A feminist international law of peace and security

Lead Research Organisation: London School of Economics & Pol Sci
Department Name: Centre for Women, Peace and Security

Abstract

This project develops the theoretical foundations and normative content of an international law that can more effectively deliver on gender equality and sustainable peace. For over a century, these two goals have defined the women's peace movement and, as early as 1915, activists were calling on states to recognize that neither equality nor peace could be fully secured without acknowledging the intimate relationship between the two. In the aftermath of WWII states sought to advance these goals but through parallel international law projects starting with the adoption of the UN Charter in 1945 and the Universal Declaration of Human Right in 1948. Notwithstanding a plethora of efforts, progress over the last seven decades on both fronts has been patchy and partial. Across the globe, equality is far from being realized and measures to prevent conflict have all too often failed.

In 2000, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1325 when, at long last, states formally acknowledged the link between the two objectives and, in doing so, founded the UN's Women, Peace and Security Agenda (WPS Agenda). In the intervening 17 years, the Council has adopted a further seven resolutions leading to significant advances on some fronts, most notably, international action to tackle sexual violence in armed conflict. However, women's groups and scholars are increasingly doubtful that the potential for transformative change and radical reform as originally envisaged by Resolution 1325 will materialize. This scepticism is due to a number of reasons including the ambiguity of the texts of the resolutions and a lack of political commitment. The very fact that states regard the WPS agenda as a set of policy objectives rather than as a political framework founded on legal obligations means that progress is likely to be slow at best. Our project addresses these two core problems by elaborating on the legal content of the agenda. In that process, we will pave the way for what we ambitiously describe as a 'feminist international law of peace and security'. In short, this proposal represents the initial stage of a long-term vision that builds on the legacies of the past to develop the foundations and content of a feminist international law of peace and security that offers an alternative gender-sensitive account of international law that can make a real and lasting difference to the lives of women, not least those in conflict affected zones.

The project is divided into two inter-related research streams. The first focuses on the conceptual and normative ambiguities of the WPS agenda and interrogates our understandings of 'peace' and 'security' through different disciplines and traditions to craft an enriched feminist reading of what is implicated by both concepts under international law. In the second stream we turn our attention to the notion of conflict prevention and ask whether a feminist international law would open up the possibilities for a broader understanding of conflict prevention thereby providing a normative framework that more effectively delivers on prevention. Over the 3 year project cycle, we will undertake desk-based and archival research, convene workshops involving a wide range of stakeholders, including scholars from other disciplines and policy-makers and -shapers at domestic and international levels and convene a WPS Global Congress. Our dissemination strategy has been planned to maximize the impact of our findings and to reach the widest possible audience, not least women's groups operating in conflict-affected regions. We will created a one-stop global resource hub that will host our research outputs including articles for an academic audience; reports and briefing papers to assist policy-makers develop law and policies with transformative potential; advocacy and litigation tools aimed at further empowering women's groups; and comments and blogs for all audiences including, importantly, the general public.

Planned Impact

In developing the theoretical foundations and normative content of an international law that can more effectively deliver on gender equality and sustainable peace, our research is projected to benefit policy-makers, public sector actors, civil society organisations, legal practitioners, the media and the general public in the ways outlined below.

Our outputs and activities will inform and assist policy-makers and public sector actors, at national and international levels, to craft strategies that more effectively deliver on the two core goals of equality and sustainable peace to which states are committed pursuant to the UN's Women, Peace and Security Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The critical role of law in securing both objectives has been expressly acknowledged by states. By producing accessible studies mapping the applicable legal frameworks complemented by an enriched gender-sensitive interpretation of the relevant norms, our outputs will equip states to design and develop progressive law, policy and strategies to meet needs and obligations and to deliver on their political goals. We will provide expert analyses, insights into protection gaps, and options and recommendations that are innovative, practical and feasible. Our activities, not least the Global Congress, will offer these stakeholders an invaluable opportunity to hear directly from a broad spectrum of women's groups operating in the field.
Our outputs will enable civil society organisations, legal practitioners and the media to more effectively hold states and international organisations accountable by providing enhanced clarity as to how the multiple policy initiatives and legal regimes intersect. We will furnish additional tools, highlight good practices and develop different entry points to enhance the ability of those involved in advocacy and litigation work to influence policy and secure implementation. Through the Global Congress we will bring together activists from a cross-section of professions including academics, advocates and litigators from around the world to promote knowledge exchange. In particular, our free and open-access one-stop resource website will assist women activists in conflict and post-conflict environments to better understand what mechanisms and tools are available and how to utilize them to secure improved rights protection. Our publications and activities will provide the media with expert knowledge, alternative perspectives (including the lived experience of women in conflict and conflict-affected areas), pinpoint protection gaps, and identify the linkages between international ambitions and local impact thereby equipping them to better inform public opinion.

