The Soviet Cine-Underground: Lenfil'm (the Leningrad State Film Studio) and the Transformation of Late Soviet Culture, 1956-1991

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Medieval & Modern Languages Fac

Abstract

Soviet cinema rightly has a world-wide reputation as one of the world's leading film traditions. It is above all, however, the works of the early Soviet period (early 1920s-late 1930s) that are familiar to non-specialists. Less well-known are the excellent films made in the late Soviet period; and particularly, not many discussions have dealt with the mechanisms of film production and reception. The project that I intend to research focuses on the post-Stalin decades, a period that saw perhaps the greatest flowering of the Leningrad State Film Studio, Lenfil'm. Its output was extremely varied, including, for instance, fantasy/science fiction (Amphibian Man, 1962), Cold War thrillers (Dead Season, 1968), a TV adaptation of Sherlock Holmes, Soviet romcoms (The Blonde Round the Corner, 1984, and Winter Cherries, 1985, with sequels dating from 1990 and 1995), family dramas (Blame Klava K. for my Death, 1979). Many of these films were among the most successful produced in the Soviet Union at the period, in terms of numbers of viewers and lasting appeal (all are now available on the Russian internet). Alongside this, Lenfil'm had a remarkable art film tradition, with directors such as Grigory Kozintsev, Il'ya Averbakh, Dinara Asanova, Aleksei German, Vitaly Mel'nikov and others creating a distinctive house style that - in the case of the younger directors - was characterised by its documentary feel paradoxically allied with a strong sense of self-conscious awareness of film as art. Frequently, films were shot so that the viewer was aware of the process by which the film was created; notable was Averbakh's The Voice (1982), whose central figure is an actress engaged in making a film, who herself appears in-shot with a still camera. Also striking, particularly in German's work, is creative scrutiny of the Soviet past, above all the Stalin era (Ivan Lapshin, 1984, and Khrustalyov, My Car, 1998). As the period when this extraordinary creativity took place recedes into the past, and with the future of the studio itself uncertain, it is important to collect documents, photographs, and oral history before they vanish for good. Research on Lenfil'm will also give a sense of the geographical spread of outstanding film production (commonly, work focuses on Moscow - as in the constant citation of Vladimir Mel'nikov's Moscow Doesn't Believe in Tears (1980), often presented as the most significant film produced immediately before glasnost). This study dedicated to one important aspect of late Soviet public art, drawing on oral history and archive work in, for example, the studio's own archives as well as state archives in St Petersburg and Moscow, will make a significant contribution to the understanding of change in so-called 'official' art forms at a period when some of what they produced could be as scandalous as actual 'underground' art. (Some films, such as Leave in September (1979) remained 'on the shelf' for years after they were produced.) Alongside this case study with broad implications, I intend to initiate a wide-ranging discussion of late socialist culture through the organisation of two international workshops in which leading scholars, especially younger scholars, who have done cutting-edge research on the last decades of Soviet power will be able to discuss key issues of social, cultural, and economic change in an imaginative yet focussed way. My position as President of the Association for the Advancement of Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies (the first not based at a US university) will allow me to showcase key debates on late Soviet culture at the ASEEES annual convention, where I plan to organise two panels. Seasons of films showing major masterpieces of Lenfil'm, which I hope to organise with the co-operation of the BFI and Russkyi Mir, will make this corpus of outstanding material available to the broader public, and help to strengthen the interest in the Soviet cinema of this era that is now starting to emerge

Planned Impact

I have extensive experience of dissemination beyond academic audiences, and of successful impact, including outside the UK (as indicated by e.g. online comment and reviews in Russia). I will draw on this experience when promoting the events for which I have requested sponsorship. I will use the project website and newsletters, as well as the mailing lists of general interest organisations (e.g. Russkyi Mir, GB-Russia Society), and social websites (I have a substantial list of followers on Facebook) in order to promote events, and will liaise with cinema specialists and organisations about the progress of the project. I plan a series of outreach events as part of the project. One of these is a special season, 'Lenfil'm and Beyond', comprising films made in Leningrad and St Petersburg and by directors from there, which I will invite the distinguished film director and long-term Leningrad/Petersburg resident, Alexander Sokurov, to select and discuss (I have begun preliminary discussions with the British Film Institute about the possibility of collaboration). Film showings in Oxford will attract the interested public, including the expatriate network as well as cinema enthusiasts, to this important cinema legacy. Both these events would be accompanied by an exhibition or virtual exhibition of cinema posters. I will also seek to promote and showcase my own research, and the research presented at the workshops, by making organisers of outreach organisations such as Pushkin House in London and Grad gallery aware of the events and suggesting collaborations and joint presentations.

