicly-accessible resources for this new proposed follow-on project.

Telecommunications companies
They will benefit by being able to demonstrate the decisive yet non-lethal contribution of their specialist mode of technologies to a major global conflict. This research will also help them adopt a more informed stance towards contemporary issues of intellectual property and state funded research/manufacture of telecommunications, particularly in times of war.

Policy makers on Intellectual Property (IP)
Future policy makers within government, the forces or bodies such as the Intellectual Property Office will benefit by being able to inform their current or future research policies/contracts with historical examples of how crucial IP issues and their flexible strategic management have been in times of war as in peace time. For example, the German use of telephony unconstrained in its development by any Bell patent enabled strong military expertise to emerge in hardware and interception.

Publications

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Elizabeth Bruton (Author) (2014) PK News

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Bruton, E (2016) Signalling at the Battle of Passchendale, July to Novemeber, 1917 in DEHS Transmission Lines

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Bruton, E (2017) Historicizing Infrastructure

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Bruton, E (2014) German cable telegraphy in World War I in The journal of the Defence Electronics History Society

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Bruton, E (2014) J.R.R.Tolkien, World War I Signals Officer in The Journal of the Defence Electronics Society

 
Title Geek is Good 
Description Project postdoc Elizabeth Bruton contributed content on wireless amateurs including their activities in World War One for Museum of the History of Science summer exhibition for 2014, 'Geek is Good'. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This exhibition attracted a substantial audience to its displays of geeky enterprise from medieval astronomical gadgets up to 1980s home computing 
URL https://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/insidemhs/geek-good/
 
Title Harry's Story: A Scientist Lost to War 
Description Project postdoc Elizabeth Bruton contributed content on Henry Moseley's time as a Signals Officer during World War One for Museum of the History of Science, Oxford summer exhibition for 2015, "Harry's Story: A Scientist Lost to War", marking the centenary of his death at the Battle of Gallipoli. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact The advice supplied to this project informed the conservation of historic apparatus and archives linked to Henry Moseley in the Museum of History of Science's collections, and a subsequent permanent redisplay, along with a broad programme of HLF-funded public events, education work, and digital resources. 
URL http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/moseley
 
Title Pigeon! 
Description Project postdoc Elizabeth Bruton contributed and provided content for Lunabug Theatre's "Pigeon", a family friendly theatre production about carrier pigeons in World War One, currently touring the UK and due for an official launch later this year. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact This show had a nation-wide tour across the UK to mark the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War, 
URL http://lunabug.co.uk/shows/pigeon/
 
Description There are very many benefits to sharing expertise on WW1 telecommunications, and its intellectual property issues, with Museums and Archives. This project has supplied a range of UK organisation with a range of fresh stories to narrate the significance of their holdings and relate them to audiences in fresh exhibitions, public lectures, online resources and family-friendly workshop activities.
Exploitation Route There are key issues to explore about how the aftermath of WW1 affected the take-up of radio and the expansion of telephony in the UK during the interwar period..
This is being explored in a Postdoctoral project managed by PI Gooday funded partly by Mr Keith Thrower and the School of Philosophy, Religion & History of Science at Leeds.

There are also questions about how the First World war opened up a new industry of thermionic valve electronics once the valve patent expired in 1919 and a large postwar female labour force was available to develop the delicate industry of hand-made valves. These questions will be pursued by a PhD student in the CDP project jointly awarded to Gooday and the Science Museum Group, (lead partner thje Museum of Science & Industry in Manchester), title: 'Making electronics in interwar Britain: gendered labour in the thermionic valve industry'.
Sectors Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/
 
Description 1. Advised Royal Signals Museum on their HLF World War One grant application. 2. Created electronic museum resources on World War One communications for family-friendly events for Wireless in Wales and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum. These information leaflets will be incorporated into their general museum activities. See http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/educational-resources/ 3. Advised upon plans for Marconi Heritage Centre at Chelmsford as well as anniversary activities related to 2014 and the Marconi Company's activities during World War One. 4. Developed and tested three KS3 education resources on World War One: one on Fullerphone, one on cable telegraphy and one on wireless telegraphy in World War One. See http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/educational-resources/ 5. Project materials have been used as part of history of science MSc module History of Science, Medicine, and Technology: Instruments, Collections and Museums, 1700-1900 [module actually goes up to and includes World War One] at the Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford and Dr Elizabeth Bruton delivered three of the eight course lectures as well as one of the seminars. 6. Contributed to World War One HLF grant application for Museum of the History of Science, Oxford for summer exhibition about Henry Moseley. Some project content will inform the exhibition content etc. 7. Provided primary and secondary sources and further advice to Jane Philmester, Oxford Archaeology for a project to map World War One wireless stations.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description BT Group, including BT Archives 
Organisation BT Group
Department BT Archives
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact tbc
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Defence Electronics History Society on First World War Communications 
Organisation Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Collaborator Contribution Supplied communications assistance for our events and projects, and advice on historical resources.
Impact No direct outputs to date, but dialogue continues with the prospect of an output soon.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with the Institution of Engineering and Technology Archives 
Organisation Institution of Engineering and Technology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution For the AHRC Follow-on funding project, 'Innovating in Combat' we collaborated and partnered with the IET Archives to create electronic resources, public events, encourage collaboration between different museums, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions.
Collaborator Contribution Hosting events and assisting with communications
Impact None directly - but much expertise shared.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation BT Group
Department BT Archives
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation Institution of Engineering and Technology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation Porthcurno Telegraph Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation Science Museum Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Museum of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (HSTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Museum of the History of Science, Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Start Year 2013
 
