Living with Monuments: life and cultural landscape between the 4th and 2nd millennia BC in the Avebury region, Wiltshire

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: School of Humanities

Abstract

The great ceremonial and funerary monuments of the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (EBA) have attracted considerable academic and public attention, but the wider social worlds of routine, subsistence and settlement within which they were created remain poorly understood and often elusive. Visitors to sites such as Stonehenge and Avebury often ask how and where the people who constructed and used these monuments lived. These have not been easy questions to answer. The scale and permanence of constructions like the Avebury henge, Stonehenge and Silbury Hill contrast markedly with the ephemeral character of everyday activity during the Neolithic and EBA (c.3800-1500BC), and for this reason archaeological narratives of social life during these periods have often been crafted around 'goings on' at highly visible monuments.

The Living with Monuments Project seeks to redress the balance by examining the record of settlement and related activities within a landscape that is famed for its prehistoric ceremonial monuments: the Upper Kennet Valley, Wiltshire, in the Avebury component of the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site (WHS). The project aims to identify the extent, scale, density, character and tempo of human settlement in the core of the region during the Neolithic and EBA; the relationship between people's living within the landscape and its progressive monumentalisation, in terms of how monument building may have structured settlement (e.g. drawing people into the region), and the way that settlement imparted a history to places that could lead to their subsequent conversion into monumental spaces; and to better define the environment within which such activity took place. A subsidiary concern is to understand how life within this landscape was lived in relation to certain natural features which we know received especial attention, such as the distinctive spreads of sarsen stone.

In order to explore these issues, a programme of targeted fieldwork will be undertaken on a series of sites in a range of topographic zones. Some are known locations of Neolithic settlement; others locations where good settlement and environmental evidence is suspected to be preserved under hillwash and flood sediments; and at the sites of monuments that look to have developed out of settlement locations. This work will variously involve gridded surface collection of artefacts to map traces of activity, geophysical survey, coring of deposits, test pitting and full excavation. Dealing with the ephemeral traces that routine activity of this date leaves will require new ways of investigating, theorising and interpreting the evidence; a challenge this project seeks to embrace, with the view of developing approaches which can then be applied elsewhere.

In collaboration with the Alexander Keiller Museum, the project will integrate, analyse and bring to full publication for the first time earlier episodes of fieldwork on flint scatter sites in the area. This will include writing up programmes of work undertaken by Holgate and Thomas in the early 1980s, by the National Trust and English Heritage in advance of arable reversion in the 1990s and 2000s, and by early 20th-century collections by amateur archaeologists. Collaboration with the National Trust and a dedicated outreach programme will ensure the results of this work are communicated to stakeholder communities local to international. The work will also inform future management of fragile settlement traces.

The project will be directed by researchers from the Universities of Southampton and Leicester, supported by colleagues from the National Trust, Ghent University and Allen Environmental Archaeology. It will build upon the work undertaken previously by Evans and Whittle on the region's post-glacial environmental history and Neolithic archaeology, and that of the Longstones Project (1999-2003) and, within the wider WHS, the Stonehenge Riverside Project (2004-2009).

Planned Impact

The Investigators have considerable experience of developing impact within the Avebury WHS through their previous work on the Longstones Project, utilised by the AHRC as one of its Examples of Economic Impact from AHRC-funded projects.

