Poetry translation in poet-advisor-poet trios: collaborative, cross-language and creative processes.

Lead Research Organisation: Newcastle University
Department Name: School of Modern Languages

Abstract

Hearing and reading translated poetry opens audiences to new worlds of experience, gives poets fresh inspiration, and creates international communities of poets and poetry users. It dissolves barriers between cultures - crucial in a world that is ever more globalised, but also marked by misunderstanding between cultures. And producing translated poetry is a modest but important part of the cultural economy. Researching how experts translate poetry gives understanding of how these benefits come about, which can in turn improve practice. Existing research focuses on poetry translating by solo translators, who can read an original 'source-language' poem and convert it directly into a 'target-language' version. Increasingly, however, poetry is also being translated in collaborative workshops - but no systematic research has been done into how these operate. Hence our project aims to find this out by analysing the working processes and outputs of poet-advisor-poet trios (the most representative workshop format). Here, poems are translated by three people working face-to-face: the poet who wrote the source poem, a target-language poet (who does not know the source language), and a language advisor (who knows both languages).

We will set up two 4-day expert workshops, where 3 poets from the Netherlands and 3 poets from the UK, helped by 3 language advisors, will work in 3 simultaneous trios to translate each other's poems. Each workshop - one at Poetry International Rotterdam (the Netherlands' biggest poetry festival), and one at Newcastle University - will end with a public reading of poems and draft translations, and talks by participants. All poets are eminent, widely-published poets (most with translating experience), and all language advisors are experienced solo poetry translators. We will video all working discussions and written translation drafts, and hold videoed interviews with participants after each workshop.

These video recordings, once securely stored and transcribed, will form our raw research data. We will use them to draw a rich, multidimensional picture of how expert poet-advisor-poet trios work: what poems they choose to translate, the translation challenges they meet and how they solve them, interpersonal relations and talk patterns within working trios, what principles poets and advisors try to follow, and what motivates their work. We will also examine how trios tackle key poetry-translating issues, such as the tension between conveying a source poem's exact content and making the translation into a poem in its own right, and how far translators are willing to make creative changes to source-poem meaning.

Finding this out will increase knowledge of collaborative poetry translation, but also of poetry translation and experts' translation processes in general. We will communicate this to academic audiences via a monograph, academic journal articles and conference papers. The project will also benefit non-academic users: translations from the workshops will bring Dutch and UK poetry to new audiences; and project findings will generate guidelines for good practice, and will inspire and inform future poet-advisor-poet ventures. To enable this, poem translations and project findings will reach poets, translators and poetry audiences via reading events, poetry journals and artwork, websites, social media and professional translation associations.

This interdisciplinary project is led by a translation-studies scholar (Francis Jones, Newcastle University) and two poetry-writing scholars (W.N. Herbert and Fiona Sampson, Newcastle and Roehampton University), all specialised in poetry translating as translators and researchers, helped by two Research Associates. We will work closely with two project partners (Dutch Foundation for Literature and Poetry International Rotterdam), and two university research and public-outreach centres (Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts and Roehampton Poetry Centre).

Planned Impact

Poetry is a significant source of individual well-being, and is often a central element in how people define their culture and heritage; poetry publishing and performance also form an important sector of the cultural economy. Translating poetry extends these benefits across language cultures, and is a crucial pathway to inter-cultural understanding. With our project's poet-advisor-poet workshops, the expertise of those taking part (who are all eminent poets or experienced poetry translators) will almost certainly result in high-quality translations. Hence our project's first aim is to deliver these inter-cultural benefits directly, by bringing our project's poems and their translations to poetry audiences.

Moreover, this inter-cultural dimension lies at our project's heart, since its poet-advisor-poet translating method involves poets from different language cultures working with an inter-language and inter-cultural mediator (the language advisor). This gives the poet-advisor-poet translating method a special potential, which our research findings will define clearly. Hence our project's other aims are to communicate these findings, and guidelines on good practice arising from them, to poets and translators - and, no less importantly, to communicate them to organisations that promote and develop poetry and its translation. This will empower more poet-advisor-poet trios to deliver the benefits of poetry translation to more audiences, giving our project a much wider ultimate effect on poetry-translating and poetry-using communities worldwide.

Specific beneficiaries of our project's poems and translations, and of its findings and guidelines, are:

[1] Poetry audiences worldwide who know English or Dutch. They will hear and read poems and their translations from the project, delivered via live and web-streamed readings, and via paper and on-line poetry journals. This will enable them to enjoy the benefits of translated poetry mentioned above - and also to experience poetry translated from their own language into another.

