Compromised Identities? Reflections on perpetration and complicity under Nazism

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: UCL Institute for Advanced Studies

Abstract

Under Nazi rule, millions were involved in the machinery of persecution. In 2015, the UK's Holocaust Commission noted that, while the Holocaust could only be carried out 'with widespread complicity', there is 'a great deal of education on perpetrators' roles, but not enough on the role of society and bystanders' ('Britain's Promise to Remember', p.49). This statement reflects both the character of public education and the current state of research. Yet the category of 'bystanders' is too broad to encapsulate the ambiguities of a wide range of behaviours variously motivated by conviction and careerism, conformity and passivity, partial enthusiasm or self-distancing, as well as capitulation rooted in fear and powerlessness.
This interdisciplinary project analyses how people became entangled in Nazi systems and practices, and how they responded to what later, under different circumstances, came to be seen as a 'compromised' past. Exploring perpetration and complicity in state-sponsored violence and questions of justice in its aftermath, it focuses on representations by and of people 'on the perpetrator side' from the Third Reich to the present. We explore patterns of involvement on the side of the perpetrators in a multi-facetted manner, contextualising and interpreting the 'voices' of the perpetrators and raising awareness of the complexities of representation.
The project examines ways in which people who were involved in or witnesses to Nazi crimes talked about, silenced, or variously negotiated accounts of their roles, often constructing retrospective accounts of having been merely an 'innocent bystander'. It analyses how individual identities come under pressure when circumstances and value systems change, and how self-representations develop over time. It explores how public discourses - political, cultural, journalistic and judicial - address state-sponsored violence and interrogate or contribute to exculpatory strategies at a personal level. Public images often helped to demonise 'excess perpetrators' as unlike 'ordinary people', while others suggested the significance of 'just following orders'; private self-understandings and exculpatory strategies were affected by such images.
We develop a concept of 'compromised identities' in relation to collective violence and its legacies. Four interrelated research strands examine the interplay between wider social, cultural and political contexts, and people's self-representations over time. The first analyses the emergence of a 'bystander society', as people accommodated themselves to changing roles under the Nazi regime. Using ego-documents (letters, diaries, memoirs) it explores behavioural shifts and social relations while people often retained an inner distance from new demands. A second strand analyses oral history interviews from the 1960s to the present to explore ways in which changing public images affected private discourses and self-representations among those who had been complicit in sustaining the system and assisting the crimes of the Third Reich. The third strand analyses the significance of postwar political and legal systems, and the character of professionals and others involved in trials, in shaping constructions of 'perpetrators'; and it explores how specific crime complexes are refracted through the media and local settings in selected cases. The fourth strand explores intriguing twists in the ways in which questions of agency, identity and morality have been engaged with in works of creative literature and films that specifically thematise issues of justice. These strands are brought together in a wider comparative context.
The project will have an impact on academic debates on perpetration and complicity. It will also develop for research and educational purposes a unique collection of filmed interviews with some 250 former perpetrators and witnesses of Third Reich crimes. A website, public events and a mobile exhibition will engage wider audiences.

Planned Impact

In Holocaust education, musealization and commemoration, an (understandable) focus on victim voices and the top echelons of power and repression predominates. The broad spectrum of perpetrators, beneficiaries and facilitators of persecution remain underrepresented, as does the wider social context. A 2016 survey by the UCL Centre for Holocaust Education established a serious lack of knowledge and understanding of these issues among a majority of young people in the UK. Although the Holocaust Memorial Day Trust wrote that bystanders 'enabled the Holocaust, Nazi persecution and subsequent genocides', their voices were largely missing from the Trust's 2016 Holocaust Memorial Day's 'Don't Stand By' materials and ceremonies. Moreover, the focus often presupposes a degree of individual choice that was not available to many people at the time. The relative absence of 'perpetrator perspectives' adversely affects teaching and public understanding of the conditions under which genocide was possible and means of addressing its legacies.
Our research will help transform this situation: first, by developing a differentiated, interdisciplinary analytic framework for understanding patterns of involvement in state-sponsored violence, and the interplay between changing contexts and self-representations; and secondly, by opening up perspectives and developing materials for further research and study. It will therefore have an impact, nationally and internationally, on: practitioners and third sector organisations in Holocaust education and commemoration; institutions concerned with preserving archival sources and educating about genocide and persecution; academic scholars, students, and members of the public interested in German and European history, Holocaust and genocide studies, memory studies and oral history, film and literature.
These outputs will deliver impact:
- A travelling exhibition, 'Compromised Identities? Entanglement in Collective Violence'. Team members will discuss sources and approaches, facilitating understanding of complicity and perpetration as well as subsequent efforts to engage with a violent past.
- Time-coded indexes of 250 video interviews in the 'Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies' collection, accessible online to authorised users. These will widen digital national and international access for both academic and non-academic audiences, increase and enhance discoverability, and facilitate further research, as well as benefiting educators and others seeking information on specific events, individuals or localities.
- Three public events engaging educators and teachers, third sector practitioners in museums, memorial sites and charities, students and scholars, and members of the public. These will foster engagement with specific research outcomes as well as the wider implications for other cases of collective violence, including current conflicts.
- Academic workshops and an international conference fostering knowledge exchange and including diverse audiences.
- An edited volume, four monographs, and six journal articles, disseminating the research both in the scholarly and wider community.
- A project website.
We will achieve impact throughout and beyond the grant period. All project members will contribute to the outputs. The exhibition will be developed in collaboration with an external specialist provider, monitored by the team under the guidance of the PI. Evaluation of impact will be ensured through reviewing user statistics of website and indexes, monitoring exhibition and event attendance, and responses through online surveys. UCL Communications and Marketing will assist in organising events, promoting impact activities and media strategy, and monitoring responses both online and in the press and social media. The project will shift the focus, engage practitioners, and enhance scholarly and public understanding of involvement in systems of collective violence and the implications for the aftermath.