Our research will contribute to the social and intellectual capital of the expanding global knowledge economy by enhancing public awareness and understanding of the ways in which international law can be harnessed to better secure gender equality and sustainable peace for all. Around the world there has been a rising tide of women's movements calling for change and thus our outputs and activities will complement, advance and prompt further debate, participation and engagement among the general public. Working in collaboration with the third sector we will promote a deeper appreciation of our shared history through the prism of women's peace movements across time and space and develop new directions in representing the interplay between law and history.

As this project will be embedded with the LSE's WPS Centre, it will consolidate the School's reputation as a leading global research and resource hub on women, peace and security thereby presenting UK-based researchers at the forefront of debate and shapers of policy in these critical areas of public and political concern.

Publications

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Arimatsu L (2019) Silencing women in the digital age in Cambridge International Law Journal

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Chinkin, C. (2018) Women, Peace and Security: Tackling Violence Against Women in the Contemporary World? in German Yearbook of International Law

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Chinkin, C. (2019) The limits of human rights

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Chinkin, C. (2019) ILO 100: Law for Social Justice

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Yoshida K (2021) The nature of Women, Peace and Security: a Colombian perspective in International Affairs

 
Description 1. That our tentative and midway findings are analytical and qualitative, not quantitative, imbued with feminist methodologies and theories. Many of our findings to date raise further questions about the nature of international law as well as about peace.
2. One of our starting points was: how can other disciplines inform our particular understanding (as international lawyers) of WPS and thus of peace and security? Why have international lawyers not engaged with WPS and what has been the contribution of feminist IR scholars; have they helped to further the transformative agenda of have they added to the bureaucratisation of the agenda? Is law constraining? Is IR constraining?
3. International law's narrow conception of peace (albeit undefined) belies its own history; the inclusion of WPS into the framework of IL and international institutions cannot be understood without this history and also how WPS has impoverished that history - asserting conformity with IL but picking on the particular (sexual/gender-based violence) but ignoring the context - militarism, weapons etc.
4. Accordingly an international law understanding of feminist peace must be grounded in IL history - IHL, ICL, state responsibility etc - but that the turn to history that we see in recent IL studies fail to take this holistic approach and themselves ignore these interactions in particular of other histories, notably feminist histories and more especially the history of women's peace activists; we have found feminist historians - who have not really engaged with WPS - are teaching us to think differently, expansively and creatively about feminist activism through the ages. Exploration of the archives (even without archival skills) has been liberating. So the big question is: to what extent can the very tools/framing of a discipline, how knowledge is understood, collated and reproduced within the discipline be constraining or emancipatory? [importance of inter-disciplinary projects]
5. The blind spots and biases of international law are thus not just gender blind spots but also those of history (imperialism), race, politics (capitalism) etc and that it is a closed, self-referential system now dominated by the politics of the SC
6. That IL also needs to be more open to other disciplines - not just the obvious ones of IR and development but also of linguistics, genetics, architecture; papers that we have heard and seminars that we have arranged have developed our thinking in this regard, for example on the architecture of the Bauhaus, on the gardens at Versailles, on the architecture of public spaces, on the language of war, and the role of language in war; further thinking about the institutions of international law, for instance the peace Palace at the Hague: does it embed a concept of peace? Or is the adversarial nature of judicial proceedings counteract any such idea?
7. The exploration of peace in IL also exposes the substantive and institutional divides between security/human rights; between Geneva and New York - that this is both a symbiotic relationship and an antagonistic one - and one that civil society activists in attempting to navigate it in fact tend to replicate and legitimate it.
8. Exploring the concept of peace opens ways of thinking about international law - it is increasingly being treated as a science: what is the law? and how to apply in a given context? Asking different questions about law raises new ways of thinking about the processes and substance of international law: law- making, interpretation and the interactions between regimes, for instance the necessity of inclusion of women's voices from the grounds - use methodologies from the Feminist Judgments project to pursue this including asking the feminist questions: how can the law be interpreted to further justice? secure transformative change? The intellectual obstacle is that we are posing different questions to those traditionally asked of international law. How do you engage in a meaningful conversation using law's lexicon if the framing - as an inter-state system predetermines the answer? (Group of Govt Experts on cyber security; IHL - it's founded on protection of non-belligerents and only belligerents are assumed to have agency).But can international law as an inter-state system in fact ever have anything to say about peace? It is structurally biased toward security - and national security not human security which itself is an impoverished notion of peace.
9. That the multiplicity of international special regimes creates siloes and these are the obstacles we keep coming up against. This undermines any coherence in IL with respect to peace - but that legal concepts both get repeated across regimes without consideration of the implications of such transportation, and also creating further inconsistencies; Feminist activists have learned to operate collectively to set out alternative visions /interests etc. But life is seen as inter-linking. Working women's groups start with gender equality but they always end up talking about a whole range of interconnected issues. You cannot talk about workers' rights without talking about poverty, education, arms trade, environment, nature.
10. The project is seeking to engage more feminist lawyers - we need a lot more progressive feminist lawyers engaging with WPS - to identify the legal obligations but also to make the linkages with other initiatives (SDGs, Beijing) and at the same time take advantage of opportunities to progress law (work on trafficking through SC, amicus work, Yazidi, reparations, Yemen etc).
11. That the streams that we identified in the application are inter-related in ways we had not understood and we have now found the need both to pursue them separately but also to explore further their interactions (gender, nature, environment/women/weapons/violence against women/ etc) . Thus any concept of a Feminist Foreign Policy (perhaps an overarching theme) needs to be much more than simply addressing women's inequalities.
Exploitation Route Award is still active - details of how midway outcomes are being developed can be found in the reporting in other sections.
Sectors Education,Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy

