Survival of the Weakest: Preserving and Analysing Born-Digital Records to Understand How Small Poetry Publishers Survive in the Global Marketplace

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Humanities

Abstract

Drawing on previously inaccessible born-digital records, this project seeks to understand how small poetry publishers survive in a global marketplace dominated by large, multinational publishing firms. It focuses on the specific case of Carcanet Press, an internationally-recognised poetry publisher. In March 1999, Carcanet bought the core of the poetry list of Oxford University Press. With Oxford's complete abandonment of the field, a small provincial press had become a world-leading publisher of poetry. But this evolution did not happen overnight. Founded in 1969 by Michael Schmidt and Peter Jones, Carcanet moved from Oxford to Manchester in 1972. The press went on to build a diverse list, including poetry in translation and by neglected women poets. Among the distinguished writers associated with Carcanet are Elizabeth Jennings, Ted Hughes and many others.
The central argument of the project is that Carcanet has successfully targeted niches of poetry "users" interested in a total artistic experience not limited to solitary reading. From its origins, Carcanet actively promoted its list in literary festivals and other events, before leveraging the technological revolution to engage with new audiences. The Carcanet brand is a good example of "disruptive innovation" (to use an influential concept developed by the Harvard business professor Clayton Christensen). While other firms relied on the prestige of poetry in traditional literary centres, Carcanet has created new markets from its base in Manchester. In short, Carcanet has found a way to turn non-consumers into new consumers of poetry - who read poems on their tablets or phones, listen to podcasts and watch videos of poetry performances.
Despite its importance in the literary landscape, Carcanet has attracted little scholarly attention - in part because the largest part of its archive is closed to researchers. This archive, which comprises born-digital as well as analogue records, is held at the John Rylands Library (Manchester). The project will preserve and make accessible internationally-significant archival materials held in the uncatalogued part of the paper collection and in the digital collection (currently closed due to data protection issues). The opening of rich archival materials will lead to the production of new knowledge on small poetry publishers and on the overall issue of born-digital records.
Coinciding with the fiftieth anniversary of Carcanet, the project will offer unique insight into a publishing house central to the contemporary literary landscape. It will also provide a model to preserve and make born-digital records more accessible to researchers, in order to produce new knowledge. While we still have letters, manuscripts and other physical documents from the past centuries, we are in danger of losing digital documents created in the last decade. By fostering close collaborations between scholars and archivists, the project seeks to answer one of the most pressing challenge in the humanities and social sciences: the transition from print to digital.

Outputs:
_My monograph will be the first history of Carcanet Press, from its humble beginnings in 1969 to its current world-leading position.
_The project's digital resource will incorporate newly catalogued archival materials related to Ted Hughes and Elizabeth Jennings, oral history interviews of key figures associated with Carcanet, selected emails produced by the press, as well as data visualisations based on this digital archive.
_An exhibition/ display at the JRL will include key archival findings and artefacts as well as a "memory booth" to allow visitors to share their memories of Carcanet.
_A one-day workshop and international conference will bring together archivists and scholars to find solutions to the problem of born-digital records in literary and publishers' archives. Major contributions will then be published in a special issue of a leading journal.

Planned Impact

The project will impact on an internationally recognised museum/ library/ holding of Special Collections (John Rylands Library), as the catalogued section of the Carcanet archive will increase by 46 boxes. The activities associated with the project (digital resource, workshop, exhibition/ display, conference) will also increase awareness of the rich materials in this archive. As one of the five National Research Libraries, the University of Manchester Library has been actively engaging with the transition from print to digital. In 2012-14, the Carcanet Press Email Preservation Project - funded by a small grant from Jisc, under its Digital Infrastructure Programme - resulted in the rescue and preservation of 215,000 emails and 65,000 attachments generated by Carcanet. In 2014, this project received the Digital Preservation Coalition's prestigious biennial award for "Safeguarding the Digital Legacy." But a major problem is that due to data protection issues, this archive is currently embargoed to researchers. Connecting archivists with scholars and broader audiences, the project will unlock the digital archive, so that born-digital records are preserved and made accessible to produce new knowledge.