[2] Poets who know English or Dutch (including the large community of world poets with English or Dutch as a second language). As part of the poetry audiences just mentioned, they too will hear and read poems and translations from the project. This will expand their cultural horizons by letting them experience new translated poetry, and - in some cases - inspire their own poetic work. They will also hear and read project reports and guidelines about poet-advisor-poet translating, which will accompany translation readings and translation journal features, and which will be posted on websites and via social media; and we will train some poets in poet-advisor-poet translating. This will inspire more poets to undertake poet-advisor-poet ventures themselves.

[3] Translators, including existing translators of poetry. Like poets, they will hear and read project reports and guidelines about poet-advisor-poet translating, and some will be trained in poet-advisor-poet translating. Our aim will be to help bring about a paradigm shift, from viewing poetry translation just as a specialist one-person venture (for the few who can translate a source poem directly into a convincing target-language poem), to viewing it also as a team effort where a translator works with poets. This will inspire more translators to join poet-advisor-poet ventures themselves.

[4] Organisations which promote poetry and its translation. Project staff will report project findings and guidelines to them, thus influencing the translation projects that they support and encouraging them to sponsor poet-advisor-poet ventures (or more such ventures). These organisations, plus translators' professional bodies, will also publicise project translations, reports and guidelines via their websites, social media and professional journals, ensuring that this project impacts on a worldwide community of poetry-users, poets and translators.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Translated Poems 
Description The two 3½-day international translation workshops (see 'Research Databases') and follow-up email revisions generated Dutch translations of poems originally by the UK poet participants, and English translations of poems originally by the Dutch poet participants - 40 poems in all. For details of copyright on these translations, see 'Intellectual Property & Licensing'. 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Selections of the translations were read at the End-of-Workshop-1 event (Rotterdam), and at the End-of-Workshop-2 event (Newcastle). Videos of readings from the Workshop 2 event were posted on the Project YouTube channel. This guaranteed them a wide international audience. It also enabled them to inform the 76 proposals from international artists to make a Project Artwork in response to project research. Impact of the translation readings and artwork is further described under 'Engagement Activities /End-of-Workshop-2 Event', '/Project Artwork', and '/Project YouTube channel'. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOv4CKamninPpjjaV5r3oxQ/videos
 
Description Data analysis is still ongoing, so the findings below are highly tentative, and qualitative only. They will almost certainly evolve as analysis deepens. The most important overall finding is that trio translation leads to effective target-language poems, which loyally reflect their source-language counterparts where possible. All our outputs, therefore, meet what most modern-day poetry translators, editors and readers would see the key requirements for good poetry translations. This means that poems need not only be translated by a solo translator, who can both read a foreign language and write poetry. Collaborative translation involving a foreign-language expert and a poet can also work extremely well - especially if the source poet (as in our project) is also involved in translating. In terms of the project's research questions (RQs), so far we can report the following findings. RQ1 'What criteria do trios use when choosing poems to translate?' This is largely negotiated between source poet and target poet. 'Not having been previously translated', metrical features and ST length are usually key criteria, however. RQ2 'What strategies do trio members use to tackle poetry translation's triple challenge - that of conveying (a) the source poem's semantic content and (b) its formal aspects (e.g. rhyme, word association and nuance), etc. in (c) an effective target-language poem?' Language advisors and target poets see it as crucial to understand the overall 'message' of the source poem in depth. That is, its wordings, nuances, and allusions - including allusions which are not evident from the text. Here, having the source poet present (especially face-to-face) is a key resource. Trios, as mentioned, then try to produce versions that are semantically close to the original whilst also being poetically effective. Only when it is not possible to do both (with wordplay or rhyme, for example) do they deviate from the original semantics. Then they rarely deviate very far, usually trying to stay faithful to the underlying message. Translating trios, therefore, appear at first sight to follow the strategies and norms observed for most solo translators (Jones 2011). This also reflects a powerful professional norm among translators in all genres: produce a target text which does what it needs to in the new context, but which also (where possible) reflects what the source text says. Some differences with solo translators, however, are emerging. One appears to be a greater attention to poetic structure and effect. This is almost certainly because the key drivers of the trio translating process are published poets (which is not necessarily the case with solo translators). RQ3 'What relative time do trios spend on key sub-aspects like word-choice, imagery or rhythm?' Only full quantitative analysis (ongoing) can answer this. However, there are indications that discussions of lexical equivalence might be crucial, as with solo translation. RQ4 'What principles and motivations (e.g. prioritising sound over meaning) do source poets, language advisors and target poets claim to follow, and what do they actually follow?' As mentioned above, the default working principle of trio members appears to be: translations should be effective target-language poems which remain loyal to the source poem where possible. Working directly with the source poet may well strengthen the importance of source-poem loyalty for the other trio members. Participants' cognitive styles appear to influence how they prefer to translate, ranging from more analytic (one step at a time, then see how it all fits together) to more holistic (broad sweep, saving details for later) - as with solo translators. So far, this seems unlinked to whether participants are poets or language advisors. RQ5 'What interactive patterns underlie trio discussions, and how far are they linked to participants' roles - e.g. might the two poets try to stray from the literal, and the advisor try to restrain them?' Findings are especially tentative here, as detailed analysis of trio patterns is still ongoing. Among potential patterns emerging, however, are: #1 If participants in a trio have different cognitive and working styles, some negotiation may need to take place. #2 The target poet tends to 'lead' the trio, determining its working direction. Once the target poet has established a source item's meaning in discussion with the source poet and language advisor, for instance, s/he takes responsibility for its target-language wording. Some target poets may also brainstorm solutions with the language advisor, whereas others prefer to call on the language advisor simply when more cross-language equivalents are needed. #3 The language advisor's interactional and interpersonal skills also appear important for successful trio work: this is because his/her command of both languages makes him/her the link person between source and target poet. For example, if the language advisor and target poet are discussing target-language wordings and the source poet does follow the discussion, the source poet appreciates explanations from the language advisor. The source and target poet also appreciate a language advisor's ability to adapt to their preferred working styles - working analytically vs. holistically, or co-brainstorming target-language equivalents vs advising when asked.
Exploitation Route As analysis is still preliminary, we would prefer to answer this question in full at our next reporting round. However, it would almost certainly be worth exploring what happens if this project's parameters are varied. For example, it would be useful to examine a more culturally and linguistically distant language pair than Dutch-English: Chinese-English, for example. It would also be useful to contrast what happens when the source and target poet share a working language, but no language advisor is present.
Sectors Creative Economy,Education