Publications

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Thonfeld, C. (2018) The Europeanisation of cultures of remembrance in post-Cold War Europe in Cheng Kung Journal of Historical Studies

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Thonfeld C (2019) Sharing a Divided Memory. The First Half of 20th Century History in the Cultures of Remembrance in Post-Cold War Germany and Poland in Bulletin of Historical Research National Taiwan Normal University

 
Title Online exhibition 
Description The collaborative research project on 'Compromised Identities?' is presented in an online exhibition entitled 'Compromised Identities? Reflections on Perpetration and Complicity under Nazi Rule'. The exhibition has eight sections exploring processes of involvement in perpetration and complicity, the ways in which such involvement was confronted after the war, and reverberations into the present; it includes thirty short films highlighting aspects of our research, including both on-location films and analyses of interviews with people closely involved with or witnesses to Nazi violence; and it is accompanied by materials for further research and study. Drawing on our research findings, it points up the significance of context in understanding the ambiguities of behaviours variously motivated by conviction and careerism, conformity and peer pressure, partial enthusiasm or justification by self-distancing, as well as capitulation rooted in fear and powerlessness. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact A pilot version was launched on 20 July 2020, with a public launch of the revised version on 15 October 2020. In the period from 13 July to 2 March 2021, the site was accessed by 2,887 users in 4,508 sessions; users came from 76 countries, especially the UK, US, Germany, Netherlands, and Canada, but also France, Austria, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, China, India, Israel, Belgium, Australia, Israel. A high proportion of users are educators and students at different levels. Feedback demonstrates that it enhanced knowledge and understanding of involvement in collective violence and its aftermath. Responses from professionals about use of the materials include comments such as: 'we will include more bystander and perpetrator testimony in our scheme of work' 'using the videos in a classroom setting and for engaged discussion'; using 'elements to steer discussion and training within my own team'; using the resource 'as part of a top up/refresher into the latest methodology/research in Holocaust Education' and as 'a training tool for how to we address the discussion of perpetrator/bystander in the classroom and how do we do this safely'; being 'valuable in teaching some KS4 and certainly post 16'; 'for the purposes of teacher training, to deepen teachers understanding of this history, so that they can go on to teach this history with a more nuanced approach'. 
URL https://compromised-identities.org/
 
Description The research illuminates issues including: questions of justice; power and social interactions; and the co-production of subjective interpretations and cultural representations under differing socio-political conditions. Researchers have worked both individually and collaboratively on an interdisciplinary project developing a multifaceted approach to understanding perpetration and complicity. 'Compromised Identities?' explores ways in which individuals reflect on their own involvement in state-sponsored violence, both at the time and later, and how others have sought to deal with it; and it examines the compromises that states and societies enter into, in either justifying or seeking justice for acts of violence.

Fulbrook's research on a 'bystander society' in Nazi Germany argues that 'bystander' is not a stable category, a label that can be simply snapped onto individuals; nor, when violence persists over a period of time, is it possible to remain for very long an 'innocent bystander', however convenient this often-used phrase may later seem to be. Rather, what we need to understand are the conditions under which people will choose to remain inactive in the face of escalating violence - or will tend to intervene not on behalf of victims, but rather on the side of the perpetrators. This is not (only) a question of individual psychology (although that is inevitably involved) but rather (or also) of wider social and political conditions. These include the degrees of empathy members of one community may have with those whom they see, or are persuaded to see, as 'other' rather than one of 'their own'; and the perceived risks and potential benefits of different courses of action under particular circumstances. Changes over time also play a role in how resourceful or resigned people feel; whether they believe they have a capacity to change things, or feel effectively impotent and retreat into apathy or seek to justify compliance. All these subtle but highly significant changes can be explored in relation to social developments under Nazi rule; but they also have far wider implications for understanding collective violence in other places and at other times, right up to today. Fulbrook is currently completing a book on this relating to changing social relations in the Third Reich.

Bird's analyses of literary representations of perpetration show how fiction can evoke complex, ambivalent and contradictory responses that are not always easily reconciled with moral expectations or judgments. She demonstrates how the novels 'organise' the reader's emotions and manipulate empathy in order to channel the reader's emotions to ethical or political ends in the present. She has first drafts of four chapters of the book, which cover the followign topics:
'Vampiric Compromises' on Borislav Pekic's novel How to Quiet a Vampire (13,000 words)
'Complicity and Compromise' on Imre Kertész's novels (14,000 words)
'Legitimate Justice' on Volker Kutscher's detective series (17,000 words)
'The Silences of Enzensberger' on Hans Magnus Enzensberger's biographical work Hammerstein oder der Eigensinn (The Silences of Hammerstein in translation. 15,500 words).
Bird has also started writing an article: 'Ageing Perpetrators and Forgiveness', which includes analysis of two popular novels (Jodi Picoult, The Storyteller and Michael Lavigne, Not Me) and oral history interviews from the 'Final Accounts' film collection.

Rauch's research focuses on how people make sense of history, through ego-documents (letters, diaries, memoirs, interviews), or on film and television, and the wider context informing how people negotiate the past. Rauch has used a range of post-war oral testimonies, from Allied Intelligence reports on encounters with German civilians starting in autumn 1944 through to twenty-first century video interviews with individuals who were complicit in Nazi violence, to examine how individuals reflect on, evaluate, and interpret their behaviours, attitudes, and identities once the moral and normative parameters have shifted.
Exploring Allied intelligence officers' interrogations of German civilians from autumn 1944 onwards, Rauch considers the impact of these encounters on field intelligence officers. Their reports and correspondence suggest that in this period, Germans readily professed to knowledge of atrocities. But contrary to intelligence officers' expectations, they failed to accept any guilt or responsibility. Rauch further argues that the foundations and techniques of Western Allied psychological warfare may have reinforced and legitimised justification strategies that separated between "real" Nazis and everyone else. This was at odds with one of the central aims of Allied Military Government, i.e. to inculcate a sense of culpability in Germans.
Rauch also developed an approach to utilising more recent narrative interviews in historical research. It emphasises the importance of the context of their coproduction and their socio-political and cultural embeddedness. As such, they can add to the scholarship not only or primarily on the Nazi period, but also and especially on the post-war dynamics and processes which have shaped them. Using this approach, Rauch identifies, firstly, a rise in anxiety in approaching Germans and Austrians on the side of persecutors and, secondly, the appropriation of the figure of the contemporary witness or 'Zeitzeuge' as practice, performance, discursive strategy, and subject position.

