Voice, Agency and Blame: Victimhood and the Imagined Community in Northern Ireland.

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Sch of Social Sci, Edu & Social Work

Abstract

CONTEXT
This project will critically explore how victimhood has been, and continues to be, constructed, reproduced and contested in post-conflict Northern Ireland. Rather than denoting passivity and vulnerability, the question of 'who' is a victim of violent conflict and what victimhood 'means' is complicated by questions of voice, agency and blame and how these themes intersect and map onto competing versions of imagined communities. This project seeks to draw upon on the CI's (McEvoy) work in over a dozen transitional contexts and to test the utility of voice, agency and blame as a framework for understanding victimhood in Northern Ireland. In doing so, this proposal seeks to contribute to a more socially and politically grounded understanding of victimhood that reflects the complexities of a post-conflict society and to provide a template for more progressive praxis in the victims sector in Northern Ireland and elsewhere.
AIM
To critically examine the utility of voice, agency and blame as a framework for understanding victimhood in Northern Ireland and the ways this maps onto competing notions of imagined community. To produce a range of academic outputs and practical documents designed to be of use to local actors.
OBJECTIVES
(a) To explore a number of overlapping themes concerning the social and political construction of victimhood in a transitional context: i) voice; ii) agency; iii) blame; iv) imagined community.
(b) To conduct 50 semi-structured interviews based on a bespoke research instrument to explore in detail the themes listed above. Interviewees will include representatives and members of victim groups; ex-combatants; NGO activists; and representatives of the statutory sector.
(c) To disseminate the findings and related academic and policy outputs through:
(i) a fully theorized academic monograph, two journal articles, presentations at major academic conferences, the hosting of a major academic and policy maker conference in Belfast, and the creation of a project website;
(ii) the development of two tailored research reports/policy papers, distributed to local and international user groups;
(iii) the creation of a storytelling repository as a platform and archive for victims reflecting on these themes;
(iv) development of a short guide and delivery of three media training workshops for representatives of victims' groups designed to assist and promote effective communication and the exercise of victims' voices.
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS
Drawing on the case study of Northern Ireland, this project aims to develop a critical awareness of how the themes of voice, agency and blame intersect to create and reproduce socially and politically contingent notions of victimhood. In doing so, this project aims to move academic debate forward from, for example, discussions on victims' needs or rights post-conflict, or calls for a more nuanced definition of victimhood, to a more rounded analysis of what victimhood means and how it is utilised in transitional societies. This project will be of direct interest to academics working in disciplines such as law, peace and conflict studies, sociology, anthropology, political science, criminology, psychology and history. At a practical level, the range of policy-oriented publications and workshops are designed to be of use to members and representatives of local victim groups in Northern Ireland, interested NGOs and civil society actors, journalists, political parties and government departments. The storytelling repository is designed to be of direct benefit to victims and survivors of the conflict, providing a place where narratives on the themes of voice, agency and blame can be housed and disseminated. This project will also be of relevance to international transitional justice bodies (e.g UN Special Rapporteur on Truth, Justice etc), transnational civil society actors (e.g. International Centre for Transitional Justice) and international funders.

Planned Impact

WHO WILL BENEFIT FROM THIS RESEARCH?
Beyond enhancing academia in a range of disciplines, this project will impact positively on non-academic users in Northern Ireland currently engaged in issues relating to victims and survivors of the conflict and dealing with the past. Members and representatives of victim groups will be the direct beneficiaries of the research, through the planned policy outputs, creation of the storytelling repository, media training and dissemination strategy. A wide range of other local and national civil society organisations working in the field including human rights groups, policy makers, relevant government departments, policing organisations and legal institutions will benefit and will be targeted in the dissemination strategy. The project will also be of relevance to policymakers in the UK and RoI who are involved in this field.

More broadly, the project will be indirectly beneficial for state and intergovernmental actors working on victim related issues in Northern Ireland, including the European Union, Council of Europe Committee of Ministers and the United States government. Internationally, this project will enhance the work of actors in transitional justice, peace building and conflict transformation through the knowledge produced and the innovative methodologies employed. Elements of the UN, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Organisation of American States, the British FCO and the US State Department all engage with issues relating to the construction and reproduction of victimhood post conflict. In addition, the project will assist transnational civil society actors, such as the International Centre for Transitional Justice, Human Rights Watch and the United States Institute of Peace.