Who will benefit:
The communities/interest groups that will benefit from the research include local residents, visitors & tourists, a wider public interested in ancient landscapes, local museums, the National Trust (NT) and other organisations involved in heritage management at a local, national and international level e.g. the Wiltshire County Archaeologists Office, Historic England (HE) and UNESCO.
How will they benefit:
(1) The knowledge generated will facilitate effective management and protection of the region's non-monumental Neolithic and EBA archaeology. This will enable bodies such as the NT (the major landowner), HE and the County Archaeologists Office to generate more effective strategies for the future management of the rather vulnerable traces of settlement, and to assess those areas where preservational conditions are good or where current landuse poses a threat. This is currently a major lacuna. Data will be made accessible via submission to the County Historic Environment Record.
(2) The knowledge generated will enhance the public presentation of the Neolithic and EBA archaeology and visitor experience in the Avebury landscape. With its focus upon lives-lived (spatially and temporally) between the monuments, the project will reveal a new narrative about the landscape and those who occupied it. This will substantially enrich the story presented in the Alexander Keiller Museum (AKM) at Avebury, as well as the content of future guidebooks, leaflets, information boards, guided walks and outreach resources such as the Avebury Monuments Teacher's Kit. The research will also be promoted through websites such as Visit Wiltshire, Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site, and the NT.
(3) Following the model established with the Longstones Project, interested members of the public will be encouraged to take an active part in the writing of a unique chapter in Avebury's long history. Through social media (via the NT's FragmeNTs website and associated blog), regular public lectures, site tours and formal open-days they are able to follow the unfolding interpretation of the prehistoric landscapes revealed and take part in the discussions and debates these engender. This leads in turn to a deeper sense of place and more nuanced understanding of the unique character of the lived and worked landscape. This will be further cemented by dedicated finds sessions where volunteers will gain an understanding of the archaeological process and an appreciation of the value of artefacts as sources of evidence for prehistoric settlement. Via research on the collections held in the AKM we also wish to emphasise the role local residents have played in discovering the lithic scatters that mark traces of prehistoric settlement. Engagement of this kind is aimed at enhancing the understanding of the local community of the outstanding universal value of the WHS.
(4) Developing an enhanced understanding of the ancient heritage of the Avebury WHS is a crucial element in encouraging visitors to this remarkable landscape, so contributing to the local and UK tourist economy. As the Longstones Project demonstrated, archaeological excavations serve as a tourist-attraction in their own right, as well as producing results that can be used to market areas in new and interesting ways. Further benefits to the local economy arise from added expenditure arising from increased visitor dwell time and repeat visits, either from the attraction presented by the excavations themselves or the benefits of the new marketing opportunities that emerge from them. There is also expenditure related directly to the fieldwork itself, through the provision of equipment, consumables and accommodation.

Publications

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Gillings M (2019) The origins of Avebury in Antiquity

 
Title Still Digging 
Description A temporary exhibition in the Great Barn of the Alexander Keiller Museum, Avebury, featuring results from project fieldwork. April 2019-April 2021. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact On display to public. Footfall figures to be obtained, but certainly within upper hundreds. 
URL https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/avebury/features/still-digging--recent-excavations-at-avebury
 
Description We have substantially increased knowledge on the prehistoric (and especially Neolithic and Early Bronze Age) settlement of this important region. Fieldwork on Avebury Down, to the east of the Avebury henge, during 2017-18 identified a major and previously unknown area of activity that spanned the Mesolithic (late hunter-gatherer) to the early Bronze Age. There was evidence for flint working and settlement here, and a phase of later Neolithic non-settlement activity that might be ceremonial in nature contemporary with the Avebury henge.

In Butler's Field, to the west of the henge, excavations in 2018 revealed evidence of Mesolithic activity on a scale not otherwise known from this region. Some of that activity - perhaps comprising short-stay visits by groups of hunter-gatherers - belonged to the latest Mesolithic, rare in general across southern Britain. Early Neolithic settlement traces were also found; and features belonging to the Saxon and Medieval village of Avebury encountered, too. Although the latter are not the primary focus of this project, they are important, and will aid in developing understanding of the evolution of the village and its relationship to traces of the prehistoric monument complex.

On Knoll Down, a specialist flint extraction and working site was investigated in 2018. This kind of activity is rarely detected outside flint mining regions such as Sussex.

Geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental work (by partners Mike Allen and Charly French), aided by landscape-scale geophysical survey by project partner Philippe De Smedt, continues to reshape our understanding of the early Holocene landscape.