 
Description Potential generators of future impact, along with impact already generated, are listed under 'Engagement Activities'. To summarise: #1 The project website, YouTube channel, Twitter feed, Facebook page and artwork commission call have informed a large international audience about the project and about collaborative poetry translation, and have heightened public attention for poetry translation. This lays a base for later impact. #2 The two end-of-Workshop public reading and discussion events did the same, but also generated impact directly. The end-of-Workshop-1 event led to a commitment by a Dutch literary magazine to publish an essay and translations from the workshop. In impact terms, this will enhance the international reputations of the UK poets featured, and the reputations of the Dutch poets and language advisors co-translating. It could well encourage the trio method to be adopted by others in the Netherlands and Flanders. #3 The end-of-Workshop-2 event had artists, musicians, poets and translators in its audience. A call to submit pieces about collaborative translation for the event inspired many of them to incorporate collaborative translation into their own practice, as evidenced by their presentations. Evidence of the likely impact of the project's methods on audience members' future practice was also shown in feedback afterwards. #4 This event almost certainly also enhanced the reputation (and thus international impact) of the Dutch poets, and of Dutch poetry - but also of the UK poets and language advisors (translation professionals) who featured in the event. The project YouTube channel, which broadcast this event and follow-up readings to a world-wide audience, almost certainly increased this reputational impact. #5 Sinéad Morrissey, award-winning poet and incoming director of the Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts (NCLA), was also present at the event. This helped inspire NCLA to include a Poetry Translation Day at the heart of the NCLA's May 2018 Newcastle Poetry Festival. Plans for this poetry translation day formed part of the NCLA's successful bid for Arts Council funding (with our project's financial contribution leveraging matched funding), and informed the project team's successful bid for Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Impact funding. #6 The Project Artwork call generated very wide interest for the project's methods among artists and musicians. These methods will impact on the work of the musician who won the commission, but also potentially on others who submitted proposals.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Creative Economy
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Impact Fund
Amount £3,530 (GBP)
Organisation Newcastle University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 05/2018
 
Title NVivo Coding Frame 
Description In order to analyse the transcripts of trio translating sessions and interviews, we developed a complex coding frame. This was designed within the NVivo software suite, which enables multi-level coding and analysis of qualitative datasets. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a powerful analytic tool like NVivo has been applied to translation process data. Among the various types of categories ('nodes') in the coding frame are translation-process 'foci' (e.g. Lexis, Rhythm), project research questions, trio roles (e.g. Source Poet, Language Advisor), language direction (Dutch to English or vice versa), and interactional moves. Using NVivo with this coding frame enables both quantitative analyses (e.g. establishing whether source poets talk less in trios where they do not know the target language), and rich, multi-level qualitative analyses (e.g. analysing how source poets' input varies according to the topic of conversation). 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Analysis is still ongoing, though preliminary results are mentioned under 'Key Findings'. The coding frame will eventually be published along with project findings. 
 
