GLAM-E Lab: An interdisciplinary digitization clinic for smaller and less well-resourced cultural institutions and community organizations

Lead Research Organisation: University of Exeter
Department Name: School of Law

Abstract

This Project expands thinking and practice on digitization and open access programs and their implementation by smaller and less well-resourced UK and US cultural institutions and community organizations. It does so by establishing an interdisciplinary cross-border clinic (GLAM-E Lab) that provides cultural institutions and community organizations with support on aspects of law and digitization, and it co-produces tested and scalable best practice resources to support digital heritage initiatives beyond the Project.

The heritage sector is increasingly interested in building successful open access programs and exploring the new business models that flow from them. However, participating in open access programs remains too difficult and expensive for smaller and less well-resourced cultural institutions and community organizations. This is because obstacles and risks arise due to legal and cultural challenges, which can revive old disputes around access, restitution, repatriation, sensitivity, and representation.

These challenges pose critical questions like: Should we digitize? Who (if anyone) owns rights to the digital reproduction? Is open access appropriate for these digital materials? Similarly, who is liable if the reproduction is used in a way that violates the law or harms others? Existing guidance on these questions is often static, or shaped by the experience of a single program, leaving significant gaps for smaller and less well-resourced cultural institutions and community organizations. Until addressed, these challenges will continue to hinder digitally-enabled participation and lock-in cultural data.

GLAM-E Lab creates a new resource to bridge this gap using complementary and reflexive approaches. GLAM-E Lab establishes an interdisciplinary cross-border digitization clinic at the University of Exeter Law School and NYU Law School Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy with institutional and community partners. First, GLAM-E Lab provides pro bono legal and digitization support directly to UK and US lab participants working to implement open access programs and release digital collections online. Second, the Lab will use the lessons learned from that clinical support to co-develop a best practice tool-kit for the wider heritage community. Third, in 2023, the Lab publicly opens and invites new participants to test and expand the GLAM-E Lab methods and resources.

GLAM-E Lab brings together UK and US practitioners, academics, and students from Law, Digital Humanities, and Museum Studies to overcome the legal and cultural obstacles to digitization and open access programs. Through this work, the Lab will explore key questions related to the legal status of cultural materials, ethical approaches to digitization, and open access and new business models. GLAM-E Lab will improve global conditions for the sustainability of digitization projects and digitally-enabled participation, leading to the generation of new knowledge in heritage management, humanities, and law. The Project will disseminate the research via GLAM-E's Lab's clinics, website, workshops, and publications.

This Project contributes to more than a single discipline, cultural institution, or collection. GLAM-E Lab activities and outputs will enable any cultural institution or community organization to tackle the challenges preventing collections digitization and their participation in the open access movement.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Participation in UK Intellectual Property Office Roundtable of Experts on Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Improved legal protection for individuals receiving performers' rights in the UK
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/beijing-treaty-on-audiovisual-performances-call-for-view...
 
Description The protection of performances fixed in audiovisual recordings under UK law and the Beijing Treaty
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Better legal protection for individual receiving performers' rights in the UK
URL https://zenodo.org/record/5025857#.Yii8Ju77Ta1
 
Description GLAM-E Lab & New York State Museum 
Organisation New York State Museum
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our team of GLAM-E Lab Investigators, NYU Law Students, and NYSM Staff reviewed the existing open access policy and investigated the needs of the museum to make recommendations on future policy and collections management. Contributions included: knowledge exchange, expertise, intellectual input, and training of students and staff in the programme. The team was given access to data and staff.
Collaborator Contribution Within NYU, our partner is Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy at New York University School of Law. Contributions include: expertise, intellectual input, and training of students in the programme. Within NYSM, our partner is Gwendolyn Saul. Contributions include: expertise, intellectual input, and access to data.
Impact To date, this includes: servicing of the New York State Museum as a client; providing advice and guidance on open access policy development; and the soft launch of the GLAM-E Lab website. This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, involving aspects of law, museum studies and digital humanities. Specific research outcomes are in development.
Start Year 2021
 
