Rethinking Heritage for Development: International Framework, Local Impacts

Lead Research Organisation: University of Kent
Department Name: Sch of European Culture and Languages

Abstract

Improving the lives of disenfranchised people by implementing internationally funded development projects is a global challenge. Models have thus far failed, testified by issues of poverty, inequality and resource depletion, notably in Africa. The potential of heritage (understood as including both tangible and intangible elements) to provide a new model of human development is widely acknowledged (e.g. the five UN Resolutions on culture and heritage for development adopted between 2010 and 2015). The international community called for its inclusion in the 2015 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, despite overwhelming support in theory, heritage has been marginalised in the 17 SDGs. One reason for such marginalisation is the lack of critical analyses of international projects on heritage for development funded as part of the implementation of the development goals. Another reason is the lack of analyses of the history of international policies and narratives on heritage for development.

Research on this topic tends to focus on a narrow understanding of economic development. This project aims to move beyond this narrow understanding. It will be the first comprehensive historical, multi-scalar (international, national, and local levels) and interdisciplinary project, critically analysing whether and how heritage contributes to the three pillars of sustainable development (environmental, social and economic) within the international development agenda. More specifically, this project will analyse the policies and narratives elaborated by international organisations (UN, UNESCO and World Bank) on heritage for development over the past thirty years. It will then assess how these international approaches have been implemented on the ground. Based on official evaluations, it will provide critical analyses of the successes and failures of all of the projects on heritage for development funded in Africa (Ethiopia, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal) through the Millennium Development Goals. These evaluations have never been analysed, yet they provide the most complete data on the successes and failures of the only heritage for development projects funded within the international development agenda. These projects were also selected because they focus on issues central to the SDGs and the three pillars of sustainability: to ensure the empowerment of women through equal access to vocational trainings (SDG4; target 4.3) and equal rights to decent employment (SDG 5; target 5.a); to develop economic opportunities for marginalised groups (SDG 8; target 8.9) as well as to halt biodiversity loss (SDG 15; target 15.5).

Further analyses will be conducted by interviewing participants in the culture for development projects in Mozambique. This ethnographic study will assess the veracity of some of the results from official evaluations. Mozambique was selected because of the projects' ambitious goals, the results achieved and because of the PI's familiarity with this country.

This research will identify shortcomings in how heritage has contributed to the international development goals so far and will propose innovative models on how to improve this contribution. The results and recommendations will be disseminated through three policy briefings, the website, and used to influence current and future development agendas through workshops with intergovernmental organisations and selected national ministers of the four African countries considered.

The PI has unique access to archives at UNESCO and the World Bank, has already conducted research on the global challenges using similar methodologies, has collected data on international organisations and in Mozambique and has experience of drafting international policies on heritage for development. The interest shown by diverse intergovernmental organisations to take part in the workshop further demonstrates the need for such research.

Planned Impact

The project is likely to provoke very significant interest from a range of non-academic user groups. The PI has a wealth of experience working with intergovernmental organisations, ministries and media outlets.

1) The following intergovernmental organisations are central beneficiaries of this project: the UN, UN Women, UNESCO, UNDP, UNWTO, UNEP, the World Bank, IUCN, ICCROM and the African World Heritage Fund (AWHF). They have been carefully selected because they have been responsible for defining and implementing the SDGs, particularly SDGs 4, 5, 8 and 15 and have been involved in heritage for development projects. They will be involved in identifying the future of the development agenda. The results of the research will thus be of interest for their daily work. At the end of the project, a dedicated workshop will be organised for these organisations to identify ways of integrating the results and recommendations into their work. UNESCO (Jyoti Hosagrahar), IUCN (Tim Badman), the World Bank (Stefania Abakerli), ICCROM (Webber Ndoro) and AWHF (Souayibou Varissou) have already agreed to take part in this workshop, organised in London in cooperation with ICOMOS-UK, a leading heritage organisation. An international consultant, Dr George Abungu, with a wealth of diplomatic experience will help the PI to ensure the participation of the other organisations and to inform them regularly of the research progress.