Title Workshop Raw Data 
Description As specified in the bid, we first ran a ½-day pilot study, with one poet-advisor-poet trio (Dutch to English). We then ran two 3½-day poet-advisor-poet translation workshops: #1 English to Dutch: Poetry International festival, Rotterdam (29 May - 2 June 2017); #2 Dutch to English: Newcastle University (16-20 July 2017). In each workshop, three Dutch poets, three UK poets and three language advisors worked in trios to translate poems by the source poet into the target language for three days, with next-day revision. Trio configurations changed each day. Participants were interviewed about translating processes at the end of each working day. A final plenary discussion session followed on the fourth day. As explained in 'Collaborations / Dutch Foundation for Literature (DFL)', one Dutch poet was prevented from participating in Workshop 2. However, she participated by Skype on one of the workshop afternoons. Later, she came to Newcastle University for a 1-day follow-up workshop with two of the UK poets and a language advisor (21 September 2017), and later had a final Skype session with the third UK poet. All translating processes, plenary discussions were video- and audio-recorded, and then transcribed. Interviews were audio-recorded, and then transcribed. In the 18 trios over the two workshops, 40 poems were translated. Total 'tape time' is over 100 hours. We how have the following 6 linked datasets, securely stored on the Newcastle University server (see bid Technical Plan): #1 Raw videos of trio translating processes and plenary sessions; user-friendly videos, showing the emerging target text in one window and the trio group members in the other, are still being added to the archive. #2 Audio recordings of trio translating processes, plenary sessions, and interviews. #3 Transcripts of trio translating processes, plenary sessions and participant interviews in Microsoft Word, prepared for coding with NVivo (see 'Research Databases & Models / NVivo Coding Frame'). #4 Still photographs of selected participant interactions. #5 Photographs or PDF files of interim paper draft translations, plus Word versions of end-of-workshop final draft translations. #6 Coded NVivo files of transcripts coded so far: coding is due to last until late June 2018. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet: data is still being analysed. 
 