Finally, the project will contribute to the research skills and experience of the project team.

HOW?
First, this project is designed to make a direct contribution to the lives of victims and survivors of the conflict and those who work with victims' organisations. A range of outputs and dissemination strategies have been planned. First, in an effort to deliver on the themes of voice and agency, two accessible reports for local user groups will be developed and disseminated throughout the project life-cycle. These outputs will also be of practical use for local actors directly engaged with victims and survivors issues and for government actors and policy makers in this area. Second, a programme of bespoke media training workshops for representatives of victim organisations will be hosted by SRF McKay and a bespoke media training guide for victim groups will be published. In particular McKay will focus on how victims can project their voices more effectively in the media. Thirdly, a storytelling repository will be created and hosted on the project website wherein 20 victims from across the community can reflect on how the project themes resonate with their experiences in short podcasts. More broadly, the project will feed into the international theory and practice of transitional justice, contributing to evidence-based policy-making and raising international awareness of the role of voice, agency and blame in the construction of victimhood post conflict.

The dissemination strategy is designed to ensure maximum knowledge transfer. The publication of 6 feature newspaper articles and 4 blog posts will provide a wide platform for dissemination. The research/policy reports and details of conference proceedings will be disseminated through the proposers' national and international networks. Listserves such as the Network of Transitional Justice Researchers (TJNetwork), JUSTWATCH and Peace and Collaborative Development will be used.

Finally, the project team (especially Lawther & McKay) will develop their research and management skills through being mentored by McEvoy and by participating in relevant training programmes offered by QUB (see Case for Support).
 
Description The analysis of the data associated with this project is in the early stages. However, key themes that are emerging include those of voice, agency, blame, silence and the importance of dealing with the past.
Exploitation Route Our findings have relevance for a number of audiences - victims and survivors and victims and survivors groups practitioners, policy makers and politicians in Northern Ireland and internationally. The findings will also be of use of academics working in the field of transitional justice.
Sectors Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://victimsandthepast.org/
 