2) Ministries of culture, tourism, gender, economy and environment in the selected countries on the DAC list in Africa (Ethiopia, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal) implemented heritage for development projects within the framework of the MDGs and have been mainstreaming the SDGs into national policies and programmes. They will thus be interested in this research, its results and recommendations. The three policy briefings will be sent to these ministries. A workshop will subsequently be organised with them to discuss how the results and recommendations could be integrated within their work. This workshop will be organised in Maputo (Mozambique) by the PI in cooperation with Dr Abungu and Kaleidoscopio, a leading Southern African organisation on cultural policy.

3) NGOs and non-profit organisations working on heritage for development in Africa (e.g. the Centre for Heritage and Development in Africa, or the Institute for Development Ecology, Conservation and Cooperation) are integral to implementing the SDGs or projects on heritage for development. They will find the results of and recommendations from the research important to guide their work. These organisations will also be consulted on the future of the global development agenda and could use the results of the research to argue for a more central place for heritage within this agenda. These organisations will be kept informed of the project through emails, social media and the website.

4) Participants in the selected heritage for development projects in Mozambique need to be informed of the results of the research to ensure compliance with the highest ethical standards. Three open meetings will be organised in Maputo, Inhambane and Island of Mozambique to discuss the results and each informant will receive a personal invitation.

5) The general public. Strong interest is aroused by discussions on international development. This has a direct impact on people's daily lives, as international aid is mostly paid by taxpayers who want to know how their money is being spent by intergovernmental organisations and as part of development assistance. Results of this research will be made available through media outlets, including The Conversation which has a monthly audience of 5 millions, and reach of 35 millions through Creative Commons republication or iNews, the 10th-most-circulated daily newspaper in the UK. The PI has already published the results of her latest (2017) book in The Conversation UK, The Conversation France and iNews.

Publications

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Description I have undertaken intensive and in-depth textual analyses of archival documents of the key policies and projects from UNESCO, the UN and the World Bank, to chart the international history of heritage for development, from 1970 to 2000.
In relation to the history of heritage for development, I have discovered:
- that the international history of heritage for development started in the 1970 and is closely associated with the decolonisation movements, particularly in Africa. The newly independent countries wanted to find their own approach to development (understood as growth) and did not want to follow a Western model.
- that in the 1980s and 1990s, the international narrative on heritage for development became increasingly associated with creating, maintaining or restoring peace. Peace was indeed considered as the precondition for development.
- that the World Decade for Cultural Development (1988-1997) was not a success, because of a lack of concrete and wide scale projects that would demonstrate the impacts of culture on development.

I have analysed all of the documents related to all of the projects on Heritage for Development funded as part of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa (in Ethiopia, Mozambique, Namibia and Senegal). I have also conducted in-depth ethnographic fieldwork in Mozambique and Senegal.
In relation to the implementation of heritage for poverty reduction and decent work (SDG 1 and 8), I have discovered:
- A lack of serious consideration of heritage to address wider development issues, like poverty reduction. Too often still, there is a focus on the sole protection and management of heritage.
- When heritage is considered as contributing to poverty reduction, it is almost exclusively through the lens of tourism. However, tourism is a volatile sector that cannot be fully controlled. Tourism is also a business. The selected projects focused on the needs of the poorer sections of society, but did not correspond to the expectiations, needs and imaginaries of tourists/customers. Hence they failed.
- Most projects focused on short term capacity buildings, but lacked quality control, accountability in the use of funding and equipment and follow-up.

In relation to the overall management of project, I have discovered:
- That the selected projects on heritage for development faced similar issues as any other development projects: they were too ambitious, had too many competing goals, had fragmented activities and outcomes and were not specific and measurable enough.
- That projects suffered major delays in being impleneted and that some activities were rushed through and did not have lasting contributions.
- That the Delivering as One modality of the UN system (implemented since 2007) has led to far more issues in implementation than improvement.