Description AHRC 'Translating Cultures' Theme 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The AHRC 'Translating Cultures' Theme, coordinated by Charles Forsdick at Liverpool University, explores "how languages, values, beliefs, histories and narratives can be shared and understood across different cultures and contexts". Informal linkage with our project (see below) enhances the scope of the AHRC theme.
Collaborator Contribution As our project is closely aligned to the AHRC theme, Translating Cultures have offered to list our project on the 'Related Awards' sections of their website. Posting on this research hub will raise awareness of our project among our academic peers working in translation studies.
Impact No outputs so far. The link to our project will be available after the ongoing redesign of the AHRC 'Translating Cultures' website.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dutch Foundation for Literature (DFL / Nederlands Letterenfonds) 
Organisation Dutch Foundation for Literature
PI Contribution The Dutch Foundation for Literature (DFL / Nederlands Letterenfonds) is one of our bid's two Project Partners, and one of the four main collaborators in the Pathways to Impact. It is the Dutch government funded body tasked to support Dutch literature in the Netherlands and abroad, especially via translation. Many of our project impact activities have furthered this aim, by publicising to English-speaking audiences the work of the three Dutch poets who are project participants: Hélène Gelèns, Elma van Haren, and Menno Wigman. See below and 'Engagement Activities' for details.
Collaborator Contribution The DFL gave crucial input into the project's design. Before the project started, the DFL's Thomas Möhlmann helped set up initial links with our other project partner Poetry International Rotterdam (see separate 'Collaborations and Partnerships' entry). He, with PIR, advised on the choice of Dutch poets. Since the project started, Möhlmann's successor Victor Schiferli has acted as a key advisor to the project research team, especially on matters concerning the Dutch poets. As agreed in the bid document, the DFL funded three Dutch poets' flights to the project's second data-gathering workshop in Newcastle, 16-20 July 2017, where their poems were translated into English. Unfortunately, personal circumstances prevented Elma van Haren from attending, though her work was translated and she partially participated by Skype. Hence we organised a 1-day follow-up workshop for her in Newcastle on 21 September 2017: remaining DFL funds partially funded her travel, with the rest paid for by AHRC bid funds vired from savings elsewhere. Again as agreed, the DFL also funded English interlinear guides to six of the nine Dutch poems per poet that were translated at the Newcastle workshop.
Impact #1 A well-attended public reading event of the three Dutch poets' work in Dutch and English at Newcastle University marked the end of the project's second translation workshop (20 July 2017). See 'Engagement Activities' for details. #2 Subtitled videos of the poets reading (or their translations being read) during and after the event were placed on the project YouTube channel, with a link from the project website. See 'Engagement Activities' for details. All events (like the project as a whole) are multi-disciplinary, at the interface of poetry writing and translation studies.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts (NCLA) 
Organisation Newcastle University
Department Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts (www.ncl.ac.uk/ncla/) is a Newcastle University research centre aimed at promoting public understanding of poetry. It is the third of the four main collaborating bodies in the Pathways to Impact section of the bid. Contributions: #1 Our project has helped NCLA to promote public understanding of poetry in North-East England and beyond. It has done so via the public end-of-Workshop-2 event, via the project website, and via the project YouTube channel's videos of poetry readings and discussions from Workshop 2 (see 'Engagement Activities' for details). #2 NCLA organises the annual Newcastle Poetry Festival. Our project inspired NCLA to include a poetry translation day, in which our project will play a prominent role, in the May 2018 Festival. This featured in the NCLA's successful bid in winter 2017-18 for UK Arts Council funds for the 2018 Festival. AHRC project funds earmarked for NCLA services within the bid (£2100) were used to part-fund the poetry translation day, enabling NCLA to leverage matched Arts-Council funding. #2 Our project team, advised by NCLA, also bid successfully for a grant of £3530 from Newcastle University's Humanities and Social Sciences Faculty Impact Fund (see 'Further Funding'). This will extend the scope of the poetry translation day as a project impact/engagement event. It will bring two project Dutch poets and one language advisor to Newcastle for public translation workshops and readings. It will enable us to invite other UK experts to sit with the project PI on a public discussion panel about collaborative poetry translation. It will also fund a portable banner publicising the project.
Collaborator Contribution Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts have played three roles in the project so far. #1 Melanie Birch at NCLA gave advice on organising Project Workshop 2 at Newcastle University (16-20 July 2017), where the project's English-to-Dutch translation data was gathered. She advised on overall logistics, the briefing session and mini-reception that opened the workshop (see bid Case for Support), and on the public end-of-Workshop-2 event (see below, and 'Engagement Activities'). NCLA also helped promote the event via Twitter. #2 NCLA gave key advice on commissioning an innovative artwork linked to the project (see bid Pathways to Impact). Then, in January 2018, NCLA Director Sinéad Morrissey helped project team members choose the winning entry (see 'Engagement Activities / Project Artwork'). #3 Morrissey and Birch also advised on our successful Impact Fund bid mentioned earlier. This grant will put the project at the heart of the NCLA's May 2018 Newcastle Poetry Festival.
Impact #1 A successfully organised Workshop 2: one of the AHRC project's two data-gathering points. This (like Workshop 1) went as outlined in the bid's Case for Support: a briefing, followed by three days' translating poetry in trios from Dutch to English, with a public end-of-Workshop-2 event. See 'Engagement Activities' for details of the event. #2 Plans for a poetry translation day at the Newcastle Poetry Festival. This has already leveraged funding from the Arts Council and Newcastle University (see above). The whole collaboration (like the project) is multi-disciplinary, at the interface of poetry-writing and translation studies.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Poetry International Rotterdam (PIR) 
Organisation Poetry International Foundation
PI Contribution Poetry International Rotterdam (PIR), held each June, is the Netherlands' biggest poetry festival, and one of the world's leading international poetry festivals. It is one of our bid's two Project Partners, and the second of the four main collaborating bodies in the bid's Pathways to Impact. Our contributions so far are: #1 One of PIR's key missions is to communicate poetry across language borders. Thus each festival includes a poetry translation workshop. In 2017, our project helped Poetry International Rotterdam by supplying this workshop (Project Workshop 1, English-to-Dutch). #2 Our project's impact activities have helped PIR's mission by communicating to English-speaking audiences the work of the project's three Dutch poets (see 'Collaborations and Partnerships / Dutch Foundation for Literature'), all of them eminent. #3 Our project's impact activities have increased audiences for the project's three equally eminent UK poets (Bill Herbert, Sean O'Brien, and Fiona Sampson), both within the Netherlands and internationally. Details of impact activities are listed below, and under 'Engagement Activities'.
Collaborator Contribution Poetry International Rotterdam gave crucial input into the project's design. Before the project started, PIR's Jan Baeke, together with the Dutch Foundation for Literature (see separate Collaborations and Partnerships entry), advised on the choice of Dutch poets. Since the project started, Baeke has acted as a key advisor to the project research team. The most important role of Baeke and other PIR colleagues so far, however, has been in co-organising Project Workshop 1 in Rotterdam (29 May - 2 June 2017), where the project's English-to-Dutch translation data was gathered. This ran as part of the 2017 PIR festival. Beforehand, details of workshop organisation were discussed between the project team and the PIR team, with key details agreed during a visit by project PI Francis Jones to Rotterdam in early May 2017. Specifically, Poetry International Rotterdam: #1 Arranged hotel accommodation for workshop participants. #2 Helped organise the briefing session and reception on the afternoon before the workshop (see bid Case for Support). #3 Arranged premises for the workshop's working sessions: the Goethe Institut in Rotterdam. #4 Ordered refreshments and lunches for the working sessions. #5 Hosted the public end-of-Workshop-2 event (see below, and 'Engagement Activities').
Impact #1 A successfully organised Workshop 1: one of the AHRC project's two data-gathering points. This went as outlined in the bid's Case for Support: a briefing, followed by three days' translating poetry in trios from English to Dutch, with a final plenary session (see below). #2 The public end-of-Workshop-1 event on 2 June 2017, which formed part of the Poetry International Rotterdam festival programme. This was hosted and compered by Baeke. See 'Engagement Activities' for details, including of further impact. All events (like the project as a whole) are multi-disciplinary, at the interface of poetry-writing and translation studies.
Start Year 2016
 