Three shorter successive post-doctoral projects (by Roche, Thonfeld and Willems) explored aspects of Nazi perpetration and justice in Italy, Poland, and East Prussia, respectively, demonstrating the interplay between violence, self-understandings, and conceptions of justice.
Bastiaan Willems examined the summary executions of 1944-1945, and explored which conditions on meso-level (towns, villages, and communities) and on micro-level (by individuals and small groups) allowed for the massive spike in intra-ethnic German-versus-German violence. Examining the post-war prosecution of those men involved in the ubiquitous late-war summary courts, he shows that instead of merely claiming to operate within the broadly defined remits of Nazi law, perpetrators often explained the decision to execute their compatriots by presenting themselves as guarantors of long-standing civic and local identities.
Exploitation Route We have completed the construction of an exhibition and associated website and educational materials which may be used in public events, Holocaust education, museums, and schools.
Sectors Creative Economy,Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://compromised-identities.org/
 
Description In Holocaust education, musealization and commemoration, an (understandable) focus on victim voices and the top echelons of power and repression predominates. The broad spectrum of perpetrators, beneficiaries and facilitators of persecution remains underrepresented, as does the wider social context in which millions may become complicit. Surveys by the UCL Centre for Holocaust Education found a serious lack of knowledge and understanding of these issues among a majority of young people and their teachers, while the UK Holocaust Commission noted there is insufficient education 'on the role of society and bystanders' (Britain's Promise to Remember, p.49). Research on these issues by Fulbrook, Bird and Rauch has raised awareness, enhanced knowledge and public understanding, and shaped professional practices. (a) Raising awareness and enhancing knowledge and understanding of involvement in collective violence and its aftermath, particularly in relation to the Holocaust and dictatorships Aspects of the collaborative research project on 'Compromised Identities?' are presented in an online exhibition (https://compromised-identities.org/).The exhibition has eight sections exploring processes of involvement in perpetration and complicity, the ways in which such involvement was confronted after the war, and reverberations up to the present; it includes thirty short films highlighting elements of our research, including both on-location films and analyses of interviews with people closely involved with or witnesses to Nazi violence; and it is accompanied by materials for further research and study. Drawing on our research findings, it points up the significance of context in understanding the ambiguities of behaviours variously motivated by conviction and careerism, conformity and peer pressure, partial enthusiasm or justification by self-distancing, as well as capitulation rooted in fear and powerlessness. The exhibition was originally scheduled to open at Swiss Cottage Library, London, in May 2020, and then travel to selected locations in the UK. This was prevented by Covid-19 and instead a pilot web version was launched online on 20 July 2020 (c. 75 attendees), with a public launch of the revised version on 15 October 2020 (c. 75 attendees). In the period from 13 July to 31 December 2020, the website was accessed by 2,335 users in 3,761 sessions; users came from 71 countries worldwide, especially the UK, USA, Germany, Netherlands, and Canada, but also Austria, France, China, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Argentina, Israel, India, Australia, Norway, Belgium, and elsewhere. Viewers gained 'deeper understanding of the issue of entanglement and complicity' and 'genuinely new set of insights into acts of violence and perpetration'. (b) Impact on educators, influencers, and other professionals Events in connection with the 'Compromised Identities?' research and exhibition have been held for educators, third sector practitioners in museums, memorial sites and charities, students, scholars and members of the public, in conjunction with other organisations, including: with the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre, Huddersfield (30 July 2020, 59 attendees); CPD event on 'Teaching with Testimony', Birmingham University (7 October, c. 80 attendees); CPD full training day with the Holocaust Education Trust, Yad Vashem and Villa ten Hompel (29 October, 25 participants); a public panel discussion with Hope Not Hate (2 December, c. 30 attendees). A high proportion of both attendees and website users are educators. Comments include: 'It's a fantastic resource' for using in undergraduate and MA courses; the site is helpful in 'using the videos in a classroom setting and for engaged discussion'; using 'elements to steer discussion and training within my own team'; using 'as part of a top up / refresher into the latest methodology/research in Holocaust Education' and as 'a training tool for how do we address the discussion of perpetrator/bystander in the classroom and how do we do this safely'. The exhibition is 'valuable in teaching some KS4 and certainly post 16'; and for 'teacher training, to deepen teachers' understanding of this history, so that they can go on to teach this history with a more nuanced approach'. Professionals found it deepened their understanding: 'I have extensive experience in teaching and researching the Holocaust, but this exhibition brought to light German (non-Jewish) experiences in new ways for me'; and 'The framework of compromised identities, communities, and violence' provides 'a new lens through which to approach the topic and encourage critical thinking'. One teacher commented that the exhibition is 'an outstanding resource for Sixth Form teaching'; another asked his Modern Germany students to explore the website and they 'find these resources extremely useful and interesting'; another commented that it 'challenged me to think about ways in which perpetrator narratives and imagery might be used appropriately'. In November 2018, Rauch led a teacher-training seminar on perpetrator testimonies for 25 teachers, on invitation by the Holocaust Education Trust; eleven teachers confirmed they would now use such testimony in their teaching, enabling them to 'encourage thought about motives and reactions in a wider context'.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Preparation of materials for educational and research use
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact 1. Creation of additional resources • Creation of detailed English-language time-stamped, segmented interview synopses to aid discoverability for an archival collection of filmed interviews with people who were close witnesses to or engaged in acts of Nazi perpetration • To be shared with INA and Wiener Library • Use of the collection in current research and publications 2. Public engagement and education • Creation of nine short films using excerpts from the collection that are embedded in an expert discussion by the Compromised Identities team. Part of Compromised Identities online exhibition and website • Creation of further resources linking to the films, hosted on Compromised Identities website • Public events such as CPDs, roundtable discussions, and webinars, including in collaboration with HET, Yad Vashem and Villa ten Hompel; the University of Birmingham; the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre at the University of Huddersfield, and Hope Not Hate. • To date, the online exhibition has been visited more than 4,500 times by over 2,800 unique users from 76 countries, especially the UK, US, Germany, Netherlands, and Canada, but also France, Austria, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, China, India, Israel, Belgium, Australia, Israel. A high proportion of users are educators and students at different levels. • Feedback demonstrates that it enhanced knowledge and understanding of involvement in collective violence and its aftermath. Responses from professionals about use of the materials include comments such as: 'we will include more bystander and perpetrator testimony in our scheme of work' 'using the videos in a classroom setting and for engaged discussion'; using 'elements to steer discussion and training within my own team'; using the resource 'as part of a top up/refresher into the latest methodology/research in Holocaust Education' and as 'a training tool for how to we address the discussion of perpetrator/bystander in the classroom and how do we do this safely'; being 'valuable in teaching some KS4 and certainly post 16'; 'for the purposes of teacher training, to deepen teachers understanding of this history, so that they can go on to teach this history with a more nuanced approach'. 3. Opening the collection for research and education • Co-ordination with ZEF, INA and the Wiener Library to provide joint access to Final Account, and to share resources and metadata • Following a joint meeting on 1 March 2021, opening of the collection to researchers and educators is envisaged for June 2021 4. Promoting the collection • Forthcoming: promote use of the collection through European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) • Forthcoming: launch event
 