Description General Collaboration with Porthcurno Telegraph Museum 
Organisation Porthcurno Telegraph Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution For the AHRC-funded 'Innovating in Combat' Follow-on Funding project, we collaborated and partnered with the Porthcurno Telegraph Museum in Cornwall to create educational events and resources
Collaborator Contribution Hosted events and gave access to their archive collections and event spaces.
Impact For details see http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20130807
Start Year 2013
 
Description IWM Centenary partnership programme 
Organisation Imperial War Museum
Department Centenary partnership programme
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Active member of IWM Centenary partnership programme See http://www.1914.org/partners/
Start Year 2013
 
Description Imperial War Museum North 
Organisation Imperial War Museum North
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact TBC
Start Year 2013
 
Description Legacies of War 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Legacies of War
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Active member of and contributor to Legacies of War project at University of Leeds, specifically the 'Science and Technology' strand.
Collaborator Contribution tbc
Impact tbc
Start Year 2013
 
Description Museum of History of Science 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Museum of the History of Science, Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Collaborator Contribution tbc
Impact tbc
Start Year 2013
 
Description University of Leeds Museum of History of Science and Technology 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department Museum of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine (HSTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborated and partnered with BT archives, Defence Electronics History Society (DEHS), IET archives, IWM North, Museum of the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Leeds, Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, and Porthcurno Telegraph Museum Science Museum to create electronic and published resources, organise public events, encourage collaboration between different institutions, and foster a sense of community amongst the different partner institutions. Resources were developed based on the individual and collective holdings of the partner institutions.
Collaborator Contribution TBC
Impact TBC
Start Year 2013
 
Description University of Leeds Special Collections 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department University of Leeds Special Collections
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborated with University of Leeds Special Collections to develop temporary one-day exhibition in the Brotherton Room at the University of Leeds in collaboration with the University of Leeds Special Collections on 28 June as part of ?Making Telecommunications in the Great War? workshop.
Start Year 2013
 
Description "From the archives: Poldhu and the Marconi Company during World War One", an evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at Marconi Centre, Cornwall. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Tuesday 6 August 2013: "From the archives: Poldhu and the Marconi Company during World War One", an evening lecture at Marconi Centre, Cornwall

Elizabeth Bruton gave an evening lecture, "From the archives: Poldhu and the Marconi Company during World War One" for Poldhu Amateur Radio Club at the Marconi Centre, Cornwall site of Marconi's Poldhu wireless station and the first transatlantic wireless transmission. The event was well attended with about 25 people present and a number of those present asked questions at the general discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20130806
 
Description "Sacrifice of a Genius": Henry Moseley's role as a Signals Officer in World War One, a lunchtime lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at the Royal Society, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 11 October 2013: "Sacrifice of a Genius": Henry Moseley's role as a Signals Officer in World War One, a lunchtime lecture at the Royal Society, London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2013/henry-moseley/
 
Description "The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One", a lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB) Centenary Convention, Milton Keynes. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 12 October 2013: The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One, a lecture at the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB) Centenary Convention, Horwood House, Buckinghamshire



Elizabeth Bruton delivered a lecture on the vital role of wireless amateurs during World War One and their consequential influence on the development of broadcast radio in the early 1920s.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20131012
 
Description "The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One", an evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at Oxford & District Amateur Radio Society (ODARS), Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One", an evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at Oxford & District Amateur Radio Society (ODARS), Oxford on 15 April 2014
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20140415
 
Description "Waves and Wires: Telegraphy during World War One", an evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at Dorking and District Radio Society. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 28 January 2014: "Waves and Wires: Telegraphy during World War One", an evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at Dorking and District Radio Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20140128
 
Description 2 November 2013: "Patriotism and profit during World War One", a public lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton and Professor Graeme Gooday at Science Museum, London. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This lecture, delivered by Graeme Gooday and Elizabeth Bruton, explored the different motivations of individuals, the military, industry, and commerce in relation to World War One telecommunication innovations - were they motivated by patriotism, profit, or both?

It was a repeat of the lecture given previously at the History of Science Museum in Oxford to a large audience at the Science Museum.

A sound recording of this lecture is available at https://soundcloud.com/elizabeth-bruton/patriotism-and-profit-in-world
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/oct/28/science-technology-profits-first-world-war
 
Description 23 October 2013: Blurred Lines: Interception and secrecy in World War One telecommunications, a lecture at IEEE History Center, Rutgers University New Jersey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 23 October 2013: Blurred Lines: Interception and secrecy in World War One telecommunications, a lecture at IEEE History Center, Rutgers University New Jersey.