 
Description We have referenced our initial research in a number of blog posts which have received considerable attention. The public event on Women and Weapons has led to an invitation to pursue this further with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and has led to the planning for a further workshop in Geneva with relevant stakeholders in May 2019. The Commentary by Christine Chinkin and Madeleine Rees on the Conference Room Paper of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the the Syrian Arab Republic, I Lost My Dignity has had impact in the UN human rights mechanisms and the Office High Commissioner for Human Rights positioning on gender and commissions of inquiry and is influencing discussions on gender law and policy more widely. The UN Special Rapporteur on Human Trafficking especially of women and girls has contacted us with respect to our work on a rights-based approach to trafficking as a component of a feminist peace and is seeking ways of advancing this. Work by Dr Arimatsu on a feminist foreign policy was acknowledged in a motion made by the Women's Equality party at its annual conference in September 2018 for the adoption of a feminist foreign policy committed to a radical overhaul and a new direction towards inclusivity, equality, human security and anti-militarism. Following the workshop on women and weapons in Geneva (May 2019) the PI was invited by United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research to a lunchtime seminar with ambassadors, NGOs and experts to give a presentation on policy making with respect to women and disarmament; this was included on the website of UNIDIR and further fed into the work of the Organisation (September 2019) . Following the work on WPS and trafficking the PI was invited to address the UN Committee on Torture, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment on understanding human trafficking as torture within the terms of the Torture Convention and by the Government of Belgium to make a presentation to an arria formula meeting of the UN Security Council on trafficking in women and girls should be expressly integrated within the WPS agenda as a form gender-based violence and a violation of human rights and through its association with conflict and its aftermath an essential component of peace processes, which is currently not the case.
Sector Government, Democracy and Justice,Security and Diplomacy,Other
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Amicus brief to Colombia's Constitutional Court on the sexual and reproductive rights of ex FARC Combatants
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Determination of legal right to reparation programmes in Colombia for survivors of sexual violence during the armed conflict who were associated with FARC with implications for their access to healthcare, psychosocial care and other services.
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/women-peace-security/assets/documents/2020/Colombia-Amicus-Brief.pdf
 