Publications

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Catriona Kelly (Katriona Kelli) (2021) Chelovek dlya vsekh sezonov: apsaikling odnogo shpiona-geroya pri sovetskoi vlasti i posle in Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie

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Kelly C.H. M. (2020) Clowning Around: The Queer Vision of Sergei Eisenstein in Times Literary Supplement

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Catriona Kelly (2019) Words not paints in Times Literary Supplement

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Catriona Kelly (2018) "Period zapoya": kinoproizvodstvo v Leningrade brezhnevskoi epokhi in Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie

 
Title Friedrich Ermler, Let History Judge 
Description Version of the film with English subtitles 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled version was seen at a showing with an audience of around 60 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Title Ilya Averbakh, Monologue 
Description Version with English subtitles 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled version was seen at a showing with an audience of around 40 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Title Konstantin Lopushansky, Solo 
Description Version with English subtitles 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled version was seen at a showing with an audience of around 80 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Title Leningrad and St Petersburg Cinema: Neorealism and Beyond 
Description Exhibition of film stills and posters to mark the 30th anniversary of the death of Ilya Averbakh, to accompany a showing of Monologue and The Voice (see separate entry). 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Like the film showing, this exhibition attracted a lot of interest, particularly from non-specialists. We held it in the foyer of the Magdalen Auditorium, the venue for the film showings, so it was viewed by the entire audience for these as well as occasional passers-by. 
URL http://www.rees.ox.ac.uk/leningrad-and-st-petersburg-cinema-neorealism-and-beyond
 
Title Leningrad and St Petersburg Cinema: Neorealism and Beyond 
Description Showing of key films by Ilya Averbakh and Konstantin Lopushansky, two of the leading directors at Lenfilm studio in the 1970s and 1980s (Lopushansky, b. 1947, continues to work and we organised the British premiere of The Role, his most recent film). Mr Lopushansky took part in a public discussion of his life and work with Catriona Kelly, and we also had an introduction to Lenfilm from Alexander Pozdnyakov (Lenfilm's head of PR and a published historian of the studio) and brief presentations on the two directors by Catriona Kelly. We commissioned subtitles for several of the films (only The Role had a version available with English subtitles). (See separate entry.) 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact We attracted an audience of about 60-70 people, with particular interest in the Lopushansky showings and discussion. The audience was almost entirely comprised of non-specialists, with great appreciation voiced of the opportunity to see this unfamiliar and appealing material. To quote a couple of comments: 'I really enjoyed the day. It's the kind of cinema I would naturally feel sympathetic to' and (from the projectionist in the Magdalen Auditorium), 'That film [Solo, about the Leningrad Blockade] is absolutely amazing. I started watching and I couldn't take my eyes off it.' 
URL http://www.rees.ox.ac.uk/leningrad-and-st-petersburg-cinema-neorealism-and-beyond
 
Title Let History Judge, film screening and lecture 
Description Showing of Friedrich Ermler's landmark 1965 film about Vasily Shul'gin, a conservative Russian politician who spent the pre-war decades in emigration, and a lecture by Dr Peter Bagrov of the State Russian Film Archive. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The film showing attracted about 60 people, mostly from the general public, and the lecture about 30 (the two audiences did not completely overlap because some people attending the lecture watched the film online). There was a very enthusiastic response to both events. 
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/1018578741603261/
 
Title Screening of Evgeny Shiffers and Aleksandr Ivanov's The Pathfinders (1967) 
Description To mark the centenary of the 1917 October Revolution, we screened this little-known and exceptionally interesting and artistically ambitious evocation, made to mark the 50th anniversary of 'October', but barely shown at the time (it was seen by 0.5 million people in the year of release, then about a twentieth of average viewing figures, and only 32 copies were in circulation). So far as we are aware, it has not been shown in the UK before. It was preceded by a short introduction by Professor Catriona Kelly. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact About 30 people attended and there was a great deal of interest ('Amazing. I've never seen a film like it' or 'It's years since I saw such a remarkable film'). 
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/128767261172812/
 