The project will also impact on the career of the Project Archivist and Administrator (PAA), who will develop expertise in the collections, in web management, information handling (catalogues), events management (co-organising the workshop and the early stages of the conference), communicating with academic and non-academic audiences (talks, tour of the JRL), and in working on an exhibition/ display. The project will create in the PAA expertise uniquely placed to collaborate with the PI and JRL on follow-on projects around the JRL collections.

The project will benefit other emerging professionals (workshop/ conference delegates), publishing industry professionals, archivists in the public and private sector, and broader publics (poetry "users," museum-goers) through a series of impactful activities.

Impact Activity 1: Creation of an open-access digital resource
The open-access digital resource will incorporate information about two widely popular writers associated with Carcanet Press: Ted Hughes and Elizabeth Jennings. It will also include oral history interviews of key figures associated with the press, in the form of video and audio recordings. Finally, the digital resource will include selected emails from the Carcanet digital archive, currently closed to the public.

Impact Activity 2: One-day workshop
The workshop at the JRL will bring together thirty participants immediately receptive to the newly catalogued materials in the Carcanet collection - including publishing industry professionals, biographers, creative writers and poetry readers. This wide audience will be targeted through a roundtable with well-known writers, a poetry reading and a reception that will conclude the workshop.

Impact Activity 3: Exhibition/ Display
To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Carcanet, a small exhibition at the JRL will feature key archival findings as well as first editions, poetry recordings and short video interviews of major figures associated with the press. A "memory booth" will enable visitors to add to the archive by sharing their memories of Carcanet. Visitors will also be able to read selected archival emails, using tablets made available by the JRL. The display will offer a pioneering model for other museums, libraries and Special Collections interested in improving usage of their born-digital collections.

Impact Activity 4: Three-day international conference
The project conference at Loughborough London campus will involve archivists working for a wide range of institutions, including publishing houses and museums. Bringing together established and early-career professionals, the conference will encourage and strengthen links between international academics and the archive and museum sector.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This ongoing research has led to four main achievements:

(1) Bringing together scholars, archivists, and policy makers through a one-day workshop [January 2019] and a three-day international conference [January 2020]. These collaborations are particularly valuable to solve the issues related to born-digital archives.

With the digital revolution, emails have largely replaced letters, and texts (including literary texts) are now often created in digital format. Most born-digital archives are closed to researchers due to privacy, copyright or technical issues. To solve the problem of access, we need collaborations across the entire archive "circuit" - from creators of archival records to archivists and users of these collections. The workshop and conference brought together a total of 91 people across various disciplines, and will lead to an edited collection on "Archives, Access and AI" (currently under review).

(2) Oral history and transcripts of poets, editors and publishers who have played a major role in the postwar and contemporary UK poetry scene.

These oral history interviews and transcripts will be made freely available on the project digital resource, offering a unique source of information to researchers and to anyone interested in poetry. Women poets and editors have been key figures in the British literary scene, and we have paid particular attention to the inclusion of these voices. Short profiles on interviewees will also be available to contextualise the recordings and transcripts. The digital resource will be available in 2020, and will constitute a model of open access archive that can easily be replicated for other projects.

(3) Exhibition at the John Rylands Library in Manchester

An exhibition to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Carcanet Press opened in October 2019. It features key archival findings as well as first editions, rare materials and archival emails of major figures associated with the press. The exhibition explores three themes: Carcanet's relationship with Arts Council England, its place within the broader UK poetry publishing landscape, and its role in publishing the work of female poets including Elizabeth Jennings and Sujata Bhatt.

(4) Major research outputs

Jaillant's work on born-digital records has now reached the stage of publication. This includes a special issue of "Archives and Manuscripts" (2019) on born-digital collections, including a 19-page article by Jaillant: "After the digital revolution: working with emails and born-digital records in literary and publishers' archives." It argues that we need to accelerate the preservation of born-digital literary archives to avoid losing a large part of our cultural heritage. We also need to push for access to these archives through lobbying for open data respectful of privacy. And we should train the next generation of literary scholars to fully embrace the data revolution. The special issue, guest-edited by Jaillant, includes 6 other articles by distinguished scholars and archivists.

