Divided Pasts - Design Futures

Lead Research Organisation: University of Ulster
Department Name: Sch of Architecture and Design

Abstract

This multidisciplinary project aims to understand how urban design influenced by historical and heritage data can be used to address issues such as environmental sustainability, public health, and ethic/religious/class segregation in cities. The research brings a team of academic investigators (history, architecture, peace and conflict studies) together with local government officials (planning, environment, museums and heritage service) and social enterprise (design, digital fabrication) to collect a wide array of data that will then be used to aid the design of a multi-million pound public landscaping project in the city of Derry/Londonderry.

Research by the World Heart Federation (Smith et al, 2012) has established a strong link between urbanisation and cardiovascular disease, while also identifying urban design as an essential pillar in its recommendations for improving public health in cities. In particular, the engaged development of infrastructure, parks and green corridors were outlined as an essential part of a strategy to improve public health along with public information campaigns, access to healthcare, and stakeholder engagement.

Working from the premise that urban design can contribute to not only an improvement in public health, but also to environmental sustainability and community cohesion in divided cities, the project intends to build a bank of historical and heritage data that can be used to ensure that future urban design projects will reflect the cultural and architectural heritage of the area under development. In so doing, the community ownership and use of such projects and facilities can be increased through the formation of a partnership between academic researchers, local government officials, community activists, and residents.

The city of Derry/Londonderry has a history of violent division stretching back hundreds of years and urban design has been at the centre of attempts to both divide and integrate from the erection of the city walls in the seventeenth century to the construction of the pedestrian Peace Bridge linking the unionist east to the nationalist west of the city in 2011. The project combines methods from history and historical anthropology (oral history interviews, archival and statistical research), geography (GIS mapping), design (digital fabrication), and the wider social sciences (walking interviews) to collate data relating to space and place, and how people have interacted with a changing built environment over time in a divided city with a violent past. Borrowing from the thinking behind the emerging discipline of design anthropology, in which ethnographic engagement leads to better design solutions for products and services, the research attempts to harness history, cultural/architectural heritage and social memory to help provide urban design solutions that are more reflective of people and their often dearly held personal and environmental histories.

An official partnership between the project investigators and Derry City and Strabane District Council will result in the research data being used to inform large-scale landscape and urban design projects to be developed during the lifetime of the research project as part of the Northern Ireland Executive's Urban Villages scheme. A similar partnership with the Nerve Centre FabLab (a community based digital fabrication centre) will result in the grassroots production of 3D city model plans that will be exhibited in the Tower Museum and be further used to inform the projects due to be developed in the city in the coming years.

The project will also contribute to the developing historiography of the Troubles through the production of a co-authored book and journal articles on the history of how people in the city of Derry/Londonderry interacted with their built and environmental surroundings before and since the implementation of the Londonderry Development Plan (1968) and the onset of violence at the same time.

Planned Impact

The project is designed to achieve maximum impact, particularly through community and policy engagement facilitated by project partnerships with local government departments and third sector bodies. Derry City and Strabane District Council (DCSDC) have committed to playing a central role in the development of the research and its dissemination. Staff from the Environment section of the council will meet with the project team on a quarterly basis. The purpose of these meetings will be to utilise the ongoing research findings to inform the development of a proposed £5 million urban regeneration project in Derry/Londonderry. The research will also impact on the DCSDC Strategic Growth Plan and Local Community Plans as a result of the regular meetings. The project investigators and researcher, along with DCSDC staff and interested research participants will co-author a 'Collaborative Design Statement' that will be used as a guide in the roll out of the proposed urban regeneration project, and in the council's strategic growth and community plans.

The Nerve Centre FabLab (digital fabrication suite) will allow for the implementation of a creative dissemination process with a high impact. Research participants will harness the historical and heritage information gathered by the project to design and build 3D models of the city they wish to see. Young people from the case study area will contribute by listening to extracts of the oral history interviews and designing cityscapes based on this information using the popular computer game Minecraft. The electronic cities in Minecraft will then be given physical form as 3D models using digital fabrication technology. This process will provide local people with skills in digital fabrication and provide a means to utilise cultural and architectural heritage in the design process. The 3D city models will then form part of an exhibition to be held in the Tower Museum, Derry/Londonderry in late 2020. This award winning museum welcomed 22,749 visitors from around the world in 2015. The exhibition will also feature some of the oral history recordings, photos and videos collected as part of the project, and representations of historic drawings and plans of parks, residences and public buildings in the city.

The interactive project website will feature streaming audio of oral history interviews and animated videos based on the audio, photography and GPS tracking of walking interviews. The latter will include drone footage, virtual reality video and archival photographs and documents, which will ensure the research is accessed by a wide variety of audiences. The website will also include interactive historic maps, showing change over time. The oral history interviews will also be available on the Accounts of the Conflict digital archive so that they can reach a wider audience and contribute to the existing role played by personal narrative in dealing with the legacy of the Troubles. A seminar in 2020 will bring together academics, designers, heritage professionals, local government officials, and case study residents to discuss how the research can be best used to develop policy, influence design, and create cohesive and sustainable communities in urban areas suffering from societal division.

The research team will apply to present a paper at the Knowledge Exchange Seminar Series during the 2020-21 session. This series is a collaboration between UU, Queen's University Belfast and the Open University, and the Northern Ireland Assembly. Academic research papers are presented to civil servants, MLAs and advisors around broad themes on a monthly basis. The team will also take advantage of the expected public interest in books, articles, broadcasts, talks, lectures, and other events related to the 50th anniversary of events from the late 1960s onwards in Northern Ireland.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Historical Urbanism Exhibition 
Description This is a museum exhibition bringing together oral histories, archive material, historic architectural drawings, contemporary and archive photography, and planning maps. This is bound together by a short narrative and includes QR codes that users can scan to access additional materials, such as streaming audio oral histories and additional multimedia content. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact No impacts yet. Exhibition has been designed and produced, but public availability was postponed due to the closure of the Tower Museum until further notice in 2021. An online version of the exhibition is in development. 
 