Description As detailed in this submission, the 'Voice, Agency and Blame: Victimhood and the Imagined Community in Northern Ireland' has recently published four sets of guidelines on victim/survivor and media engagement. These guidelines were directly shaped by the findings of the research project and an extensive period of consultation with victim and survivor groups, journalists and editors. The resulting guidelines were launched on 5 March 2019. As such, it it too early yet to report on the impact of this work. However, the use of the guidelines will be tracked and reported on over the following 12 months.
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description Department of Education - Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Education 
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Partnership with Commission for Victims and Survivors Northern Ireland 
Organisation Commission for Victims and Survivors
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Working in collaboration with the Commission for Victims and Survivors Northern Ireland, we are developing two sets of guidelines - one on how best victims and survivors can engage with the media and one on how best journalists and other media professionals can report on and engage with victims and survivors of conflict in an ethical manner.
Collaborator Contribution The research team has delivered two seminars to individual victims and representatives of victims' groups and has sought their feedback on what the guidelines for victims' and survivors should include. A highly experienced journalist has been appointed, working under the direction of the PI and CI, to draft both sets of guidelines and work closely with relevant stakeholders to ensure maximum buy-in. A social media training event has also been scheduled for 23 April 2018.
Impact Outputs are currently in draft form.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Conference presentation, Dr. Lauren Dempster, British Society of Criminology, Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented by Dr. Lauren Dempster, British Society of Criminology Conference, July 2017. Presented paper on 'Voice, Agency and Victimhood in Northern Ireland.' Sheffield, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Creation of project website. Regularly updated and available at: https://victimsandthepast.org/ 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The project website hosts outputs from the research team and has been used to share information about the nature of the research and upcoming events. The website has facilitated significant interaction between the project team and the wider research community, including with victims and survivors in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Delivery of Social Media Training Workshop, 23 April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact This workshop delivered training on the effective use of social media for victims and survivors groups in Northern Ireland. Training was professionally delivered by Channel56. The workshop was delivered in response to feedback from project participants and was designed to encourage effective and efficient use of social media channels. Topics covered included 'your message', 'branding' and the importance of language and respect online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dr. Cheryl Lawther, presentation in debate on 'Victims, Perpetrators and the Legacy of Conflict', Queen's University Belfast. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited contribution to expert debate at Queen's University Belfast. Debate sparked conversation and discussion. Provided opportunity to disseminate research findings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Dr. Lauren Dempster, international conference presentation, European Society of Criminology Conference, Bosnia, August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation and dissemination of research results at international conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dr. Lauren Dempster, international conference presentation, Law and Society Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, May 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact International conference presentation and dissemination of project results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International conference presentation, Dr. Lauren Dempster, Law and Society Association, Mexico City 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Paper presented by Dr. Lauren Dempster, Law and Society Association Annual Conference, June 2017. Presented paper on 'Transitional Justice, Victims and Voice: Timing, Quality, and Effective Advocacy.' Mexico City, Mexico.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation, discussion and feedback session on the creation of the media guidelines with the Victims Forum, 20 October 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to present at the Victims Forum, a group of selected representatives from across the victims and survivors sector in Northern Ireland, designed to discuss and consult on key policy issues. The presentation focused on the creation of media guidelines for members and representatives of victims' groups. The nature of the guidelines were outlined, participants engaged in focused group work around a set of 6 questions relating to the creation of the guidelines, followed by discussion and feedback. The feedback gathered will directly inform the creation of the guidelines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited presentation, discussion and feedback session on the creation of the media guidelines with the Victims and Survivors Forum. 13 June 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 13 June 2018, return visit and presentation to the Victims and Survivors Forum. Presentation on the development of the media guidelines and gathering feedback from Forum members. Feedback used to directly inform development of media guidelines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar presentation at the University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar paper presentation at Oxford University, hosted by Oxford Transitional Justice Research group. The seminar paper sparked lively discussion and attendees reported increased awareness of the complexity and politicisation of victimhood in post conflict contexts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar presentation, Transitional Justice Institute, Ulster University. 'Victims, Transitional Justice and the Imagined Community: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland'. 4 November 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited seminar presentation. Sparked academic debate and offered advice on student dissertations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited seminar presentation, University of St Andrews. 'Victims, Imagined Communities and Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland'. 19 April 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited seminar presentation on this project, School of International Relations, University of St Andrews. Stimulated academic debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited talk on media guidelines, University of Rosario, Colombia, September 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on the creation and content of the media guidelines at the School of Law, University of Rosario, Colombia. Discussion sparked interest in adapting the guidelines to the Colombian context and the development of future research collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk, Dr. Lauren Dempster, University of Southern Denmark. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Paper presented by Dr. Lauren Dempster: University of Southern Denmark's Centre for War Studies Conference: 'Transitional Justice and its Course in the 21st Century: Towards Universal Standards or the Universality of Exceptions?', 6th October 2017. Invited speaker. Presented paper entitled: 'Voice, Agency and Constructing Victimhood: Victims and Transitional Justice in Northern Ireland.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Invited teaching session at the University of Southern Denmark. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In October 2017 I was invited to give a presentation/teaching session on transitional justice and civil society, based on my research experience, at the University of Southern Denmark. A follow up teaching session will be held in the Spring of 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in research seminar on policing and dealing with the past in Northern Ireland, University of Warwick, February 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk at the School of Law, University of Warwick concerning competing attitudes to policing and dealing with the past in Northern Ireland. This talk was delivered to staff members and undergraduate and postgraduate students. Following the completion of the formal presentations, there was an interesting and sustained discussion and question and answer session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Participation in workshop on post-conflict emotions, University of Warwick, October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation at workshop on the sociology of emotions post-conflict at the University of Warwick, October 2016. The workshop was attended by postgraduate researchers and staff and generated a considerable amount of discussion. Plans are ongoing to develop a network to develop research in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Peer reviewed conference presentation, Law and Society conference, Mexico City, June 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Peer reviewed paper presentation at the Law and Society Association annual conference, June 2017. The paper sparked a number of outcomes - a teaching session at the University of Odense and a invited seminar paper at the Oxford University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation, group discussion and feedback at policy making seminar co-hosted with the Commission for Victims and Survivors Northern Ireland. 23 October 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Co-hosted with the Commission for Victims and Survivors Northern Ireland, this policy making seminar was attended by members and representatives of victims' groups, policy makers and practitioners. The seminar focused on the creation of media guidelines for members and representatives of victims' groups. The nature of the guidelines were outlined, participants engaged in focused group work around a set of 6 questions relating to the creation of the guidelines, followed by discussion and feedback. The feedback gathered will directly inform the creation of the guidelines. Over 60 attendees participated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Is the price of an amnesty for the security forces just too high to contemplate? Belfast Telegraph, June 19th 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Expert Evidence Paper 'Legacy Issues and Victims/Survivors of Violence: Benchmarks for Legitimacy in the SHA Legislation.' Submission to Oireachtas Joint Committee on the Implementation of the Good Friday Agreement.' March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Expert Evidence Paper 'Legacy Issues and Victims/Survivors of Violence: Benchmarks for Legitimacy in the SHA Legislation.' Submission to Oireachtas Joint Committee on the Implementation of the Good Friday Agreement.' March 2018. Delivered by Prof. Kieran McEvoy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.oireachtas.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=38070&&CatID=127
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Expert Evidence Paper, Amnesties, Prosecutions and the Rule of Law. House of Common Defence Select Committee, March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Expert Evidence Paper, Amnesties, Prosecutions and the Rule of Law. House of Common Defence Select Committee, March 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://parliamentlive.tv/event/index/9385971e-40e8-447c-8c61-acddd1f4943f
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Human Rights, Legacy and Cultures of Violence in Northern Ireland: February 2018, invited plenary at Human Rights and Activism Conference, Hebrew University Law School, February 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Sparked discussion and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Investigations into the Troubles are vital - and that includes ex-soldiers. The Guardian, 11th May 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Legal Perspectives on Stormont House Agreement Legacy Legislation - Queen's University Belfast Legacy Legislation Event, August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation on event on Stormont House Agreement legacy legislation. Delivered by Professor Kieran McEvoy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Plenary Address, 'Truth, Justice and National Security: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland.' October 2017, Legal Symposium on Legal Solutions to Political Problems with Lord Chief Justice, Royal Courts of Justice Belfast. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary Address, 'Truth, Justice and National Security: Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland.' October 2017, Legal Symposium on Legal Solutions to Political Problems with Lord Chief Justice, Royal Courts of Justice Belfast.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Stormont legacy issues impasse can be overcome with legal imagination, Belfast Telegraph,5th April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - The Legacy of the Troubles and the Law, The Irish Times, March 30th 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - The Political and Legal Context of Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland: May 2018, Project Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The Political and Legal Context of Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland: May 2018, Project Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof. Kieran McEvoy - Victims and Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland, Victims and Survivors Commission Conference, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Project Conference - 'Victimhood and Dealing with the Past in Northern Ireland', 14 May 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Project conference hosted at Queen's University Belfast, 14 May 2018. Over 170 people registered to attend the conference. Presentations were delivered by members of the project team, international academics, local policy makers and practitioners and victims and survivors. A key part of the project involved consulting on and gathering feedback on the creation of the media guidelines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public Lecture at the University of Wyoming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Public lecture at the University of Wyoming. Attended by approximately 100 postgraduate students, undergraduate students, academics and members of the local community. The lecture sparked a lively round of questions and the University has reported a number of students who are interested in undertaking a Summer School in conflict transformation as a result.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public lecture at the University of Wyoming. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Delivery of public lecture at the University of Wyoming on 'Haunting: On Lives, Landscapes and Unresolved Pasts'. Sparked conversation and questions and answers amongst inter-disciplinary audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public lecture, University of Wyoming. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited to deliver a public lecture at the University of Wyoming. The lecture focused on the politics of victimhood in Northern Ireland and was delivered to a mixed audience of undergraduate and postgraduate students, faculty members and members of the local community. A lively discussion followed concerning victimhood and dealing with the past more broadly. A number of students expressed interest in coming to study in Northern Ireland to explore such issues in more depth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Susan McKay - 'How old ghosts are haunting Ireland', The Guardian, 25 March 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Susan McKay, 'Why were two journalists investigating Loughinisland arrested?', The Irish Times, 8 November 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past in Northern Ireland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Transitional Justice at Sites of 'Dark Tourism': The Case of Genocide Memorials in Cambodia, Justice in Conflict, 28 January 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to debate on dealing with the past post-conflict.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://justiceinconflict.org/2019/01/28/transitional-justice-at-sites-of-dark-tourism-the-case-of-g...