Title Translated Poems 
Description The two translation workshops generated written translations of 40 original ('source') poems. Because the translations are copyrighted and publishable, they are listed here as well as under 'Artistic & Creative Products'. The workshop participants, i.e. study subjects, retain joint copyright ownership in those translations which they personally worked on. The participants granted the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (and thus the project research team) the non-exclusive right to use, publish and disseminate the translations for our research, public outreach and teaching purposes. Hence we have answered "No" to the question "Has this intellectual property been formally licensed to others?". 
IP Reference  
Protection Copyrighted (e.g. software)
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed No
Impact See 'Artistic & Creative Products'.
 
Description End-of-Workshop-1 Event (Rotterdam) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On the final day (2 June 2017) of Workshop 1 in Rotterdam, which focused on English-to-Dutch translation, we held an hour-long presentation as part of the 48th Poetry International Rotterdam festival. This was audio-recorded for later use. Two panel discussions, and six readings of English source poems and Dutch translations, compered by Poetry International's Jan Baeke, showcased the work produced during the workshop. The audience was small (about 20), but influential, consisting mainly of cultural journalists (including one from the Volkskrant, a leading Dutch daily) and literary editors. The event announcement remains on Poetry International Rotterdam's website in both an English and a Dutch version (for English, see URL below) at the time of writing. It features a detailed introduction to our research project. See also 'Collaborations / Poetry International Rotterdam'. KEY OUTCOMES/IMPACT: #1 As intended, this event increased international public awareness of the poet-advisor-poet translation method. #2 Positive spoken comments by audience members afterwards showed that the readings had enhanced the international reputation of the three UK poets, and the professional reputation of the language advisors as translators in their own right. #3 Two editors of the leading Dutch literary journal Terras were present - a journal highlighted in the project bid as a possible publisher of Workshop-1 translations (http://tijdschriftterras.nl/). As a result, the editors said they would publish a feature about the project in a 2018 issue of Terras. For the journal's print edition, we have submitted translations, and one of the participating Dutch poets (Hélène Gelèns) is about to submit an introduction about the project. Two essays about the trios' translation processes will be also posted on the journal's website. This will considerably enlarge the audience for the poets and the trio method, potentially leading to further impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.poetryinternationalweb.net/pi/pif2017/festival/event/293/en
 