Description Citation of project output in Australian Strategic Policy Institute monthly review of Women, Peace and Security
Geographic Reach Australia 
Policy Influence Type Citation in systematic reviews
URL https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/the-month-in-women-peace-and-security-september-2019/
 
Description Legal advisor to Council of Europe drafting Committee for the Council of Ministers Recommendation on Preventing and Combating Sexism
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Prof Christine Chinkin was invited by the Council of Europe, Gender Equality Division, Human Dignity, Equality and Governance to be the Legal advisor to its drafting Committee for the Council of Ministers Recommendation on preventing and combating sexism. In this role Prof Chinkin advised on drafts, participated in drafting meetings, and prepared background papers on the issues - drafting meetings took place throughout 2018 and the final Recommendation was adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 27 March 2019.
 
Description Participation of Dr Keina Yoshida in 72nd Session of CEDAW Committee's examination of the UK
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Presentation on cyberweapons to policymakers and experts in Government Communications Headquarters, MI5, Foreign Commonwealth Office, Ministry of Defence and the Attorny-General's Office
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Training to Central Asian senior armed forces in Kazakhstan
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Prof Christine Chinkin was invited by the Ministry of Defence and British Embassy in Kazakhstan to provide training to Central Asian senior armed forces in Kazakhstan on 'The Role of the Armed Forces in Protecting Human Rights', 9 to 11 October 2019, Nur Sultan, Kazakhstan. The training included a session on prioritising women, peace and security prior to their deployment as peacekeepers; about 40-50 of them from across Central Asia; involved lectures and practical exercises.
 
Description Gender, Climate Change and Environmental Conflicts
Amount £37,000 (GBP)
Organisation Foreign Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description Gender, Nature, Peace
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation The British Academy 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 05/2020
 
Description Faculty of Jurisprudence, University of Rosario 
Organisation National University of Rosario
Country Argentina 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution LSE obtained the funding alongside Rosario University for the Gender, Nature, Peace project from the British Academy. Both institutions organised two workshops together in collaboration and partnership. Dr Keina Yoshida created the concept of the project, drafting the background paper and research in the fields of international law and Women, Peace and Security which led to the identification of the research gap in the area of environmental peacebuilding (lack of gender) and Women, Peace and Security (lack of the environment).
Collaborator Contribution Lina Cespedes at Rosario Law School contributed to the project, particularly for the Colombia workshop, which focused on the situation in Colombia and where rich research is being carried out on the issue. Lina has contributed to the background papers and brings knowledge of land law and property law. The research partnership with Rosario has been incredibly fruitful given their combined recognised expertise in environmental matters. The contributions of this partnership has significantly advanced the projects research on Gender, Nature, Peace and has helped disseminate the research outputs from this project further (for example, Gender, Nature, Peace blogs have been published in both English and Spanish - see publications list). At the same time, Lina Munoz, the head of the masters programme at Rosario on environmental law has credited the collaboration as the first time she had brought together the environment and gender in her research and teaching.
Impact An academic article is in process co-authored between Keina Yoshida and Lina Cespedes.
Start Year 2019
 
Description GAPS UK 
Organisation Gender Action for Peace and Security
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution LSE obtained funding alongside GAPS UK on Gender, Environment and Conflict. The first work in this partnership was a scoping exercise with the Foreign Commonwealth Office which led to the eventual granting of funding from the FCO to GAPS and the project for the research. Following this, a roundtable was jointly held which included civil society experts and academics to discuss the core themes to the research topic and how to develop this stream. A workshop in Uganda is also planned for June 2020 to be hosted at the University of Makerere. All partners have contributed to the background paper and concept note for the workshop.
Collaborator Contribution LSE obtained funding alongside GAPS with Women's International Peace Centre (Uganda) becoming a partner to organise focus group discussions and a workshop in Uganda to be hosted at the university of Makerere in June 2020. GAPS UK has contributed their civil society expertise and networks to develop the research stream on Gender, Environment and Conflict which has supported the project developing outcomes with impact on policy and practice in this area. The core outcome of the Uganda workshop is proposed to be a jointly authored policy report and recommendations.
Impact The core outcome of the Uganda workshop is proposed to be a jointly authored policy report and recommendations.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Partnership with University of Makerere 
Organisation Makerere University
Country Uganda 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Keina Yoshida developed the conceptual framework for the workshop to take place in June 2020
Collaborator Contribution University of Makarere is hosting a workshop on Gender, Environement and Conflict in June 2020
Impact Workshop held at University of Makerere in June 2020 Subsequent outputs will be policy focused
Start Year 2020
 