I have made some of the results available on the website of the project and on the trimonthly report, available here: https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/heritagefordevelopment/
Exploitation Route The award is still active. Three meetings are being organised with a diversity of organisations. The first one will be organised in Paris on 28 and 29 May 2020, the second one in Dakar, Senegal on 4 and 5th June and the third one in Maputo on 18 and 19 June. One of the aims of these meetings is to consider how the outcomes of the research can be taken forward and put to use by others.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections

URL https://blogs.kent.ac.uk/heritagefordevelopment/
 
Title Database on the four MDG-F projects in Africa 
Description I collected all of the data relating to the projects: 'Harnessing Diversity for Sustainable Development and Social Change in Ethiopia' (July 2009-Dec. 2012), 'Strengthening cultural and creative industries and inclusive policies in Mozambique' (Aug. 2008-June 2013), 'Sustainable Cultural Tourism in Namibia' (February 2009-February 2013) and 'Promoting Initiatives and Cultural Industries in Senegal' (September 2008-December 2012). I completed the data from the published documents with intensive fieldwork in Mozambique (in Nampula, Maputo and Inhambane region) and Senegal (Delta du Saloum and Bassari Country). All of the data was centralised and coded in NVivo. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The database and data enabled me to draft most of my monograph on 'Rethinking Heritage for Development'. This monograph is the key academic outcome of my research. 
 
Title Database on the international history on heritage for development 
Description I have collected all of the data relating to the international history of heritage for development available from UNESCO in Paris and the World Bank in Washington. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data has enabled me to be able to draft two chapters of my draft monograph on 'Rethinking Heritage for Development'. 
 
Description Partnership with ICOMOS International 
Organisation International Council on Monuments and Sites
Country France 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I am contributing to a Policy Guidance on the Sustainable Development Goals, to be prepared by ICOMOS and released in 2021.
Collaborator Contribution ICOMOS International has participated in all of the meetings I have organised, has provided contacts of key experts to invite for the final meetings and has provided key comments on the preliminary and final results of the research
Impact - A Policy Guidance on Heritage and the Sustainable Development Goals by ICOMOS - ICOMOS International has taken part in the meeting of the International Advisory Board (August 2019) and will take part in the final meeting to discuss the results, organised in Paris on 28 and 29 May 2020.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Partnership with the African World Heritage Fund 
Organisation African World Heritage Fund
Country South Africa 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution the African World Heritage Fund is required to use World Heritage for (Sustainable) Development. It has been and will also in the future use the results of my research to fulfil fully this requirement.
Collaborator Contribution The African World Heritage Fund has helped to promote the research in Africa; it has contacted key public figures to convince them to take part in the final meetings where I will present my results; it has participated in the meeting of the Advisory Board and will participate in the final meetings organised in Africa.
Impact International Advisory Board - August 2019 Meeting to discuss the results of the project - 3 and 4 June in Dakar Meeting to discuss the results of the project - 18 and 19 June in Maputo
Start Year 2019
 
Description Intenational Advisory Board Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was the international advisory board meeting for this research. It was attended by people who are not my direct peers, including members of staff of the World Bank, UNESCO or ICOMOS. I presented my preliminary results. This was essential as my presentations highlighted a number of shortcomings with some popular methods of using heritage for poverty reduction and gender equality.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interview for Newsweek Belgium. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was interviewed about my research by Nina Dillen, Editor of Newsweek, Belgium. She is writting an article on World Heritage.
The article will be out in March 2020 .
I will report on the outcome of this activity in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Keynote Speech - The Sustainable Heritage Research Forum. Uppsala University (Sweden) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a Keynote Speech at The Sustainable Heritage Research Forum. Uppsala University (Sweden) on 05 December 2019. The aim of this talk was to present some preliminary results and get some feedback. I discussed a number of proposed recommendations and was provided with essential feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.campusgotland.uu.se/suhrf/verksamhet/suhrf-symposium-2019/
 
Description Paper delivered at the conference LDE- Heritage and the Sustainable Development Goals. TU Delft (the Netherlands) on 26 November 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact My paper was selected for presentation at the conference Heritage and the Sustainable Development Goals, organised at TU Delft (the Netherlands) on 26 November 2019. The aim of this presentation was to discuss some preliminary results with my peers. There were many discussions afterwards that guided me in the final drafting of the book chapters.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.tudelft.nl/en/events/2019/bk/conference-heritage-and-the-sustainable-development-goals/
 
Description Two hour seminar delivered (Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The activity was a two hour seminar delivered at Cheikh Anta Diop University in Dakar (Senegal) on 11 November 2019. The aim was to discuss the preliminary results of my research. Senegal is one of my key case studies, as I have underaken additional fieldwork there. It was essential that I share my ideas and get feedback from students and professors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ucad.sn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3267:2019-11-04-13-24-12&catid=136:...