Other research outputs include an edited collection on "Archives, Access and AI" (under review) and a monograph (forthcoming).
Exploitation Route The outcomes of this funding (including the workshop and international conference) have been useful to academics in the fields of literary studies, cultural history and information studies. Non-academics - particularly in the sectors of Policy as well as Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections - have also benefited. For example, the conference on "Archives, Access and AI" [January 2020] brought together a total of 56 academics and non-academics. Among non-academics, there were 4 civil servants from the Cabinet Office and the Office for Artificial Intelligence. One participant commented after the conference: "I was particularly pleased to have the chance to meet some public servants at ArAcAi, who could flesh out some of the social and political ramifications of this new technology." There were also 33 archivists/ librarians/ museums professionals (59% of the total) from institutions such as Lloyds Banking Group; Yale University Library; the British Library; the International Council on Archives; the Royal Danish Archives; Cambridge University Library; Imperial War Museum London; the Frick Art Reference Library (New York City); The National Archives (UK); etc. The edited collection on "Archives, Access and AI" that is currently under review will allow academics and non-academics to situate the ethics and expectations of archival practice within the context of rapidly developing AI technologies.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL http://www.poetrysurvival.com/
 
Description The project has impacted on archivists in the public and private sector, publishing industry professionals, civil servants and broader publics (poetry "users," museum-goers). Impact Activities (1) and (2): One-day workshop and exhibition on Carcanet Press The one-day workshop in Manchester (17 January 2019) assembled thirty-five participants immediately receptive to the significance of the Carcanet Press collection: scholars, archivists, but also publishing industry professionals, creative writers and poetry "users." This audience was targeted through two roundtables, a poetry reading and a reception that concluded the workshop. The roundtable featured both well-known and emerging speakers such as Michael Schmidt (the founder of Carcanet Press) and poets Rebecca Goss and Alex Wong. The workshop was a key pathway for involving writers, readers and members of staff associated with the early days of Carcanet in the late 1960s and 1970s. This includes Helen Tookey, Grevel Lindop, Roger Garfitt, Judith Willson and Michael Schmidt. All of them made significant contributions during the workshop, helping our understanding of this important period in the postwar literary landscape. These contributions were followed by further oral history interviews, that will be added to the digital resource. Feedback immediately after the workshop included: "Consistently very high quality of contributions"; "Great line of speakers - including writers, publishers, editors, critics, curators"; "Best thing: Participation of Carcanet associated people." We also evaluated the impact of the workshop one year later. Grevel Lindop and Roger Garfitt did a joint reading in Cambridge in February 2019, which would not have happened without the workshop they both attended. Grevel Lindop pointed out: "I was asked to tell the story of my involvement with Carcanet and that got me thinking about the connections between past and present." He added: "Reflecting on the early history of my involvement with Carcanet led me to revisit some of my very early notebooks with the result that I have decided to revise and publish certain early poems which I underrated, I think, at that time, and now feel are worthy of publication. This has been very interesting and personally revelatory for me in that it has enabled me to connect my early work with my later." Roger Garfitt noted: "Discovering that letters from the outset of my career are in the Carcanet archive at the John Rylands Library has led to the suggestion that the Library might take my entire archive and I am currently sorting it out to present to them." This archive will take the form of a donation to the John Rylands Library, representing a significant benefit to the Library and to its users - including academics and non-academics interested in poetry. The workshop was followed by an exhibition at the John Rylands Library, which opened in October 2019. Drawing on unique archival materials at the JRL, the exhibition explored three themes: (a) the role of Arts Council England in funding poetry publishers; (b) the place of Carcanet Press within the broader UK poetry publishing landscape; (c) women poets associated with Carcanet including Elizabeth Jennings and Sujata Bhatt. Impact Activity (3): International Conference on "Archives, Access and AI" (15-17 January 2020) This conference brought together 56 people, the majority