Description GLAM-E Lab & New York State Museum 
Organisation New York University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our team of GLAM-E Lab Investigators, NYU Law Students, and NYSM Staff reviewed the existing open access policy and investigated the needs of the museum to make recommendations on future policy and collections management. Contributions included: knowledge exchange, expertise, intellectual input, and training of students and staff in the programme. The team was given access to data and staff.
Collaborator Contribution Within NYU, our partner is Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy at New York University School of Law. Contributions include: expertise, intellectual input, and training of students in the programme. Within NYSM, our partner is Gwendolyn Saul. Contributions include: expertise, intellectual input, and access to data.
Impact To date, this includes: servicing of the New York State Museum as a client; providing advice and guidance on open access policy development; and the soft launch of the GLAM-E Lab website. This collaboration is multi-disciplinary, involving aspects of law, museum studies and digital humanities. Specific research outcomes are in development.
Start Year 2021
 
Description GLAM-E Lab Core Collaboration Team 
Organisation Black South West Network
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our collaboration set up the GLAM-E Lab as a cross-border digitisation and law clinic in the US and the UK. Our research team will direct the Lab, and lead on servicing collaborators, perform scientific research, and lead on the production of outputs. NYU researchers and Exeter researchers co-directs and co-lead on these tasks.
Collaborator Contribution We have formal contracts of research collaboration with NYU (Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy), NYSM, RAMM, Nomad, Insider Art Ltd and Black South West Network. Research development is in progress.
Impact Forthcoming.
Start Year 2021
 
Description GLAM-E Lab Core Collaboration Team 
Organisation New York State Museum
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our collaboration set up the GLAM-E Lab as a cross-border digitisation and law clinic in the US and the UK. Our research team will direct the Lab, and lead on servicing collaborators, perform scientific research, and lead on the production of outputs. NYU researchers and Exeter researchers co-directs and co-lead on these tasks.
Collaborator Contribution We have formal contracts of research collaboration with NYU (Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy), NYSM, RAMM, Nomad, Insider Art Ltd and Black South West Network. Research development is in progress.
Impact Forthcoming.
Start Year 2021
 
Description GLAM-E Lab Core Collaboration Team 
Organisation New York University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our collaboration set up the GLAM-E Lab as a cross-border digitisation and law clinic in the US and the UK. Our research team will direct the Lab, and lead on servicing collaborators, perform scientific research, and lead on the production of outputs. NYU researchers and Exeter researchers co-directs and co-lead on these tasks.
Collaborator Contribution We have formal contracts of research collaboration with NYU (Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy), NYSM, RAMM, Nomad, Insider Art Ltd and Black South West Network. Research development is in progress.
Impact Forthcoming.
Start Year 2021
 
Description GLAM-E Lab Core Collaboration Team 
Organisation Royal Albert Memorial Museum
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our collaboration set up the GLAM-E Lab as a cross-border digitisation and law clinic in the US and the UK. Our research team will direct the Lab, and lead on servicing collaborators, perform scientific research, and lead on the production of outputs. NYU researchers and Exeter researchers co-directs and co-lead on these tasks.
Collaborator Contribution We have formal contracts of research collaboration with NYU (Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy), NYSM, RAMM, Nomad, Insider Art Ltd and Black South West Network. Research development is in progress.
Impact Forthcoming.
Start Year 2021
 
Description AI & IP in the creative industries 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Event hosted by Dr Pavis (with Exeter Law School, SCuLE Centre) and UK Intellectual Property Office about the impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies on the UK intellectual property framework. Roundtable of experts from policy, industry and academia. More information about the event is available here: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/artificial-intelligence-intellectual-property-in-the-creative-industries-registration-193877842847
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3MgGIqGPeXQ&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Contribution to CREATe 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Andrea Wallace contributed by invitation to a series of evidence summaries for the 21 for 2021 project (https://www.create.ac.uk/blog/2021/05/21/copyright-evidence-portal-introducing-the-21-for-2021-project/), a CREATe (University of Glasgow) project within the AHRC Creative Industries Policy and Evidence Centre. The 21 for 2021 project offers a synthesis of empirical evidence catalogued on the Copyright Evidence Portal (https://www.copyrightevidence.org/), answering 21 topical copyright questions for the 21st century.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.create.ac.uk/blog/2022/01/07/21-for-2021-digital-heritage-and-the-public-domain/
 