Elizabeth Bruton delivered a talk about the blurred lines between interception and secrecy in British telecommunications during World War One.

An audio recording can be found here: https://soundcloud.com/elizabeth-bruton/innovating-in-combat-lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20131023
 
Description Contributed guest article on "Great Profits during the Great War?" for the H-Word 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact guest article on "Great Profits during the Great War?" for the H-Word, the Guardian's history of science blog
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/oct/28/science-technology-profits-first-world-war
 
Description Drop-in family-friendly event and "Ideas CafĂ©" evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton, Porthcurno Telegraph Museum, Cornwall 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Elizabeth Bruton organised a drop-in family-friendly event on the telegraph cables during World War One during the day at Porthcurno Telegraph Museum. The event included regular ten-minute "bite size" presentations on the attack on the Cocos Islands including an axe from the German vessel, the Emden.



In the evening, Elizabeth delivered a lecture for the Ideas Café, "From Australia to Zimmermann: A Brief History of Cable Telegraphy During World War One."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20130807
 
Description Interpreting Telecommunications in the Great War 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We organised and hosted a workshop in the Brotherton Room at the University of Leeds on Friday 28 June from 9am to 4.30pm. The programme or the workshop is at http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/workshop-june-28-programme/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/workshop-june-28-programme/
 
Description On-going Radio Script Advice, September 2013 to present 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided script advice to BBC producer Jonathan Ruffle for Tommies, the biggest ever one-off radio drama commission which will be broadcast on BBC Radio 4 over the timespan of the original conflict - four years - to mark the 100th anniversary of the war. The series will tell the story of Signals Corps soldiers' experiences during the war in real time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03t89qj
 
Description Patriotism and profit during World War One 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 23 January 2014: Patriotism and profit during World War One, an evening lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton and Professor Graeme Gooday at the Museum of the History of Science, Oxford. Followed by reception.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=10151804098491792&id=35192961791
 
Description Podcast about Henry Moseley 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Elizabeth Bruton's lunchtime lecture, "Sacrifice of a Genius": Henry Moseley's role as a Signals Officer in World War One, delivered at the Royal Society in October 2013.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://royalsociety.org/events/2013/henry-moseley/
 
Description Podcast of "Patriotism and Profit during World War One 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact a public lecture by Professor Graeme Gooday and Dr Elizabeth Bruton at the Science Museum, London in November 2013
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://soundcloud.com/elizabeth-bruton/patriotism-and-profit-in-world
 
Description Podcast: "Blurred Lines": Interception and secrecy in World War One telecommunications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact a lecture by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at IEEE History Center, Rutgers University New Jersey in October 2013
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://soundcloud.com/elizabeth-bruton/innovating-in-combat-lecture
 
Description Project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Project website (http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/) has 16 pages and 31 posts (articles) including 5 guest posts. Over the duration of the project, the website received 7,814 page views from 3,298 unique visitors with month-on-month increases for both parameters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/
 
Description Radio Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Elizabeth Bruton appeared as as one of the three contributors alongside Simon Schaffer and John Liffen on "In Our Time" episode on the invention of radio on BBC Radio4.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0368knw
 
Description Radio Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Elizabeth Bruton was a featured contributor on the "Age of War" episode of Lisa Jardine's "Seven Ages of Science" on BBC Radio4
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b039q25d
 
Description Television Script Advice, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Provided script advice for series 2 episode 3 on Guglielmo Marconi of "Absolute Genius with Dick and Dom" broadcast on BBC2; was acknowledged in end credits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description The Fullerphone: a case study of private invention and user-driven innovation in the British Army during World War One (Science Museum, 4th Nov 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion in conference session related to how the content of the talk related to the new Science Museum exhibition 'the Information Age'

Science Museum Staff expressed interest in the content of the paper, and a member of the public indicated that they had not been previously aware of the Fullerphone
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/about_us/new_research_folder/information_age_conference
 
Description The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 3 December 2013: "The Role of Radio Amateurs in World War One", by Dr Elizabeth Bruton at Cafe Scientifique, Leeds.

Dr Elizabeth Bruton delivered a lecture on the vital role of wireless amateurs during World War One and their consequential influence on the development of broadcast radio in the early 1920s. This is a repeat of the lecture of the same title delivered at the RSGB centenary convention on Saturday 12 November 2013.

Dr Elizabeth Bruton delivered a lecture on the vital role of wireless amateurs during World War One and their consequential influence on the development of broadcast radio in the early 1920s.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20131203
 
Description Wires and waves: telegraphy during World War One, an evening lecture at IET Humber, Cleesthorpes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Tuesday 12 November 2013: Wires and waves: telegraphy during World War One, an evening lecture at IET Humber, Cleesthorpes.



Elizabeth Bruton gave an evening lecture before IET Humber, Grimsby on various developments in telecommunication - wired and wireless - during World War One.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://blogs.mhs.ox.ac.uk/innovatingincombat/events/#20131112