Title Screening of films by Boris Frumin, public interview with the director 
Description Boris Frumin (b. 1947), formerly Professor of Cinema at NYU, is one of the best-known directors of 'new wave' cinema in 1970s Leningrad. His Errors of Youth created uproar with the cinema regulatory bodies and was stopped in production several times; after request for yet a further round of changes, Frumin emigrated from the USSR. As well as this landmark film (finally released in 1987), we are showing Viva Castro, made in 1994, but representing the Soviet 1960s from a harshly unnostalgic point of view. The film has adventurous cinematography as well as a sharp script. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact The event was attended by an audience of about 30 people and there were appreciative and engaged comments. 
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/163227324459387/
 
Title Showing of Vitaly Mel'nikov's The Elder Son 
Description This was one of three films shown to mark the first visit to the UK by the distinguished film director Vitaly Mel'nikov (b. 1928), a leading figure at Lenfil'm in the 1960s-1980s. The showing was held in the Leonard Wolfson Auditorium, Wolfson College, Oxford, to coincide with the Open Day for prospective undergraduate students of Russian and Slavonic Languages. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The showing was attended by about 30 people, almost all members of the general public, including, for example, a turnout from the Oxford-Perm Association. Feedback was very positive -- 'a remarkable film', 'a very emotional experience', and a significant proportion of the audience, having never heard of the director before, also attended the other film showings and dialogue with Mel'nikov. 
 
Title Showing of films by Vitaly Mel'nikov and dialogue with the director 
Description On 9 March, 2017, we organised a showing of two of Mel'nikov's most admired films, Wedding (1977, a made-for-TV version of the play by Nikolai Gogol) and Mother's Got Married (1969), based on an original script by Yuri Klepikov. These were followed by a public dialogue between Catriona Kelly and the director. The event was held in the Main Lecture Hall of the Taylor Institution, Oxford. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The event was attended by about 50 people and response was extremely enthusiastic. Held in the usual slot for the Russian Graduate Seminar, it in fact attracted a significantly broader audience, including many members of the general public. 
 
Title Subtitled versions of Russian classic films 
Description English-language subtitled version of previously unavailable Leningrad film: Ilya Averbakh, Monologue 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled versions was seen at a showing with an audience of around 40 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Title Vitaly Mel'nikov, Mother's Got Married 
Description Version with English subtitles 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled version was seen at a showing with an audience of around 40 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Title Vitaly Mel'nikov, The Elder Son 
Description Version with English subtitles 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled version was seen at a showing with an audience of around 30 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Title Vitaly Mel'nikov, Wedding 
Description Version with English subtitles 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The film is available on Youtube and other internet sites, but exclusively in Russian-only versions, which makes it inaccessible to non-specialist audiences in the Anglophone world. Our subtitled version was seen at a showing with an audience of around 40 people, most non-specialists. We believe this was the UK premiere of the film. The version will be available for other showings later in educational institutions and other non-profit forums through Vintage Films, a company run by a former doctoral student at the University of Oxford with start-up funds from the University. 
 