Description WILPF 
Organisation Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Country Switzerland 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Prof Christine Chinkin and Dr Louise Arimatsu have worked closely with WILPF on some key aspects of this research project. Prof Chinkin and Dr Arimatsu have contributed their academic and legal expertise to enhance the partnership which has involved co-hosting workshops, knowledge exchange and leading up to a global event in September 2020. WILPF has been able to engage extensively with the academic and legal networks offered by its connection to the LSE Centre for Women, Peace and Security.
Collaborator Contribution WILPF has co-hosted workshops and thus provided access for the research team to key project beneficiaries (such as members of WILPF's global network).
Impact Christine Chinkin and Madeleine Rees OBE (Secretary General of WILPF) co-authored the report title 'I lost my dignity: sexual and gender-based violence in Syria'. Madeleine Rees has been a participant in project workshops and event.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Campaign Against Arms Trade event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Louise Arimatsu chaired a conversation held at the LSE Library on the Campaigns Against Arms Trade with Ann Feltham (Parliamentary Coordinator for Campaign Against Arms Trade). The discussion examined the arms trade, focused on the UK, over the past four decades and how opposition to it has been growing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2020
URL https://web.archive.org/web/20200227164812/http://www.lse.ac.uk/library/events/general/challenging-t...
 
Description Conference presentation at Making International Law Work for Women Post-Conflict: New Voices 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Three members of the research team participated in this event - Prof Christine Chinkin, Dr Louise Arimatsu and Dr Keina Yoshida. Prof Chinkin and Dr Arimatsu were commentators on papers during the workshop. Dr Keina Yoshida gave a paper title 'The Nature of Women, Peace and Security' at the above named conference, held at Amnesty International, Human Rights Action Centre, London. This talk contributed to the working paper 'The nature of Women, Peace and Security' (published 2019) and in turn provided the foundation for the partnership with GAPS UK.

Contacts were also made with young scholars and civil society representatives, including Helen Kezie-Nwoha who subsequently visited LSE WPS as an expert on the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://web.archive.org/web/20200228135432/http://law-school.open.ac.uk/events/making-international-...
 
Description Conversation: Asking the Right Questions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Louise Arimatsu and Christine Chinkin were in conversation with the General Secretary of the Women's League for International Peace and Freedom, Madeleine Rees OBE in an event co-hosted by Feminist International Law of Peace Project and the LSE Library. The conversation explored questions that are asked about peace and war in particular whether the different lived experiences of men and women in conflict mean that different questions are asked and what important implications follow. For example, in the lead up to World War II Virginia Woolf responded to the question 'how in your opinion are we to prevent war' not with an answer, but with another question drawn from women's lived experience: 'Why fight?' The event was part of a range of events related to LSE Library's current exhibition Giving Peace a Chance: From the League of Nations to Greenham Common, which includes WILPF.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion group on the meaning of feminist peace 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The workshop brought together a group of experts drawn from a range of disciplines (international law, media studies, gender studies), from different countries (Australia, N Ireland, the Gambia, Japan) to begin a conversation and to think about and interrogate the idea of 'peace' through the prism of feminist methodologies that will/may enable us to craft an enriched reading of what is implicated by the term under international law., This provoked considerable discussion, raised questions for further consideration and helped us to determine future activities.