During 2019 fieldwork took place on Waden Hill and at West Kennet (to the south of Avebury). The work on Waden Hill was limited in scale and focused on assessing geophysical anomalies and colluvial deposits revealed through EMI survey. The anomalies proved to be natural solution features, and much of the colluvium early Holocene downslope transported clay-with-flints. Small quantities of worked flint (mostly Early Bronze Age) were recovered from the topsoil.

During summer 2019 work centred on the late Neolithic West Kennet palisade complex. Extra-mural scatters of worked flint were sample excavated, and produced material of later Mesolithic, early and middle Neolithic and early Bronze Age date, indicating repeated return to these locales over lengthy periods. As with the situation on Avebury Down, little diagnostic later Neolithic was present (surprising given the proximity to the palisades). Outlying and previously uninvestigated elements of the palisade complex (a radial line and circular structure) were targeted and found to be identical in character to those parts excavated by Alasdair Whittle in 1987-92. Post-holes belonging to a massive late Neolithic timber monument were found within the circular structure. Key intersections/junctions of the palisade were also dug. These show the complex was constructed largely in a single build. Where sequence is present, it was in short order. Given the scale and structural complexity of the palisades, this is remarkable. Though short-lived, they look to control movement up a dry valley from the south (a principal route into the region?) and a crossing point of the Kennet.
Exploitation Route Academic interest in the region's prehistory is high. The results will be of interest to a range of researchers internationally.

Public interest is very strong, as evidenced by visits to our excavations, including school groups, talks to local and national societies with strong public membership, and response to the Still Digging exhibition currently hosted by the Alexander Keiller Museum, Avebury.

Development of ways of investigating and interpreting prehistoric lithic scatters will inform the way this important archaeological resource will be approached in future projects.
Sectors Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://livingwithmonuments.org/
 
Description The results of the project are feeding into presentation of the region's archaeology within the Alexander Keiller Museum (AKM), Avebury (run by English Heritage and the National Trust). preparation is underway to make the results of the project fieldwork the centre-piece of a temporary exhibition at the AKM, due to run from late Spring to Autumn 2019. Through communication with National Trust staff and volunteers, the results of the work feed into communication on the region's archaeology by the National Trust. The reach of this is quite far (given visitors to the site come from across the globe). We are working on how to quantify this. An exhibition featuring the project's work - Still Digging - is currently running at the Alexander Keiller Museum, Avebury. Start date April 2019, and likely to run until April 2012. Numerous public lectures have been given - total audience c.800.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description A talk to a national and regional archaeological society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A joint public lecture to the Prehistoric Society and Norfolk & Norwich Archaeological Society,Norwich, 10th November 2018. Questions and discussion emerged from the talk and the feedback suggests its content positively changed people's perception of the subject. Comments were made that it might encourage visits to the Avebury landscape.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.prehistoricsociety.org/events/event/the_avebury_project_title_and_time_to_be_confirmed_jo...
 
Description Alton Arts, Alton Barnes, 3rd October 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local society talk. Positive response via questions, etc. Audience c.90-100 in very packed village hall.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Ampthill Archaeological Society, 11th January 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local society talk. Positive response via questions, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://adalhs.mooncarrot.org.uk/meetings.php
 
Description Avebury and Stonehenge Archaeological and Historical Research Group, 10th January 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of results of 2019 fieldwork to World Heritage Site research group. Group includes members of heritage organisations (Historic England, English Heritage, National Trust), local authority and museum, commercial archaeological units and independent researchers. Always a testing and uncivilised audience, but positive response via questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Avebury, National Trust volunteers, 18th February 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to Avebury estate NT volunteers. Positive response via questions, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Avebury, residents, 18th February 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk to local residents, including farmers on whose land we have worked. Positive response despite freezing conditions within venue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Avon Valley Archaeology Society, 5th February 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local society talk. Positive response via questions, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.avas.org.uk/
 
Description Bournemouth University Archaeological Society / East Dorset Archaeological Society, 12th February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk to a group of c.80, comprising students, academics and members of a local archaeological society. Positive response, with questions and debates arising, and offers of volunteer participation in future project fieldwork.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.dorset-archaeology.org.uk/programme.html
 
Description Communication of results of work to heritage professionals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations on the work to-date given to the Avebury and Stonehenge Archaeological and Historical Research Group (ASAHRG: October 2017). ASARGH is made up of people involved in archaeological and historical research in the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site and surrounding area. It is a group of professional curators, academics and freelance researchers who meet to encourage, coordinate and disseminate research in the WHS. The secretariat is run by the WHS Coordination Unit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.stonehengeandaveburywhs.org/management-of-whs/avebury-and-stonehenge-archaeological-and-h...
 