of whom were non-academics (4 civil servants from the Cabinet Office and the Office for AI; and 33 archivists/ librarians/ museums professionals). In their feedback provided immediately after the conference, 81% of respondents chose to rate the conference as 'Very useful' and the remaining as 'Useful' (19%). Comments included: - 'I'll be sharing a lot of the project case studies and approaches with colleagues across my organisation' (GLAM [Galleries, Libraries, Archives, Museums] sector professional) - 'There was a great deal of useful content and I will be following up on a number of things as well as contacts and thinking about new projects.' (GLAM sector professional) - 'Met new people/ideas that will help shape my work.' (Early-career academic) - 'I hope to start integrating some of the considerations I got from my time at the conference (such as thinking seriously about how evolving methods of research impact how I work as an archivist, and how I can start to adapt and update my thinking and practice to move with these and provide for meaningful and broad engagement with archives in the future).' (GLAM sector professional) - 'It gave me awareness of some big projects in AI and I've made some useful contacts. It also gave me food for thought not only about applications of AI but also around expectations of AI's capabilities.' (GLAM sector civil servant) - 'It will help to inform options for future work development, e.g. exploring particular tools and methodologies.' (GLAM sector professional) We also evaluated the impact of the conference in early March 2020. William Kilbridge, the Executive Director of the Digital Preservation Coalition, wrote: "The conference gave me a chance to surface and organize these ideas and share them in discussion with colleagues. The blog post that I produced as a follow up [1] has been popular, with 1250 views making it the most read blog of 2020 so far (the average for 2020 so far is 525 views). The blog would not have been written if I had not been challenged to do so in the context of your project. The DPC blog is mostly provided as a forum for debate and discussion among DPC members to whom it is actively promoted, including archivists, records managers, information architects and senior leaders in the IT sector. Thinking about the diverse contexts of the DPC membership in academic institutions but also in government industry and regulatory bodies [2]. I would suggest this will have created an impact for your project in sectors and geographies that would not typically be able to engage with research of this kind." [1] "Nothing About Us Without Us," 22 January 2020, https://www.dpconline.org/blog/nothing-about-us-without-us [2] List of DPC members online at: https://www.dpconline.org/about/members
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description Two talks at the Cabinet Office, followed by continued engagement with the CO
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact In August 2018, I gave my first invited talk at the Cabinet Office (London) on "From Print to Digital: Preserving, Making Accessible and Using Archives of Digital Information." I was then invited to give a follow-up session as part of the "Learning from History" series in July 2019. Moreover, the conference on "Archives, Access and AI" that I organised in January 2020 strengthened links with policy makers interested in preservation. For example, David Canning of the Cabinet Office and Stefan Janusz of the Office for AI (Joint Unit between DCMS and BEIS) chaired a session at the conference. The talks and conference influenced the training of practioners, and led to improve educational and skills level of workforce. Among the civil servants present at the conference were early-career professionals in the team of David Canning (Head of Digital Knowledge & Information Management at the CO). Continued engagement with the CO will lead to further impact in the next few months.
 
Description Institute of Advanced Studies Open Programme
Amount £2,200 (GBP)
Organisation Loughborough University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 05/2019
 
Description Leverhulme Visiting Professorship
Amount £36,918 (GBP)
Funding ID VP1-2018-035 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 12/2019
 
Description School support for REF D27 Impact Case Study
Amount £1,652 (GBP)
Organisation Loughborough University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 07/2020
 
Description VC Award for Excellence in Research
Amount £2,500 (GBP)
Organisation Loughborough University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2019 
End 07/2020
 
Title Cataloguing of archival materials at the John Rylands Library (20 boxes) 
Description 20 boxes of previously uncatalogued materials in the Carcanet Press archive at the John Rylands Library have now been catalogued. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This will make the archive more accessible to users interested in women poets (Laura Riding and Sally Purcell) and presses (Virago). 
 