ideas from the workshop were also raised at a plenary session of the European Society of International Law to an audience of several hundred mainly academic international lawyers but also practitioners and activists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Draft Resolution workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Our aim is to draft a feminist resolution on Women Peace and Security (WPS) that: centres peace rather than security; that goes back to the civil society origins of Security Council resolution 1325 as a peace agenda and as a women's human rights agenda; and that demonstrates what a WPS
resolution could look like if peace is put as the goal rather than security. This workshop was the first step in the process of producing such a draft resolution. The aim of the workshop was to identify:
• The scope and substantive content of the alternative resolution
• Detailed content on some specific topics, perhaps even some preliminary drafting
• A plan for ongoing work on the resolution, including how to make the process more inclusive
. Planning for dissemination of the resolution
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Event co-hosted with LSE Library - Are we asking the right questions? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was a public event co-hosted with the LSE Library as part of their exhibition 'Give Peace a Chance' - it brought together project PIs Prof Christine Chinkin and Dr Louise Arimatsu in conversation with Secretary General of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Madeleine Rees OBE. The event highlighted that feminists (including the feminist lawyers) want to ask different questions about law, peace, and security from those that are traditionally put to the forefront: for instance not how can we prevent war but rather 'why fight'? Why don't we recognise that war can never be made safe for women? How can the law be interpreted to further justice? Or secure transformative change? This event is also the subject of a blog titled 'Are we asking the right questions?' that is reported in the Publications category.

This first event with the LSE Library has resulted in ongoing collaboration and other public events on the aims, modes and strategies of women's activism and how it can be represented and disseminated - through films, through archival work, through examining how international law could be shaped from the bottom up and what that might mean for the understandings of peace within the framework of international law and the strategies for advancing it through the peace workshops.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Expert group meeting - a feminist analysis of the draft treaty on Crimes Against Humanity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an expert group meeting that consisted of project PIs as well as experts from the International Criminal Court; members of the Human Rights and Gender Justice Clinic, City University of New York; criminal law and International Humanitarian Law academic experts; and legal practitioners. It was working on a response to the International Law Commission's work on crimes against humanity and its inclusion of gender persecution as a crime against humanity and definition. We worked on a critique of the ILC draft, especially relating both to the definition of gender and to the failure to integrate a gender perspective throughout the draft; contributed to a strategy to have this changed - working with other groups - with the result that the ILC removed its definition of gender, although it failed to draft an alternative definition that better reflected contemporary understandings of gender (ie it simply failed to include any definition at all).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Feminist International Law of Peace Manchester Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Activity was a broad ranging discussion of the parameters of a feminist peace with academics , students and others from a range of countries (Australia, Gambia, Japan, UK) that had as its objective to inform a wider group of interested persons about the project, to exchange and create knowledge about feminist understandings of peace and to think creatively about future activities. As a result participants at the workshop have remained engaged with the project; there was an interview with the European Society of Women in International Law and themes from the workshop were fed into a keynote speech at the European Society of International Law's annual meeting held on the following day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Gender, nature, peace - Colombia workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised between the project and University of Rosario to inform explore research gaps between issues of environmental conflict, gender, and peacebuilding. This workshop also provided space for civil society, academia and other stakeholders such as the UN Environment Programme to engage in knowledge exchange and discuss knowledge gaps.

A co-authored article between Keina Yoshida (Research Officer) and Lina Cespedes (Roasario) is in process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Gender, nature, peace - London workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised by the research project to explore research gaps between issues of environmental conflict, gender, and peacebuilding. This workshop brought together academics and civil society experts to engage in knowledge exchange and led to the development of this research stream. From this workshop the subsequent workshop in Colombia was held, which in turn has contributed to the development of the Uganda workshop to be held in June 2020. The outcomes of this research include a working paper (published 2019) and a co-authored article that is currently in process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/wps/2019/07/04/climate-change-is-a-womens-human-rights-issue/
 
Description Guest of podcast Better Human 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Keina Yoshida was a guest on the Better Human podcast on the topic of 'Why climate change is a human rights emergency', and was specifically requested based on her expertise in women's rights and the rights of nature
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://anchor.fm/better-human/episodes/8---Why-climate-change-is-a-human-rights-emergency-e9nm04/a-...
 
Description Innovation in public engagement - Imperial War Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This presentation took place at the Imperial War Museum and examined the question of how to engage and disseminate to diverse audiences in research practice and outcomes. The audience consisted of museum staff, students, artists, and the general public. Prof Christine Chinkin, using the example of the Tokyo Tribunal, discussed feminist approaches to research dissemination and practices that link activist and scholarly work, such as feminist judgments in international law.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Leader of thematic workshop at the Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative Film Fesitval 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof Christine Chinkin led a thematic workshop titled 'Has UN Security Council Resolution 1325 reduced instances of sexual violence in conflict?' at the Preventing Sexual Violence Initiative Film Festival. - introduced the topic, and engaged in extensive discussion with members of the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Lecture visit to Mauritius 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lectures given at the University of Mauritius and to the Institute for Judicial and legal Studies on the linkage between combating violence against women, good practices for combating violence against women and sustainable peace. The lectures attracted wide media attention resulting in three media interviews for national newspapers and national television coverage.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.lemauricien.com/article/professeure-christine-chinkin-de-la-london-school-of-economics-la...
 