Description Over the four years of work, I have clarified the fairly general overall description. I have identified 1961 as one important point of transition (a major studio reorganisation), and 1971-2 and 1978-9 as others (several films not cleared for release, financial problems, and removal of the director in each case). I firmly now intend to focus on young directors and films about contemporary life, using others as background material. I have decided also to make the emotional register of the films a central object of investigation, since this was an area where young directors were acknowledged to make an important contribution. Senior directors could (and did) lay claim to more life experience and technical expertise, but strength of feeling was assumed to be a marker of youth, so the junior directors could attain authority in this area. I am also attracted to the analysis of emotional registers because these lay bare ways in which meaning worked indirectly. For example, Gennady Shpalikov's film A Long Happy Life is often interpreted (and was so interpreted in studio discussions) as a story about love at first sight. This has left many viewers puzzled about the film's apparent coldness. Using material from Shpalikov's poetry and attention to the camera work and dialogue, I argue that the film in fact primarily addresses the topic of indifference -- and specifically, the reluctance of the migrant hero (he is a geologist) to settle in a specific place and with a specific person. The emphasis on emotional register and its ambiguities has also provided a way of mediating between studio history, which I have researched extensively, and the film texts themselves. For instance, in a chapter under the title 'More in Expectation than Hope', I show how the remarkable artistic success of Naum Birman's Chronicle of a Divebomber (1968) was attributable not to the original script (which was, by common consent, a fairly standard wartime air force story), but to a mixture of mishap (the studio could not get reproduction aircraft to fly convincingly and there were no real ones of the right type) and collective creative activity. The designer and camera operator produced a solution - filming the action round stationary aircraft - that turned the film into a remarkable drama of frustrated action, rather than the planned action movie, while a song by Aleksandr Kolker added at a very late stage evoked and enhanced the atmosphere of the fog-bound airfield that became the setting for this drama. In showing how camera crews and other studio staff worked 'to overcome adversity' (to quote a phrase used by one of our informants), I aim to reexamine the standard model of 'creativity versus censorship', arguing that ideological control was just one element in the complex process of film production.
Alongside these insights (to be incorporated in my monograph on Lenfilm, of which I have written about two-thirds in draft form), I have also worked on a detailed study of control over film production by Party bureaucracy inside and beyond the studio, arguing that alongside its notorious function as an instrument of ideological manipulation, the Party also played a central role in day-to-day management (as the only management structure that embraced all the different divisions, artistic, technical, and administrative, of the Leningrad 'film factory). This work has in turn been very helpful when drafting the framing chapters of my book, which deal with editorial and film production at the studio. I have now retitled the book project The Soviet Art House, a title meant to reflect both my focus on 'art film' (a term that I define with relation to the Soviet context) and on cinema history (i.e. the corporate values of Lenfil'm and its commitment to making 'works of art', and the details of filmmaking as what Grigory Kozintsev called a 'centaur', a combination of art form and industry). As of February 2019, I have most of a draft manuscript complete and am finalising data collection (trip to St Petersburg and Riga in Feb-March 2019, trip to Moscow in April 2019, and provisionally Kyiv and Vilnius in the early summer). I am also preparing an article for a special issue of a Russian journal on cultural recycling in which I look at Savva Kulish's film The Dead Season in relation to a variety of texts exploring the biography of the notorious Soviet agent, Gordon Lonsdale (aka Konon Molodyi), who was exchanged for British agent Greville Wynne in 1964, and who originally published his purported memoirs in The People, followed by a significantly redacted book version with a London publisher, in 1965. In 2019, I completed my book manuscript, which has now been accepted by OUP New York for publication in 2021. I also have plans for a follow-up project dealing with history on film in the late Soviet period, based partly on trips to Riga and Kyiv last year (which were very successful). Update 2021: my book on Lenfilm is now published (Soviet Art House: Lenfilm Studio under Brezhnev, New York: Oxford University Press, February 2021, and in December 2020, I was elected to a Senior Research Fellowship at Trinity College Cambridge, which gives me six years of research time to work on my history and film project.
Exploitation Route Judging by the papers that I have presented so far, this research is of considerable interest both to cinema specialists and to others. It provides a sense of how Soviet cultural industries worked and also of corporate values in a major enterprise (over 3000 staff). The role of the Communist Party in the organisation (for practical as well as ideological management) has been a revealing side of the work that I have done in local archives. The substantial article (about 25,000 words) that I have written on this will be posted on the Internet (e.g. academia.edu), but the materials will also be used by Seans cinema education foundation in St Petersburg, in particular for their 'Chapaev' portal, an online encyclopaedia of resources on the Russian cinema that is intended as an authoritative educational and informational resource. My collaboration with Seans and with Kino Klassika Film Foundation allowing me to disseminate my research to a wider public in Britain and Russia has been one of the most enjoyable parts of the work on this project. The subtitled versions of films from the studio have been useful for teaching my new course on 1960s-1970s film at Oxford, and have also been used for film club showings and other public events. The research for this award was also crucial to the start of work on my next project, on historical film. Update 2021: In 2020, I made new contacts with Soviet cinema specialists in Italy, and am publishing an article in Cinema e Storia as a result of this. My introduction to Russian cinema for Oxford first years has now been running for 3 years and the students find the course instructive and enjoyable.
Sectors Creative Economy

Education

Culture

Heritage

Museums and Collections

URL https://global.oup.com/academic/product/soviet-art-house-9780197548370?cc=gb&lang=en&
 