Title Database of oral history interviews 
Description 30 interviews of poets, publishers and other key literary figures were conducted as part of this project. Recordings and transcripts will be made available in 2020 on the open-access digital resource. This unique data will be valuable to researchers and to anyone interested in the postwar/ contemporary poetry scene. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to say (project still ongoing). 
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Christopher (Cal) Lee [U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill] 
Organisation University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution _Participation in "The Lifespan of the Digital Text" (Sept. 2018) workshop. U. of Oxford, Weston Library, Centre for Digital Scholarship. _Obtained funding from Loughborough U. Institute of Advanced Studies Open Programme (2018-19). £2,200. To invite Cal Lee to deliver a programme of Digital Humanities activities.
Collaborator Contribution _Cal Lee delivered a programme of Digital Humanities activities at Loughborough University in May 2019.
Impact Two main activities were organised in May 2019 at Loughborough University: _a Masterclass during which Professor Lee introduced his research, engaged in a discussion with postgraduate students and provided feedback on their project. The event was widely advertised within the university to attract PG students well beyond Information Management. This was a rare opportunity to meet an expert who has made paradigm-changing contributions to the field of archives and digital records management. _A public lecture followed the Masterclass. It was accessible to a general audience interested in key issues related to the digital revolution. The transition from print to digital has created huge challenges, and Professor Lee offered big ideas to help us think about the digital and its impact on archives and cultural memory. A networking event following the public lecture also allowed us to discuss potential collaborations with Lee. There were obvious synergies between Lee's work on digital curation and the work of colleagues in the School of AED (Arts, English and Drama), Business and Economics, Social Sciences and Computer Science.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. Ray Siemens (U of Victoria, Canada) 
Organisation University of Victoria
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution _Awarded Leverhulme Visiting Professorship (2018). c. £37K. To invite Ray Siemens to deliver a 3-month programme of activities at Loughborough U in Autumn 2019.
Collaborator Contribution The general aim of Ray Siemens's visit in Autumn 2019 was for UK staff and students to benefit from his world-leading expertise in Social Knowledge Creation. For Siemens and his group, access to research data is not enough; research must be presented in ways that encourage public interaction and participation. Social Knowledge Creation traces its roots to Open Access and public-facing scholarship movements. The field has gained momentum with the production of large-scale digital data. Confronted to a world of big data, many Humanists now realise that traditional ways to produce and disseminate knowledge will change radically. Collaboration is a key feature of open social scholarship at the level of research (lab work), dissemination (open access) and public participation (crowdsourcing and other public involvement).
Impact Professor Siemens's visit delivered four objectives through a 3-month training programme. _Objective 1 (planning stage): designing research in ways that consider the needs and interests of both academic specialists and communities beyond academia; _Objective 2 (launch stage): exploring and developing public tools and technologies under open licenses to promote wide access, education, use, and repurposing; _Objective 3 (implementation stage): co-creating and interacting with openly-available cultural data; _Objective 4 (sustainability stage): sustaining productive dialogues between academics and nonacademics
Start Year 2018
 
Description Blog post by Rachel MacGregor (Digital Archivist) following the "Archives, Access and AI" conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Rachel MacGregor (Digital Archivist) wrote this blog post following the "Archives, Access and AI" conference. She noted: "I thought this was a fascinating and thought provoking conference and I am still thinking about many of the themes which came up in it and hope to draw on in my practice. many thanks to Dr Lise Jaillant for all her hard work in putting this together." See also her tweet (https://twitter.com/An_Old_Hand/status/1225475512128110592) and conference activity on Twitter (#ArAcAi).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://anoldhanddigital.wordpress.com/2020/02/06/archives-access-and-ai/
 
Description Blog post by William Kilbride (Executive Director, Digital Preservation Coalition) following the "Archives, Access and AI" conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact William Kilbride (Executive Director, Digital Preservation Coalition) wrote this blog post following the "Archives, Access and AI" conference. A not-for-profit membership organization, the DPC was founded in 2002, and now gathers 100 agencies from 13 countries.