Description The key findings are that the ways in which people interact with urban built environments over time has a significant influence on how heritage is defined and interpreted by those same people. The research also tested mechanisms to convey this heritage understanding to relevant stakeholders, including planners, urban designers, policymakers and the wider general public beyond the immediate communities affected. This work continues.
Exploitation Route The approach taken tot he research has been to develop a methodological toolkit that can aid understanding of intangible heritage in urban neighbourhoods. This is often difficult for those from outside these communities to understand effectively. We have focused particularly on urban design and planning, and how heritage led regeneration could benefit from a greater understanding of the nuances in urban heritage. Therefore, the approach developed (oral history interviews, archival research, mapping exercises, dissemination through storymaps, video games, and collaborative design workshops) is transferable to other cities globally. The project website, and a journal article will extol this approach and I intend to continue refining it and promoting it in future through my research and dissemination strategy.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Transport,Other

URL https://historicalurbanism.space
 
Description 1. The research is fully integrated into Derry City and Strabane District Council's brief for the appointment of an Integrated Consultant Team tasked with delivering a high level vision and concept framework for the transformation of the urban environment and landscape. This work is supported by the Northern Ireland Executive and forms a core part of its Urban Villages strategy in Derry. The appointed ICT will be obligated to work in consultation with the research team to ensure that the findings and approach are productively integrated in the resulting plan for the area. We have prepared a set of resources which the ICT will use in their work and we will also lead Collaborative Design Workshops and co-author a Collaborative Design Statement which will be used as a guide for this and future urban design projects. This public tender will be advertised in March 2021, with work to commence immediately after the ICT is appointed. 2. Creative industry: We have worked closely with a video game development company, Cupboard Games, to use the research to develop a video game. This game, which is still in development, will put the player in the shoes of a letter carrier who walks the streets of the city delivering vesting letters. This will give the player a sense of the heritage of the historic streetscape, while also understanding the emotional connections to the space in a way that traditional outputs could never achieve. While the game has not yet been released to the public, there has been a significant impact on this particular game company. They have understood the importance of the research from first contact, and have now begun to develop their own ideas for future "serious games" based on the experience of working with the research team. This company is now in the process of preparing a proposal for Future Screens NI funding inspired by their work with us on this project.
First Year Of Impact 2021
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Creative Economy,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Transport
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Post Brexit landscape planning committee
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Public realm project steering committee
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description Dobbin Atlantic Scholarship (Ireland Canada University Foundation)
Amount € 4,400 (EUR)
Organisation Ireland Canada University Foundation 
Sector Academic/University
Country Ireland
Start 05/2020 
End 06/2020
 
Description Collaboration with NI Executive Office 
Organisation Government of Northern Ireland
Department Office of First Minister and Deputy First Minister (OFMdFM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution A number of meeting have been held with Executive Office (Urban Villages) staff. Agreement reached that an external urban design consultant would be appointed via project partner Derry City and Strabane District Council to produce design concept for strategic capital investment in case study area. The research team will develop and package data for use by the external consultant, who will then base concept on data and a series of collaborative design workshops led by the research team and partners.
Collaborator Contribution Urban Villages have agreed to fund the cost of external design consultants to work up a conceptual plan based on the research data. This is estimated to the value of £50,000. The resulting concept will feed into plans for a multi million pound capital investment in the case study area.
Impact Ongoing. No outputs or outcomes to list yet. Disciplines include history, architecture, urban design, planning.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Documentary background request 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I gave an interview to a television documentary researcher working for RTÉ, who is working on a social history of Northern Ireland. They wish to include a section on public housing provision. I provided a lot of background information and context, and brokered contact with a number of other individuals. I am due to appear as an expert when this documentary is filmed later in 2021.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Forced displacement panel discussion 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in a panel discussion about forced displacement during the Troubles (a very sensitive topic) along with politicians and other academics. Discussion with the public on reasons for Protestant depopulation of Derry city. My contribution on wider housing regeneration brought about a discussion on the varied factors impacting on the process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://peaceblog.ulster.ac.uk/tag/exodus/
 
Description Project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multimedia interactive website (just launched in March 2021), which includes an oral history archive, museum exhibition panels, working papers, storymaps and other project information. Intended purpose is to disseminate to general public through oral history archive and exhibition, but also to reach practitioners and policymakers through storymaps and other targeted resources
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://historicalurbanism.space
 
Description Public research seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact A planned seminar was moved online and was one of the first such events during the pandemic. There was a huge and varied attendance and a lot fo engagement and debate with the issues presented.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.ulster.ac.uk/transitional-justice-institute/events/breaking-binary-history-can-the-storm...
 
Description Radio interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with the Mark Patterson Show on BBC Radio Foyle, with a long discussion about the research and intended outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p071lg91
 
Description Television appearance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Television production that focuses on a particular topic for 30 minutes. This consists of an interview with a historian. In this case i spoke about Divided Pasts - Design Futures and the potential use of history and heritage data to inform urban design and planning. Also long discussion about how the social history of the troubles in underdeveloped
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.nvtv.co.uk/shows/history-now-adrian-grant/
 
Description Walking Tour for visiting conference delegation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Around 30 individuals belonging to the BuildPeace organisation visited the city of Derry. The PI and Co-I Hamber led a walking tour of the city with a focus on urban regeneration and its interaction with civil conflict and peacebuilding. Many of the participants noted that this was a new angle in terms of understanding the conflict for them and comparisons were made with American cities and conflict cities globally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019