Description End-of-Workshop-2 Event (Newcastle) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On the final day (20 July 2017) of Workshop 2 at Newcastle, which focused on Dutch-to-English translation, we ran a three-part public engagement event. Videos of the event were posted on the project website and project YouTube channel (see 'Engagement Activities' / separate entries). The audience (about 60) consisted of translators, poets, translation-studies and poetry-writing academics, literary editors, musicians and artists (many of them Part-3 participants), and poetry enthusiasts - a key target audience for project findings, as outlined in the bid. Most were from Northern England, but a sizeable minority were from Southern England, the Midlands and Scotland. The parts were: PART 1 A reception, so that audience members and workshop participants could network. PART 2 A session showcasing the project itself. It featured panel discussions about workshop translating processes, and readings of Dutch source poems and English translations from Workshop 2 by poets and language advisors. PART 3 'Translation as Collaboration' presentations. Beforehand, a call had been publicised by posters and on project social media. This had encouraged a wide public to reflect on our Poet-Advisor-Poet project's key element - collaborative, creative translation - in terms of their own creative or translating practice, and to produce collaborative presentations involving cross-language and/or cross-media translation. Of the ten resulting presentations, most involved poetry, whether translated across languages (e.g. Spanish to English), across media (e.g. poetry to music), or both. To subsidise accommodation and travel for participants from outside the region, £550 was vired from underspends on other items in the AHRC budget. This investment not only improved the quality of Part 3, but also drew in extra audience for our project outcomes - including the 20 Part-3 presenters. KEY OUTCOMES/IMPACT: All quotes come from written audience feedback. #1 The event increased UK-wide public awareness of the poet-advisor-poet translation method. One audience member called it "a fascinating insight into a collaborative project". Another wrote that it had impacted on her poetry-writing/translation practice: "I was interested in the threeness of the translation process ... and am interested in exploring ways beyond a one-to-one dialogue". #2 The Part 2 readings enhanced the international reputation of the three Dutch poets: "The beauty of Dutch, & exciting Dutch poetry" (tweet from a translator, editor and writer). They almost certainly also enhanced the poetic reputation of the three UK poets reading translations, and the professional reputation of the language advisors as translators in their own right. #3 The event overall broadened how audience members conceived of translation and collaborative creative practice: it was "liberating in the breadth of options it delved into for what translation and collaboration mean". #4 Some artists, poets and translators present reported that the principles of our research (collaborative creative translation) would impact on their professional practice - because of the Part-2 discussions and readings, and/or (for some) because our research had inspired them to collaborate on Part-3 presentations. One person wrote: "it was my first ever translation in poetry event ... I think actually it will have quite a profound effect on my practice ... and I am thinking through ways to take it forward". A translator wrote: "the presentation gives me the confidence to wield my creativity in translation in the future". A poet wrote "now, I would like to engage in further translation work". Another audience member wrote "it provides a very interesting context (that of different ideas of translation) in which we can situate what we're doing". A translation-studies academic from another university wrote: "the discussions will inform my academic (both research and teaching) practice". #5 Two audience members were inspired by the event to submit bids for the project Artwork (see separate entry). #6 The call enabled Part-3 participants (most of whom had not collaborated beforehand) to build new professional and creative relationships. "I'm hoping [our collaboration] might lead to more, similar collaborations ... I'd be interested to push the limits of what ... translation can involve."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOv4CKamninPpjjaV5r3oxQ/videos?disable_polymer=1
 
Description Project Artwork Call 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A call for proposals for an Artwork linked to the project, as outlined in the bid, was broadcast from November 2017 to January 2018. Newcastle Centre for the Literary Arts (NCLA: see 'Collaborations') advised on its commissioning, and helped select the winning entry. The call resulted in 76 applications. The winner has now started on the artwork, a digital work which combines music with original poems and translations. It will be presented at the Newcastle Poetry Festival, organised by NCLA, in May 2018. KEY OUTCOMES/IMPACT: #1 We contacted artists via the project's website, Twitter account and Facebook account, and also via the Arts Council, Artist Newsletter and Art Rabbit sites, plus the Twitter accounts of NCLA and Newcastle University's School of Modern Languages. Applications were also inspired by the end-of-Workshop-2 event. The call aroused a lot of interest on Twitter (over 10,000 impressions). While the call was live, we saw a surge in visits to our website, mostly concerning the call (3,598 visits from 1,322 unique visitors, Dec 2017 - Jan 2018), and in visits to our YouTube channel. See 'Engagement Activities' / separate entries on the project website, Twitter, YouTube and End-of-Workshop-2 event for more details. #2 The wide initial interest, and especially the detailed engagement with our project shown in the 76 entries, testifies to how our project has caused fine-art and music practitioners to think about how their work might involve poetry and translation. This in turn could well have a lasting impact on their work - and not only on that of the winner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://poettrioexperiment.com/2017/11/24/paid-art-commission-call-for-proposals/
 
Description Project Facebook account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In November 2017 we launched a project Facebook account. This publicises the project, gives information about project-related events, but also generally raises awareness for poetry and literary translation. Its audience is modest: 15 followers by 10 March 2018, though there are more viewers. Its main aim is to supplement the reach of the project website and Twitter feed - posting, for instance, the project's Artwork Commission call (see 'Engagement Activities' / separate entries).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://www.facebook.com/poettrioexperiment/
 