William Kilbride noted: "The blog post that I produced as a follow up has been popular, with 1250 views making it the most read blog of 2020 so far (the average for 2020 so far is 525 views). The blog would not have been written if I had not been challenged to do so in the context of your project. The DPC blog is mostly provided as a forum for debate and discussion among DPC members to whom it is actively promoted, including archivists, records managers, information architects and senior leaders in the IT sector. Thinking about the diverse contexts of the DPC membership in academic institutions but also in government industry and regulatory bodies. I would suggest this will have created an impact for your project in sectors and geographies that would not typically be able to engage with research of this kind."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.dpconline.org/blog/nothing-about-us-without-us
 
Description Exhibition at the John Rylands Library (Manchester) to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Carcanet Press 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 250,000 people visit and engage with the John Rylands Library each year. Among these international visitors, many have had an opportunity to see the Carcanet exhibition, which opened in October 2019. The exhibition explores three themes: Carcanet's relationship with Arts Council England, its place within the broader UK poetry publishing landscape, and its role in publishing the work of female poets including Elizabeth Jennings and Sujata Bhatt. The exhibition will be in the Rylands Gallery until the end of March 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.lboro.ac.uk/news-events/news/2019/october/carcanet-press-exhibition/
 
Description International Conference "Archives, Access and AI" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The "Archives, Access and AI" international conference was attended by 56 people including a majority (59%) of archivists/ librarians/ museums professionals, as well as policy makers and academics. It led to active engagement on Twitter (#ArAcAi) and blogs.

We circulated a survey immediately after the conference. Among the best things about the conference, respondents cited (1) The range & quality of speakers & papers ('Wide range of speakers - interdisciplinary aspect'; 'The range and quality of the speakers'); (2) The discussion opportunities ('The possibility of discussing the themes during the sessions and after'; 'Discussions with range of participants'); (3) The networking opportunities ('Good opportunity to speak to others about their work and experiences in related areas'; 'The opportunity to share ideas'); (4) The learning opportunities ('Good balance of theory, with practical concrete experience with organisations, institutions and software/hardware initiatives'; 'Learning about the variety of problems people deal with'); (5) The pace of the event ('Enough time for questions after sessions, for wider engagement and perspective sharing'; 'Pacing of the talks over the three days').
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.poetrysurvival.com
 
Description Workshop "Carcanet approaching 50: Poetry Publishers, Archives and the Digital Revolution" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Coinciding with the fiftieth anniversary of Carcanet, the workshop offered unique insight into a publishing house central to the contemporary literary landscape. More generally, it asked how independent poetry publishers can compete against multinational publishing firms in an increasingly concentrated economy. The workshop brought together publishing industry professionals, biographers, creative writers and poetry readers (total of 35 participants).

Attendees included academics and non-academics including:
_Michael Schmidt (founder of Carcanet Press).
_Distinguished poets and writers including Grevel Lindop; Roger Garfitt; John Mcauliffe; Matthew Welton; Robert Hampson; Jon Glover; Rebecca Goss; Alex Wong
_Editors and publishing professionals: Judith Willson; Helen Tookey
_Archivists, librarians and museums professionals: James Peters and Jane Gallagher (John Rylands Library); Rachel Foss (British Library); Richard Temple (Senate House
Library, London)
Following the workshop, we circulated a survey. 75% of respondents found the workshop "very useful" and 25% found it "useful."
All the respondents found the workshop "well organised."
Respondents praised the high quality of presentations and the diversity of the programme (with many sessions led by poets and publishing professionals):
"Consistently very high quality of contributions"
"Great line of speakers - including writers, publishers, editors, critics, curators"
"Best thing: roundtable with Grevel Lindop, Roger Garfitt, Michael Schmidt and Judith Willson"
"Good variety of speakers"
The workshop resulted in further oral history interviews that will be made available on the project digital resource.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.poetrysurvival.com/