Description AHRC
Amount £940,000 (GBP)
Funding ID AH/R00126X/1 
Organisation Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description The Pears Foundation in support of 'Compromised Identities: Project by Professor Mary Fulbrook'.
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Organisation Pears Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
End 07/2021
 
Description Collaboration with ZEF (Luke Holland), INA (Paris), Wiener Library (London), and Pears Foundation 
Organisation Institut National de l'Audiovisuel
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution 1. Collection appraisal, creation of collection guide and finding aid for Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies@UCL • Established extent and significance of the collection • Placed the collection within the context of research on Nazi Germany using audio-visual sources and other collections and repositories • Creation of health warning and guidance on using the collection 2. Creation of metadata and cataloguing of Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies@UCL • Cataloguing of the collection • Creation of metadata including subject terms and summaries for each interview • Sharing of resources with INA to ensure joint approach to opening the collection for research and education 3. Creation of additional resources • Creation of detailed English-language time-stamped, segmented interview synopses for the entire collection to aid discoverability • To be shared with INA and Wiener Library 4. Academic research • Use of the collection in Stefanie Rauch's current research project and in academic publications (several conference papers; journal article; chapter in forthcoming edited volume; monograph in preparation) 5. Public engagement and education • Creation of nine short films using excerpts from the collection that are embedded in an expert discussion by the Compromised Identities team. Part of Compromised Identities online exhibition and website • Creation of further resources linking to the films, hosted on Compromised Identities • Public events such as CPDs, roundtable discussions, and webinars, including in collaboration with HET, Yad Vashem and Villa ten Hompel; the University of Birmingham; the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre at the University of Huddersfield, and Hope Not Hate. • To date, the online exhibition has been visited more than 4,500 times by over 2,800 unique users from 76 countries, especially the UK, US, Germany, Netherlands, and Canada, but also France, Austria, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, China, India, Israel, Belgium, Australia, Israel. A high proportion of users are educators and students at different levels. • Feedback demonstrates that it enhanced knowledge and understanding of involvement in collective violence and its aftermath. Responses from professionals about use of the materials include comments such as: 'we will include more bystander and perpetrator testimony in our scheme of work' 'using the videos in a classroom setting and for engaged discussion'; using 'elements to steer discussion and training within my own team'; using the resource 'as part of a top up/refresher into the latest methodology/research in Holocaust Education' and as 'a training tool for how to we address the discussion of perpetrator/bystander in the classroom and how do we do this safely'; being 'valuable in teaching some KS4 and certainly post 16'; 'for the purposes of teacher training, to deepen teachers understanding of this history, so that they can go on to teach this history with a more nuanced approach'. 6. Opening the collection for research and education • Co-ordination with ZEF, INA and the Wiener Library to provide joint access to Final Account, and to share resources and metadata • Following a joint meeting on 1 March 2021, opening of the collection to researchers and educators is envisaged for June 2021 • Technical and practical challenges will be discussed on 16 March 2021 7. Promoting the collection • Forthcoming: promote use of the collection through European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) • Forthcoming: launch event
Collaborator Contribution ZEF produced and owns copyright to the films INA is responsible for the long term conservation of the Preservation copies and the Preservation Copies' Metadata, preservation and access to the original materials and will provide dedicated space on INA's professional video platform inamediapro.com. securing availability to researchers through the Viewing platform, of the Access Copies and the Access Copies' Metadata, by Ina, the Wiener Library and UCL. INA, UCL and the Wiener Library will provide joint access to Final Account, and share resources and metadata The Pears Foundation has provided significant funding towards the project.
Impact Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies@UCL
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with ZEF (Luke Holland), INA (Paris), Wiener Library (London), and Pears Foundation 
Organisation The Wiener Library
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution 1. Collection appraisal, creation of collection guide and finding aid for Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies@UCL • Established extent and significance of the collection • Placed the collection within the context of research on Nazi Germany using audio-visual sources and other collections and repositories • Creation of health warning and guidance on using the collection 2. Creation of metadata and cataloguing of Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies@UCL • Cataloguing of the collection • Creation of metadata including subject terms and summaries for each interview • Sharing of resources with INA to ensure joint approach to opening the collection for research and education 3. Creation of additional resources • Creation of detailed English-language time-stamped, segmented interview synopses for the entire collection to aid discoverability • To be shared with INA and Wiener Library 4. Academic research • Use of the collection in Stefanie Rauch's current research project and in academic publications (several conference papers; journal article; chapter in forthcoming edited volume; monograph in preparation) 5. Public engagement and education • Creation of nine short films using excerpts from the collection that are embedded in an expert discussion by the Compromised Identities team. Part of Compromised Identities online exhibition and website • Creation of further resources linking to the films, hosted on Compromised Identities • Public events such as CPDs, roundtable discussions, and webinars, including in collaboration with HET, Yad Vashem and Villa ten Hompel; the University of Birmingham; the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre at the University of Huddersfield, and Hope Not Hate. • To date, the online exhibition has been visited more than 4,500 times by over 2,800 unique users from 76 countries, especially the UK, US, Germany, Netherlands, and Canada, but also France, Austria, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, China, India, Israel, Belgium, Australia, Israel. A high proportion of users are educators and students at different levels. • Feedback demonstrates that it enhanced knowledge and understanding of involvement in collective violence and its aftermath. Responses from professionals about use of the materials include comments such as: 'we will include more bystander and perpetrator testimony in our scheme of work' 'using the videos in a classroom setting and for engaged discussion'; using 'elements to steer discussion and training within my own team'; using the resource 'as part of a top up/refresher into the latest methodology/research in Holocaust Education' and as 'a training tool for how to we address the discussion of perpetrator/bystander in the classroom and how do we do this safely'; being 'valuable in teaching some KS4 and certainly post 16'; 'for the purposes of teacher training, to deepen teachers understanding of this history, so that they can go on to teach this history with a more nuanced approach'. 6. Opening the collection for research and education • Co-ordination with ZEF, INA and the Wiener Library to provide joint access to Final Account, and to share resources and metadata • Following a joint meeting on 1 March 2021, opening of the collection to researchers and educators is envisaged for June 2021 • Technical and practical challenges will be discussed on 16 March 2021 7. Promoting the collection • Forthcoming: promote use of the collection through European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) • Forthcoming: launch event
Collaborator Contribution ZEF produced and owns copyright to the films INA is responsible for the long term conservation of the Preservation copies and the Preservation Copies' Metadata, preservation and access to the original materials and will provide dedicated space on INA's professional video platform inamediapro.com. securing availability to researchers through the Viewing platform, of the Access Copies and the Access Copies' Metadata, by Ina, the Wiener Library and UCL. INA, UCL and the Wiener Library will provide joint access to Final Account, and share resources and metadata The Pears Foundation has provided significant funding towards the project.
Impact Final Account: Third Reich Testimonies@UCL
Start Year 2018
 
Description 12 June 2019 BBC Radio 4 Today Programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 12 June 2019 BBC Radio 4 Today Programme (with an estimated audience of 10,484,000):
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 28 February 2019: Interviewed for documentary 'Blowback. the 9/11 Wars in Global Films'. (https://www.imdb.com/title/tt9457264/?ref_=nm_knf_t1) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Terence McSweeney, a writer and lecturer, is working on a project connected to a book under contract to Edinburgh University Press called Blowback: The 9/11 Wars in Global Film. He is filming a short documentary with the same name and has interviewed me about my research in relation to cultural trauma, comedy and representations of violence.