Description Project Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In May 2017 we launched a project Twitter account. This publicises the project, gives information about project-related events, but also generally raises awareness for poetry and literary translation. It accesses a very wide audience. We have 185 followers from various countries. In the month up to 29 January 2018 we earned 15,000 impressions (views). Three tweets announcing our project's Artwork Commission earned over 10,000 impressions alone, showing that we are not just reaching our core audience of those interested in poetry and translation, but are also engaging with fine-art practitioners. KEY OUTCOMES/IMPACT: The Twitter feed was used to publicise the Project Artwork call (see 'Project website' and 'Project Artwork call' for details of the call and impact).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://twitter.com/poettrios
 
Description Project YouTube channel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In August 2017 we launched a project YouTube channel. Links feed in from the project website, Twitter account and Facebook account (see 'Engagement Activities' / separate entries). The YouTube channel has publicised the project by hosting 22 videos from the public end-of-Workshop-2 event and the September 2017 follow-up translation day with Elma van Haren. Videos are subtitled to increase accessibility. The channel features Dutch poets and language advisors reading Dutch source poems, and British target-language poets reading their translations. Also from the end-of-Workshop-2 event, there are videos of discussions by project researchers about the workshop, and of Translation-as-Collaboration presentations. For further details, see 'Engagement Activities / End-of-Workshop-2 event (Newcastle)'. IMPACT/OUTCOMES: The videos had gained 1675 views by 9th March 2018; 70% of viewers were from the UK, and 30% from outside the UK.. We have therefore informed a wide international public about our project, and enabled poetry enthusiasts to enjoy original and translated poetry. This has almost certainly enhanced the reputation (and thus international impact) of the three Dutch poets, and of Dutch poetry generally. The same probably holds for the reputation of the UK poets reading their translations in English, and for the language advisors featured. Artists thinking of responding to the project's Artwork Commission call were told that they could find key information about the project on the YouTube channel. Each of these artists, 76 of whom submitted a bid, has therefore engaged closely with our research processes and outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOv4CKamninPpjjaV5r3oxQ/videos?disable_polymer=1
 
Description Project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In May 2017 we launched a project website, to publicise the project and to give information about project-related events. We first came up with a catchy, shorthand title for the project ('PoetTrios') to aid communication with the public and for promotional uses, plus a project logo to communicate the project visually. Both feature prominently in all our impact and dissemination channels, including on the website. The website home page hosts a project blog. This gives news about the project, plus achievements and publications by project researchers. It also reposts selected articles related to the project's theme of collaborative/creative literary translation. The site has a link to the Project YouTube channel (see 'Engagement Activities' / separate entry). One section of the site also gives information, videos, etc. from the 'Translation as Collaboration' presentations which formed part of the end-of-Workshop-2 event: see 'Engagement Activities' / End-of-Workshop-2 event (Newcastle). The site has been submitted for archiving to the British Library. KEY OUTCOMES/IMPACT: #1 The website has informed a wide public about the project, and about the concept of collaborative 'trio' translation. By 19 January 2018, the site had 5351 views by 2311 visitors. They came from many countries - primarily the UK, but with the USA and the Netherlands also prominent. #2 The site was used to publicise the Project Artwork call (see 'Engagement Activities' / separate entry), and acted as an information source for potential bidders. The 544 visits to the call page, and the resulting 76 bids, showed that the website was not just reaching its 'core' audience of those interested in poetry and translation: it was also engaging with fine-art practitioners, and prompting many of them to try to contribute to the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://poettrioexperiment.com/
 
Description Versopolis article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An issue dated July 2017 of the on-line journal Versopolis: European Review of Poetry, Books and Culture was curated by project Co-Investigator Fiona Sampson. Her essay "We Don't Have to be the Ass of Europe" argues that literary translation is one among a number of interpretive practices paradigmatic of dialogue which could be continued in non-literary spheres such as international diplomacy (http://www.versopolis.com/panorama/427/activist-publishers-and-institutions-translate). Specifically relevant to this project is the article "Activist Publishers and Institutions Translate" by project Research Associate Rebecca May Johnson (see URL below). Here, two paragraphs showcase the project and the end-of-Workshop-2 event (see 'Engagement Activities / End-of-workshop-2 Event'). KEY OUTCOMES/IMPACT: This informed poetry and literature readers about the project, expanding the future audience for project findings when these are ready to be disseminated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.versopolis.com/panorama/427/activist-publishers-and-institutions-translate