Description Presentation to UK Embassy Berlin on Feminist Foreign Policy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Co-PI Dr Louise Arimatsu gave an invited presentation to the UK Embassy Berlin on Feminist Foreign Policy. The aim was to inform politicians and policymakers of key gender concerns in foreign policy development and how foreign policy can address gender inequality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof Christine Chinkin presentation to UNIDIR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Based on her work on Women and Weapons and following the Geneva workshop on this topic, Prof Christine Chinkin was invited to speak at a meeting with United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research of the International Gender Champions Disarmament Impact Group. The audience comprised of ambassadors from a number of countries and Prof Chinkin spoke about Disarmament and Women, Peace and Security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.unidir.org/commentary/arms-control-disarmament-and-women-peace-and-security-agenda
 
Description Professor Christine Chinkin in conversation with Nahla Haidar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a public event hosted by a leading Chambers and widely attended by members of the legal profession. Conversation between a member of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, Nahla Haider and Christine Chinkin, chaired by Keina Yoshida, about the continuing importance of CEDAW, how it can be used by lawyers as a tool for enhancing equality and thus contributing to sustainable peace.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.doughtystreet.co.uk/event/celebration-40th-anniversary-cedaw
 
Description Roundtable on Gender, Climate Insecurity and Peace 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Keina Yoshida participated in a roundtable discussion with academics and stakeholders
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Where would we be without CEDAW 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a day event that consisted of a public lecture and two panel discussions. The public lecture was given by Aruna Devi Narain, Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Mauritius and a member of the UN CEDAW Committee. In this lecture, Aruna Devi Narain spoke of this history of CEDAW, demonstrating through the work of its monitoring Committee, the Convention has transformed the understanding of sex and gender-based discrimination. This has been instrumental in bringing violence against women and girls onto the international agenda, which made governments accountable for the ways in that women are treated through national legal systems and practices and for their failure to exercise due diligence with respect to the acts of non-state actors. This lecture was attended by upwards of 100 people.

Following the lecture, two open panels were hosted, the first titled 'CEDAW and violence against women and girls', the second titled 'Holding states to account'. These were open panels that engaged students, legal professionals, and staff and faculty at the LSE.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/women-peace-security/events/Previous-Events/2019/Where-Would-We-Be-Today-Withou...
 
Description Women and Weapons 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public event to launch the project,A Panel of four speakers drawn from academia, UNIDR, civil society researcher and civil society activism explored the ways in which feminists engage with questions of arms control and disarmament. In particular the panelists engaged with the questions: 'As feminists what should be our preferred strategy over the coming decades: to seek disarmament? To seek further arms control even while acknowledging that this assumes the continued existence of arms? Or to craft new strategies and adopt new agendas?' The international audience comprised students (undergraduate and postgraduate); academics, journalists, policy makers, civil society. A lively discussion followed the presentations with questions and comments from the audience to which the panelists responded that lasted for about 40 minutes. A podcast was made of the event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://player.fm/series/london-school-of-economics-public-lectures-and-events/women-and-weapons-audi...
 
Description Women and weapons 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop, held in Geneva, explored how international law might be more effectively harnessed to further feminist disarmament goals and further peace.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.lse.ac.uk/women-peace-security/assets/documents/2019/ERC-Women-and-Weapons-Concept-note.p...
 
Description Women and weapons - Geneva workshop co-hosted with Women's International League for Peace and Freedom 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop engaged policymakers and practitioners on the topic of Women and Weapons, leading to the continued development of this key research stream.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshop participation at University of Hamburg 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Keina Yoshida presented a paper titled 'Gender Equity and the Environment - How Can the Law Assist' at the Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflict' workshop held at University of Hamburg.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019