The film will be screened later in 2019 at UK AHRC events, plus in the US at Indiana University in Bloomington where he iscurrently a Research Fellow at the Lilly Library.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Article on Kristallnacht, Time Magazine, 9 November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article on the occasion of the 80th anniversary of the night of violence against the Jews in Nazi Germany, 9 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht or "Night of Broken Glass", concluding that: "The lessons of Kristallnacht - about the need for informed vigilance, non-compliance with prejudice and sustained empathy with fellow human beings - remain all too relevant."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://time.com/5449578/kristallnacht-lessons-bystanders/
 
Description BBC radio interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC radio 4 interview on 'Welcome Money' Monday 4 Nov. A radio programme marking thirty years since the fall of the Berlin wall, reaching a national and inernational audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blog Article: "Silent is the Country or Culture of Remembrance in Klagenfurt" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact During my research trip to Austria, I wrote a blog reflecting on the public presence of the Nazi past in the city of Klagenfurt.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://compromisedidentities.com/2019/06/04/silent-is-the-country-or-culture-of-remembrance-in-klag...
 
Description Conversation in BBC World History with Richard J. Evans, 1 December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Conversation with Richard J. Evans about "Reckonings" and justice, injustice, and evasions of justice
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.historyextra.com/period/20th-century/legacies-holocaust-mary-fulbrook-richard-j-evans-po...
 
Description Dan Snow's 'History Hit' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dan Snow's 'History Hit'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://tv.historyhit.com/watch/36008368
 
Description David Bankier Memorial Lecture at Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, 26 February 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered public lecture at Yad Vashem, Israel's central Holocaust Memorial site, which served to open up new avenues for discussion and debate about the role of 'bystanders' and the supposed 'lessons' of the Holocaust.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description David Bankier Memorial Lecture, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, Israel, Feb 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact David Bankier Memorial Lecture, Yad Vashem, relating to Holocaust research and public understanding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Discussion of The Reader, KCL 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Participation in a panel discussion on the film The Reader in terms of West Germany's responses to the Nazi past, 28 January 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion of a film on Witold Pilecki 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion of a film about a Polish war hero who 'volunteered' to be arrested and sent to Auschwitz, screened at JW3 jointly with the Polish Cultural Institute, 26 January 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description History Today 'Travels Through Time' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact History Today's 'Travels Through Time'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.historytoday.com/podcast/travels-through-time-15-%E2%80%93-mary-fulbrook-1939-45
 
Description Impact on travelling exhibition about the Bedzin Ghetto 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The exhibition 'Through the Eyes of Youth: Life and Death in the Bedzin Ghetto', produced by the Martin-Springer Institute at Northern Arizona University under the directorship of Dr. Björn Krondorfer, opened in Arizona on 30 September 2014. Krondorfer writes that Fulbrook's research 'was an indispensable and essential resource for creating the traveling exhibit', and 'was instrumental in the decision to create an exhibit on a larger scale that would attract a broad audience'. Without Fulbrook's research it 'would not have gained the public recognition it received over the course of the last six years'. The exhibit has 'traveled to and been displayed at dozens of public and educational venues locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally', from 'rural school districts in southern Arizona, urban schools in Phoenix and Tucson, Jewish community centers, community colleges, and academic symposia' to a 'modern orthodox temple in Riverdale, New York' as well as Jewish religious schools. In 2019 it travelled to Sosnowiec in Poland, and in 2020 to the Johannesburg Holocaust & Genocide Center, South Africa. Krondorfer summarises the impact as follows: 'what started in 2013 encouraged by Fulbrook's research has become a continual project for the last seven years-with no end in sight'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020,2021
 
Description Interview on Arlene Bynon Show on Sirius XM satellite radio on Monday 11 Nov on Armistice Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on Arlene Bynon Show on Sirius XM satellite radio on Monday 11 Nov on Armistice Day
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview on BBC World Service on Berlin Wall anniversary on Saturday 9 Nov 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on BBC World Service on Berlin Wall anniversary on Saturday 9 Nov. BBC says they have "an audience of millions around the world every weekend [and] also rebroadcast across the US on public radio".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview on GDR schools on 12 Nov. in CNN 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on GDR schools on 12 Nov. in CNN; 
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2019/11/09/europe/berlin-wall-30-years-schools-grm-intl/index.html
 
Description Interview on LBC radio on Saturday 9 Nov. afternoon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on LBC radio on Saturday 9 Nov. afternoon about the fall of the Berlin Wall
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview with CNN in relation to recent war crimes trials 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with CNN in relation to recent Nazi war crimes trials
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2018/12/14/europe/germany-nazi-war-trials-grm-intl/index.html
 
Description Interview with CNN relating to Nazi war crimes trials 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion about Germany's record of bringing Nazis to trial, sparked by very belated trial of Rehbogen in Germany.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2018/12/14/europe/germany-nazi-war-trials-grm-intl/index.html
 
Description Interview with Finnish Broadcasting Company Yle: Katriina Töyrylä  
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Finnish Broadcasting Company Yle: Katriina Töyrylä for a series of articles and a 25 minute radio feature. Katriina Töyrylä, journalist, World Affairs, Yle News, Yleisradio Oy, PL 10 00024 Yleisradio, Finland
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interviewed about current and previous research for the Dutch publication of WO2 Onderzoek uitgelicht (Highlights in WWII Research) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was interviewed about current and previous research for the Dutch publication of WO2 Onderzoek uitgelicht (Highlights in WWII Research), an open-access magazine on current WWII research aimed at educators. The interview was published online early December 2019 in an issue on documentary film and its role in trauma processing: https://www.tweedewereldoorlog.nl/onderzoekuitgelicht/documentaire-en-verwerking/een-kritische-blik-op-het-verleden/. The interview provided an opportunity to reflect on previous research, connect it to the current project, and share new research findings with educators.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.tweedewereldoorlog.nl/onderzoekuitgelicht/documentaire-en-verwerking/een-kritische-blik-...
 