Description Kennet Valley Primary School, 23rd July 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact On-site visit and activities prepared for entire student population of local Primary School while undertaking fieldwork at West Kennet palisades. They loved it, we loved it!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lecture to Council for British Archaeology Wessex conference, 9th November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Lecture to annual CBA Wessex conference, as part of a day focused on recent work on the region's Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Response strong, including several questions and good discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.prehistoricsociety.org/events/event/sunrise_over_the_stones_recent_research_into_neolithi...
 
Description NUI Galway Archaeology Society 18th November 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Talk to student archaeological society. c.30 present, including academics and professionals. Good response via questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Press and media coverage relating to geophysical survey at Avebury 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Archaeological geophysical survey undertaken by the Project within the Avebury henge monument during early 2017 led to the discovery of buried megaliths forming an unusual square monument created around the site of an earlier house. A coordinated press release issued in June 2017 by the Universities of Southampton and Leicester and the National Trust resulted in wide media coverage. This included: the BBC (the Today programme and regional TV news), the Guardian, Times, Independent, Telegraph and MailOnline. There was wide on-line coverage at an international level. The National Trust (the site's guardians) reported interest in the work from visitors, and this led to site volunteer guides being briefed on the work so that they could communicate details to members of the public. A version of the press release was also posted on the AHRC website (see URL below).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/research/readwatchlisten/features/new-discovery-at-avebury/
 
Description Research seminar, Bournemouth University, November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar given by Prof. Mark Gillings. Positive response via questions, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Research seminar, Cambridge December 11th 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar given by Prof. Charly French on the project's geoarchaeological work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Research seminar, Lund, Sweden, February 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar given by Prof. Mark Gillings. Positive response via questions, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Talk to Avebury residents and National Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on the results of the project to Avebury residents and National Trust staff, Avebury, 22nd February 2019. Also a visit to the excavation during August 2018.

Questions and discussion emerged from the talk and the feedback suggests its content positively changed people's perception of the subject. It's worth highlighting how positively local residents have responded to the fieldwork undertaken as part of this project and the earlier Longstones Project. There is genuine interest and excitement, and a willingness amongst farmers, landowners and the parish council to support the work where possible.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talks to local societies and site visits by public during fieldwork 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talks on the project and research results to-date were given to the Southampton Archaeological Society (October 2017) and Avebury Society (November 2018). The combined audience was c.150. While the Project was undertaking archaeological excavation on Avebury Down during July-August we received steady numbers of visitors from the general public, and arranged a formal visit to the site for local residents (including landowners and members of the parish council). Combined visitor numbers c.100.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Visit by Avebury & Stonehenge Archaeological & Historic Research Group, 1st August 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Site visit by World Heritage Site research group to excavations at the West Kennet palisades. Positive, and they didn't break anything.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society, 29th February 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Regional society talk. Positive response via questions, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.wiltshiremuseum.org.uk/?event=west-kennet-palisades&event_date=2020-02-29
 
Description Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society, 4th August 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Site visit by regional archaeological society to excavations at the West Kennet palisades. Positive response via questions, etc.c.40 present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description talk to a county archaeological society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact a talk to the Hampshire Field Club & Archaeological Society, Winchester, 17th November 2018, as part of their Annual Conference. Questions and discussion emerged from the talk and the feedback suggests its content positively changed people's perception of the subject. Comments were made that it might encourage visits to the Avebury landscape.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.hantsfieldclub.org.uk/programme2018.html