Description In 2016, 2017, and 2018, we did extensive work on planning a major exhibition on Petrograd/Leningrad/St Petersburg cinema with Justine Waddell, director of the Kino Klassika Foundation, an educational charity specialising in Russian cinema and Alexandra Ahmadshina of Seance, an educational foundation in St Petersburg that specialises in Russian cinema. (See also under Collaborations). We commissioned a designer, Dina Karaman, to make an exhibition prospectus, and at the St Petersburg International Cultural Forum in November 2017, Justine Waddell had official meetings, including a short meeting with President Putin. Significant progress was not expected before the Presidential Elections on 18 March 2018, but we secured a small amount of funding to cover the designer's fee, as well as the promise of a five-figure donation from a private individual. As a preliminary to work with Kino Klassika, on 8 November 2016, I introduced Pudovkin's The End of St Petersburg at the Electric Cinema, Notting Hill Gate, London W11 to an invited audience as part of a Faberge-sponsored gala fundraising evening for Kino Klassika. Russian state TV's Channel 1 carried a news item about the event that included a short clip from an interview with me. There was also a story in the society column of the Evening Standard, and the actor James Norton (known for his role as Andrei Bolkonsky in War and Peace) tweeted that it had been a fantastic evening. Another high point was collaboration with Seance. I helped draw up a list of speakers for a conference in December 2016 held as part of the St Petersburg International Cultural Forum, and myself presented a talk on Lenfilm as part of the event. Seance has also (as noted under Findings) taken a close interest in my research, and I have supplied material that I found in the Party archives to Seance for use on their educational portal, Chapaev. Justine Waddell has regularly attended our film events in Oxford, and I attended showings organised by Kino Klassika in London, including Battleship Potemkin and October (at the Barbican, with music played by the LSO). In early 2018, we launched a funding brochure in the UK and in St Petersburg in parallel, and made applications to the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation and private donors. Unfortunately, the entire project was then called into question by the catastrophic deterioration in bilateral relations triggered by the Skripal poisonings in the spring of 2018. We still hope to go ahead with the exhibition, but are currently planning for smaller-scale collaborations in the meantime, e.g. a film restoration project and presentation of individual films. (2021 update) Kino Klassika has now launched the highly successful Klassiki online download series, and we plan to collaborate on the presentation of some key films online in this. I have also been advising on funding sources for the platform.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Kino Klassika 
Organisation Kino Klassika Foundation London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have been working with Kino Klassika Foundation, an educational charity whose purpose is the promotion of classic Russian films, towards an exhibition on the city in Petrograd and Leningrad cinema, planned for 2018. My contribution has been to write an outline proposal for the exhibition and to modify this as a proposal to a specific venue in St Petersburg. I also introduced Kino Klassika to the staff of Seans, an educational foundation promoting Russian cinema in St Petersburg. This led to an invitation to Justine Waddell, the Executive Director of Kino Klassika, to present their programme for 2017 at the St Petersburg Cultural Forum, and Sasha Ahmadshina, the Events Director of Seans, has been working with us on planning the exhibition. I also introduced Pudovkin's The End of St Petersburg at a gala fundraising evening in London and have put Justine in touch with a former graduate student who runs a subtitling business. In addition, Justine has attended the film showings and discussions that I have organised in Oxford to present excellent but little-known films made in Leningrad during the post-Stalin era to a general audience.
Collaborator Contribution Justine and the Kino Klassika staff have been investigating a UK partner in a museum or gallery or comparable venue that might be interested in hosting the exhibition. Their help has also meant that the outreach side of my project has been much easier to arrange than it would have been without the work of a specialist foundation. The gala evening in London was reported in the Evening Standard and on Channel 1 (the main state TV channel in Russia), who carried out a short interview with me. So far as PR and press contacts go, the connection has been helpful, but most important of all is the support of a specialist foundation at a stage when I am still finding my way in the world of Russian cinema.
Impact Introducton to Pudovkin's End of St Petersburg Exhibition planned for autumn 2018 (interdisciplinary - art history, history, film studies)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Soviet Cinema in Transnational Perspective 
Organisation University of Cagliari
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We hosted Dr Stefano Pisu on a TORCH (Oxford Humanities institute) visiting fellowship. I was PI on the project application and put considerable effort into drafting it on the basis of Dr Pisu's research proposal and cv. I also helped Dr Pisu with orientation, e.g. finding accommodation provided by an Oxford college (Exeter family flat for Dr Pisu and his wife and small child), sending a list of Oxford nurseries, and advising on the arrangements for the joint workshop, on work in Oxford libraries. TORCH hosted him and provided most of the funding for the trip, to which the U of Cagliari also contributed. Dr Pisu was in Oxford for most of the spring (Hilary) term.
Collaborator Contribution Some funding towards travel and accommodation. Dr Pisu was mainly responsible for inviting participants to the workshop and for liaising with them.
Impact https://torch.ox.ac.uk/event/soviet-cinema-in-transnational-perspective-conference
Start Year 2020