Description Lecture to 'Second Generation' Holocaust Survivors, 11 Feb. 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture on legacies of the Holocaust to members of the Second Generation network. Some of the individuals attending were close relatives of people Fulbrook has written about in her book on Reckonings, and they were able to discover more about their own relatives' experiences during the Holocaust. Others were interested in situating their personal experiences within the wider context of research in the field more generally, helping them to understand the impact of family histories on their own lives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Lecture to British Psychoanalytical Society Applied Section, 10 Feb 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture on Fulbrook's research on bystanders to the British Psychoanalytical Society Applied Section.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Lecture to Oxford Chabad Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture to an audience of largely Jewish participants at the Oxford Chabad society, 26 February 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lecture to U3A, London Nov. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture to U3A Nov. 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Opening keynote lecture, Tutzing, Germany, April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture to open a conference with interested members of the general public who are affected by the Nazi past.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Opinion piece reflecting on anniversaries and history, in the Canada Globe and Mail on Saturday 9 Nov: 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Opinion piece reflecting on anniversaries and history, in the Canada Globe and Mail on Saturday 9 Nov:
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-a-poppy-is-not-enough-on-remembrance-day-let-us-unde...
 
Description Panel on 'Reckonings: Who cares about bringing Nazis to Justice?' Kings Place, London 3 March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel discussion chaired by Joshua Rozenberg, in discussion with Eli Rosenbaum and Philip Rubenstein. Many responses about how significant the discussion was.
Eg one attendee wrote to me later that day: "Your panel this morning at JBW was inspiring and left me full of disturbing thoughts. I have been studying the history of the Holocaust for 30 years - ever since I broke through my denial of German roots to claim my real identity at the 1989 fiftieth anniversary reunion of the Kindertransport - and yet you and the rest of the panel presented so much I had not grasped. The sheer impossible enormity of the task to restore law & order, let alone justice, hit me when I read "A Passing Fury" and hit me again today, hearing it from a legal point of view. Your book, that I have only had a chance to dip into, looks awesome and I am delighted to have the opportunity to get it today."
The event organiser wrote that "It was an exceptional event, and audience feedback has been extremely positive."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.kingsplace.co.uk/whats-on/words/reckonings-who-cares-about-bringing-nazis-to-justice/
 
Description Pears Institute Holocaust Memorial Day lecture 18 Feb. 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pears Institute Holocaust Memorial Day lecture 18 Feb. 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Podcast on "Good Law, Bad Law" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podcast on "Good Law, Bad Law"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.law-podcast.com 
 
Description Podium discussion at King's Place, 3 March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podium discussion at King's Place, 3 March 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.kingsplace.co.uk/whats-on/words/reckonings-who-cares-about-bringing-nazis-to-justice/
 
Description Print media coverage relating to research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In 2019-20, Fulbrook's research on legacies of Nazi persecution reached approximately 3 million people via print media coverage. Following publication in October 2018, Reckonings received numerous acclamatory reviews in the international press. History Today noted that 'one of the most impressive achievements of Reckonings is to weave together a forensic account that exposes what was essentially a kind of legalised clemency which integrated most former Nazis into society while scapegoating just a few'. In an article shared 405 times, the Daily Mail declared 'there could be no more propitious time for the publication of Reckonings, Mary Fulbrook's monumental account of the attempt to bring the perpetrators of the Holocaust to justice'. Upon Reckonings being nominated for and then winning the 2019 Wolfson History Prize, 37 English language news outlets (from the London Evening Standard to the Financial Times), with a total readership exceeding 23 million, published positive articles about the importance of Fulbrook's research. She was interviewed on BBC Radio 3's 'Free Thinking' in May 2019, on BBC Radio Wales, and on the 12 June 2019 BBC Radio 4 Today Programme (estimated audience of 10,484,000). The Financial Times (circulation 169,119) ran an opinion piece on the importance of history, quoting from Fulbrook and referencing her research. In July, the Los Angeles Review of Books featured Reckonings. In October 2019 Reckonings was selected as one of three Finalists for the Cundill History Prize, and received a Recognition of Excellence Award; a related debate was aired on CBC radio on February 17, 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/w3cszkns
 
Description Project Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Creation of project website to communicate the aims of the project to a wider audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://www.ucl.ac.uk/institute-of-advanced-studies/compromised-identities-reflections-perpetration-a...
 
Description Project Workshop 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project workshop and advisory board meeting on 'Morality and Legitimacy in Collective Violence', to which members of the project team, affiliate members, and the international advisory board contributed on 27-28 June 2019. It was attended by 10 senior and early career scholars, and PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Project Workshop June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact First project workshop - 'Understanding Perpetration and Complicity' - to which members of the project team, affiliate members, and the international advisory board contributed on 28 June 2018. It was attended by 15 senior and early career scholars, and PhD students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://wordpress.com/post/compromisedidentities.com/73
 
Description Project blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Creation of project blog, featuring short articles from different contributors, including scholars, practitioners, and authors.

The project team is engaging with national and international audiences, including scholars and PhD students and institutions focusing on research, remembrance and education through a project blog and social media. The blog has to date reached 703 unique visitors (who between them viewed the site 1,534 times) from 45 countries, including the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, the US, Austria, France, Poland, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Australia, Canada, China, Israel and Japan.