Description Convening of Open Educational Resource for 2021 SunoikisisDC Module (University of Leipzig) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Andrea Wallace was a convenor and contributor to the Sunoikisis Digital Classics (https://sunoikisisdc.github.io/) programme alongside Gabriel Bodard (ICS London), Valeria Vitale (Aland Turing Institute) and Alicia Walsh (Recollection Heritage). Wallace organised three sessions. The first, "Wikipedia and cultural knowledge production" brought together Effie Kapsalis (Smithsonian Institution) and Evelin Heidel (Wikimedia Foundation); the second, "Intangible Cultural Heritage and Indigenous heritage" brought together Majd Al-Shihabi (Open Palestine Maps) and Brigitte Vézina (Creative Commons). Dr Mathilde Pavis contributed to a third session on "Intellectual property and heritage restitution" on behalf of the GLAM-E Lab with Douglas McCarthy (Europeana).

In total, between 51 and 100 participants attended the live sessions. All sessions resulted in an archive of resources, recorded lectures, exercises, and other outputs that are published as open access to GitHub. These materials can be accessed and used by the general public to follow the course asynchronously. They also can be integrated into teaching materials by others due to being published as an Open Educational Resource. The total reach of this engagement will far exceed 100 participants over time.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://github.com/SunoikisisDC/SunoikisisDC-2020-2021/wiki/CH8-IP-and-Restitution
 
Description GLAM-E Lab website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Collaborators (Exeter and NYU) launched the GLAM-E Lab website, which will continue to be developed as research progresses and outputs are published and made available over the course of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://glamelab.org/
 
Description Hybrid Two-Day Workshop: Supporting Open Culture through Open Data 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This two-day workshop brought together the GLAM-E Lab (University of Exeter), the ReCreating Europe project (University of Trento and University of Glasgow), Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum, Turin), the Serpentine Legal Galleries, with colleagues from other international universities and special interest groups like the Wikimedia Foundation and Creative Commons. Together, participants examined the legal challenges faced by the cultural heritage sector around open data in light of new EU legislation on Open Data and Copyright in the Digital Single Market and national transpositions.

More than 100 participants from museums, galleries, universities, government and the general public attended both in-person and virtually, as it was a hybrid event. The event sparked questions and discussions during breakout sessions, as well as via social media (Twitter) and afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.recreating.eu/2021/08/17/workshop-october-20-21-supporting-open-culture-through-open-dat...
 
Description Podcast interview with Open Restitution Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Andrea Wallace was interviewed by Chao Tayiana (African Digital Heritage, https://africandigitalheritage.org/) and Molemo Moiloa (Open Restitution Africa, https://openrestitution.africa/), as part of a podcast series commissioned by the Humboldt Forum. The interview covered aspects of law, restitution, open access data, digital restitution, and community archives and organising relevant to wider GLAM-E Lab work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description TaNC Roundtable with Provisional Semantics: Who owns what? Barriers to access and co-production in UK digital and cultural heritage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This roundtable discussion was held as part of Provisional Semantics: Addressing the challenges of representing multiple perspectives with an evolving digitised national collection, a project funded by UKRI's Arts and Humanities Research Council, Towards a National Collection (TaNC) and led by Ananda Rutherford (Tate) with JC Niala (Horniman Museum).

Drs Mathilde Pavis and Andrea Wallace presented ongoing research with the GLAM-E Lab around ownership, rights and power in the proliferation of digital cultural heritage. GLAM-E Lab Collaborator Abira Hussein (Nomad) and Advisory Board Member Kelly Foster (Creative Commons UK) also contributed as invited respondents. More than 100 participants attended this event, which brought together important research across other AHRC funded projects and initiatives for wider dissemination to international audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLRIxrpy54RHYm7VE_9dYVlDlyrPqTo2Tj