Contributors to the blog have included Mary Fulbrook, Alina Bothe, Helen Roche, Kim Sherwood, Christoph Thonfeld, and Anne-Lise Bobeldijk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL http://wordpress.com/view/compromisedidentities.com
 
Description Project workshop Edinburgh 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Joint workshop with researchers from the ERC-funded Grey Zones project at the University of Edinburgh, discussing concepts, theories and methodologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Project workshop Nov 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Second project workshop attended by the project team and affiliate members. Introduction of research projects which sparked questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public events relating to research exhibition website: https://compromised-identities.org/ 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Aspects of the collaborative research project on 'Compromised Identities?' are presented in an online exhibition (https://compromised-identities.org/).The exhibition has eight sections exploring processes of involvement in perpetration and complicity, the ways in which such involvement was confronted after the war, and reverberations up to the present; it includes thirty short films highlighting elements of our research, including both on-location films and analyses of interviews with people closely involved with or witnesses to Nazi violence; and it is accompanied by materials for further research and study. Drawing on our research findings, it points up the significance of context in understanding the ambiguities of behaviours variously motivated by conviction and careerism, conformity and peer pressure, partial enthusiasm or justification by self-distancing, as well as capitulation rooted in fear and powerlessness. A pilot web version was launched online on 20 July 2020 (c. 75 attendees), with a public launch of the revised version on 15 October 2020 (c. 75 attendees). In the period from 13 July to 31 December 2020, the website was accessed by 2,335 users in 3,761 sessions; users came from 71 countries worldwide, especially the UK, USA, Germany, Netherlands, and Canada, but also Austria, France, China, Finland, Lithuania, Poland, Argentina, Israel, India, Australia, Norway, Belgium, and elsewhere. Viewers gained 'deeper understanding of the issue of entanglement and complicity' and 'genuinely new set of insights into acts of violence and perpetration'.
Events in connection with the 'Compromised Identities?' research and exhibition have been held for educators, third sector practitioners in museums, memorial sites and charities, students, scholars and members of the public, in conjunction with other organisations, including: with the Holocaust Exhibition and Learning Centre, Huddersfield (30 July 2020, 59 attendees); CPD event on 'Teaching with Testimony', Birmingham University (7 October, c. 80 attendees); CPD full training day with the Holocaust Education Trust, Yad Vashem and Villa ten Hompel (29 October, 25 participants); a public panel discussion with Hope Not Hate (2 December, c. 30 attendees). A high proportion of both attendees and website users are educators. Comments include: 'It's a fantastic resource' for using in undergraduate and MA courses; the site is helpful in 'using the videos in a classroom setting and for engaged discussion'; using 'elements to steer discussion and training within my own team'; using 'as part of a top up / refresher into the latest methodology/research in Holocaust Education' and as 'a training tool for how do we address the discussion of perpetrator/bystander in the classroom and how do we do this safely'. The exhibition is 'valuable in teaching some KS4 and certainly post 16'; and for 'teacher training, to deepen teachers' understanding of this history, so that they can go on to teach this history with a more nuanced approach'. Professionals found it deepened their understanding: 'I have extensive experience in teaching and researching the Holocaust, but this exhibition brought to light German (non-Jewish) experiences in new ways for me'; and 'The framework of compromised identities, communities, and violence' provides 'a new lens through which to approach the topic and encourage critical thinking'. One teacher commented that the exhibition is 'an outstanding resource for Sixth Form teaching'; another asked his Modern Germany students to explore the website and they 'find these resources extremely useful and interesting'; another commented that it 'challenged me to think about ways in which perpetrator narratives and imagery might be used appropriately'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://compromised-identities.org/
 
Description Public lecture for Holocaust Memorial Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Holocaust Memorial Day talk, Bloomsbury Baptist Church London, 25 January 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Public lecture for Holocaust Memorial Day, Trinity College Dublin, 20 Feb, 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture for Holocaust Memorial Day, Trinity College Dublin, 20 Feb, 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Public lecture for Holocaust Memorial Day, UCL, 30. Jan. 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture for Holocaust Memorial Day, UCL, 30. Jan. 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Public lecture in the former SS ceremonial site of Wewelsburg, Sep. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture in the former SS ceremonial site of Wewelsburg, Germany, Sep. 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Public lecture, Bedzin, Poland, August 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A large group made up of Holocaust survivors and members of their families (second and third generations) who had originated from the Zaglembie area of Poland (Silesia) gathered for a one week tour of the region, including Krakow and Auschwitz. I gave a lecture about Holocaust history, legacies and memories, which was extremely well-received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Radio lecture in German on Deutschlandfunk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A radio lecture to more than one million listeners which enhanced public understanding of the legacies of Nazism and generations in communist East Germany
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/generationen-diktatur-und-alltag-kein-ganz-normales-ddr.1184.de.html?...
 
Description Social Media - Twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Creation of social media/Twitter account to communicate events announcements and document events, and to network with other institutions and projects.

The account has 78 followers, including individual scholars and PhD students, institutions such as the Claims Conference, EHRI, Leo Baeck Institute, the Wiener Library, and several research projects such as Grey Zones.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/UCL_CCV
 
Description Stanley Burton Holocaust Memorial Lecture, Leicester, May 2019; 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Stanley Burton Holocaust Memorial Lecture, Leicester, May 2019;
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at GSA Portland, OR, USA, 5 Oct. 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at GSA Portland, OR, USA, 5 Oct. 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk at Teacher Training Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stefanie Rauch delivered a talk at a teacher training seminar organised by the Holocaust Educational Trust (HET) in Leicester. Teachers had been on a CPD with the HET to Israel several months beforehand and were attending a follow-up event, during which several different sessions on a number of topics were discussed. Rauch's talk focused on the use of perpetrator testimonies on the classroom. It was attended by c. 25 teachers from across England, and several members of staff from the HET. Rauch's talk sparked discussion of the potential uses and pitfalls of using such testimonies in the classroom. Many teachers reported lack of confidence in employing such sources in their teaching. On evaluation forms, 25 teachers attended and of the 18 who completed feedback forms, 13 had never used perpetrator testimony in their teaching before. 11 respondents confirmed they would now use such testimony in their teaching and a further 4 confirmed they would consider its usage, pending considerations such as the maturity of the students. respondents found that the session 'dispelled myths that a perpetrator is "unhuman" or some sort of "monster"', commented that 'I think I should include more [perpetrator testimonies]', and that doing so would enable them to 'encourage thought about motives and reactions in a wider context' and provide a context 'which is sometimes overlooked'. This was not just relevant to History, but also Philosophy and Ethics/Religious Education. A majority of the teachers voiced their interest in attending future workshops and events specifically focusing on such issues. Several teachers noted that they found the clips of interviews useful or that they benefited from thinking about ethical questions surrounding such material. The HET has since expressed interest in jointly providing further teacher training on this subject.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at Wiener Library, 11 March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture at the Wiener Library, many people came up to talk to me and thanked me at the end; it clearly had a significant impact on understanding of the Holocaust and its legacies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.wienerlibrary.co.uk/Whats-On?item=444
 
Description Talk to Oxford History Society 5 Feb 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk to Oxford History Society 5 Feb 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description UCL Festival of Culture public engagement event June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 4 June 2019, the project team (Fulbrook, Bird, Rauch and Thonfeld) gave a public lecture as part of UCL's Festival of Culture titled 'Compromised Identities? Reflections on Perpetration and Complicity under Nazism'. Attended by around 30 people, participants commented that the event had enabled them to consider issues in the present in a new way: 'the idea of the relationship between violence and pleasure playing a role in people's indifference is something I hadn't thought about and has parallels to all current violence'. 'I believe we have a historical and moral responsibility to address [terrorism, racism, climate change] otherwise we make ourselves guilty for sapping the foundations of future generations.'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Various contributions to TV, film, radio and podcast coverage of recent German history 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Fulbrook has contributed to radio, film and television documentaries, reaching an audience of over 2,250,000 including: the major German network ZDF 10-part documentary series on Nazism (summer 2020); the Belgian CANVAS 'Children of the Holocaust' series (9 June 2020); the BBC World Service documentary 'Germany: Justice and Memory' (12 January 2020); ITN Productions for VICE, 'Rise Up! The Berlin Wall' (29 November 2020). She has been interviewed by CNN on war crimes trials, and East German schools (November 2019); BBC Radio 4 on East German 'Welcome Money' (4 November 2019) with an extract replayed on 'Pick of the Week'; BBC World Service, and LBC radio, on the Berlin Wall (9 November 2019); and VE Day discussions on the BBC and Deutsche Welle (8 and 9 May 2020). Articles in Time Magazine, and the Canada Globe and Mail precipitated debate, including an interview on the Arlene Bynon Show on Sirius XM satellite radio. She has been an expert guest on high-profile popular history podcasts including BBC 'History Extra' (January 2019), History Today's 'Travels Through Time' (July 2019), 'Dan Snow's History Hit', and the US-based legal podcast 'Good Law, Bad Law' (both November 2019) as well as 'New Books Network' (October 2018). Fulbrook's contributions stimulated further exploration on the part of both listeners and interviewers. Fulbrook's research on the GDR has enhanced public understanding of the dictatorship. Her 2019 radio lecture on Deutschlandfunk ('With more than 2 million listeners daily, [it] is the most listened to information and cultural programme in Germany') helped listeners understand their own experiences, attested by personal emails (including from the daughter of GDR writer Christa Wolf). Wolfgang Schiller of Deutschlandfunk writes that reactions 'were consistently positive' and the 'differentiated presentation of history was praised'. 120,000 people listened to the episode of 'Dan Snow's History Hit' from start to finish. Snow writes that: 'It was such a success that we re-used elements of the podcast in the Christmas episode which then generated another 90,000 listens.' As he puts it, 'Professor Fulbrook's work struck me as being of the greatest importance because she attempts to understand the motivations of the otherwise unremarkable people who committed some of history's most appalling crimes'. Fulbrook also devised the episode 'Wolfson Prize Special; Professor Mary Fulbrook' of Travels Through Time (sponsored by History Today magazine) broadcast on 2 July 2019. Travels Through Time was the seventh most listened to podcast in the UK on Apple Podcasts in summer 2019. The episode had over 3,000 listens in the first month and featured as an article on History Today's website which receives 500,000 unique views a month. Fulbrook's episode increased the reach of other histories of the Holocaust to the global audience of Travels Through Time: the host, Peter Moore, explains that 'Several publicists at the major publishing houses in the UK heard the interview with Professor Fulbrook and used it as an introduction to pitch other books by other authors on the Holocaust'. In October 2018, Fulbrook was interviewed for the New Books Network (NBN) podcast. The episode had 'over 4,000' listens in the first month. The editor, Ryan Stackhouse, observes that Fulbrook's research 'recover[s] silenced voices vital for understanding authoritarian threats to democracy, while her engagement amplifies that message to the public through a global audience of influencers'. Podcast analytics show that 'five to ten per cent of listeners are educators, history presenters, and social media managers for professional historical associations or pedagogical projects. These listeners use the interviews in ways that magnify impact' while 'educators also draw on the interviews to inform their teaching'. Stackhouse's 'own Third Reich History Podcast reached a further 2,800 people with an episode about post-war memory based on Professor Fulbrook's work'. Stackhouse notes that 'Reckonings both drives the scholarly conversation forward and informs debate about political abuses of public memory by authoritarian regimes today'.
Examples with web links:
Interview with Richard J. Evans, 'Legacies of the Holocaust', BBC 'History Extra', for BBC History Magazine and BBC World Histories Magazine, 24 Jan. 2019: https://www.historyextra.com/period/20th-century/legacies-holocaust-mary-fulbrook-richard-j-evans-podcast/ and https://www.historyextra.com/period/second-world-war/mary-fulbrook-wolfson-prize-holocaust-trial-nazi-germany-hitler-crimes/
Half hour talk on German radio, 'Generationen, Diktatur und Alltag: Kein ganz normales DDR-Leben', Deutschlandfunk, 26 May 2019
History Today's 'Travels Through Time', 3 July 2019, https://www.historytoday.com/podcast/travels-through-time-15-%E2%80%93-mary-fulbrook-1939-45
'Dan Snow's History Hit', https://tv.historyhit.com/watch/36008368
'Welcome Money' for East Germans, BBC Radio 4, November 4, 2019, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m0009z87
Interview with Aaron Freiwald on US legal podcast "Good Law, Bad Law", November 8, 2019, https://www.goodlawbadlawpodcast.com/podcasepisodes/2019/11/8/good-law-bad-law-160-reckoning-with-the-nazi-past-a-conversation-w-mary-fulbrook
Interview on Arlene Bynon Show, Sirius XM satellite radio, Nov. 11, 2019, on Armistice Day
BBC World Service documentary 'Germany: Justice and Memory', 12 January 2020, https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/w3ct03q3.
Discussion with other Cundill finalists, 'Deepfaked speeches and contested facts: how today's historians manage to do their job', CBC radio, February 17, 2020
https://www.cbc.ca/radio/ideas/deepfaked-speeches-and-contested-facts-how-today-s-historians-manage-to-do-their-job-1.5464487
Television interview with Gerhard Elfers, 'The Day', Deutsche Welle, 8 May 2020, 21:30: https://share.ard-zdf-box.de/s/DLHCJyAN522YoBc
Interviewed for BBC History Hour, VE Day Special, 9 May 2020, https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/w3cszkns
Interviewed for 7th episode in the series of Children of the Holocaust, CANVAS, Tuesday 9 June
Interviews in ZDF 10-part documentary series on 'The Abyss - Rise and Fall of the Nazis' (ECO media, summer 2020)
Participation in discussion with the German Federal Foreign Office, Koerber Forum and Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 26 October 2020
VICE, 'Rise Up! The Berlin Wall', 29 November 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020