The Migration of Faith: Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity (325-c.600AD)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: History

Abstract

Between the fourth and the sixth centuries exile was a legal sanction frequently used by Roman emperors and the rulers of the post-Roman successor states against dissident Christian clerics. This project seeks to test the hypothesis that such exile proved to be not only a form of punishment, but also, and more importantly, a form of cultural encounter. Clerics in exile spread their ideas at places where they had previously been unknown. They also absorbed influences from their new environment and, in the case of recall from exile, transferred ideas and experiences elsewhere. This process, the project contends, had a profound impact on the development of Christianity and its foundational texts in this period, which are still noticeable today. For example, the Nicene creed, which most of modern Christian denominations subscribe to, may not have had the same impact without the banishment of its original supporters during the fourth century.
In order to prove its hypothesis, the project adopts an interdisciplinary approach with an innovative methodology. It is a collaboration between Dr Julia Hillner (Sheffield, PI), a legal historian, and two international co-investigators, Prof Jörg Ulrich (Halle), a theologian, and Associate Prof Jakob Engberg (Aarhus), a cultural historian. While both the development of Christian theology and ritual in this period and the legal development of the Roman penalty of exile have been extensively studied, the two have not been brought together before. The project seeks to rectify this gap in scholarship by re-invigorating traditional legal and theological studies that have typically concentrated on normative sources through the application of a digital approach that will help to set these sources in context. To this end, the project includes the construction of a relational database that collects all available information on individual clerical exiles. The data will be derived from printed and online source editions and we anticipate a dtaset comprising records for approximately 1,000 individuals. This will allow the project team to trace and visualise the personal and geographical networks clerical exiles developed and maintained from their place of banishment and after return from exile. The quantitative information will provide the basis for a thorough qualitative re-assessment of selected legal, theological and hagiographical texts of the period (also available in edited form), which will be investigated in the light of the networks of their authors and audiences. This part of the project will seek to establish the influence of exile experiences on the formation of Christian law, Christian doctrine and Christian cult in late antiquity. In short, the project involves a long-term study of exile that focuses on social networks of individual clerics and interprets institutional texts and structures not according to a top-down model of change, but as a result of relations among individuals, facilitated by exile, within a decentralised framework, in which every element of the network contributed to shape institutional developments.
The results of the project will be disseminated via a book co-authored by the PI, the Co-Is and the research associate of the project, and via a doctoral dissertation. The project will also maintain a project blog and website, which will ensure access to the database for a larger academic audience, and, embedded in educational material, for a broader non-academic audience, and will hold a final international conference. The project will also develop a network of local museums and heritage organisations at places of late antique banishment with a view to develop closer collaboration for future funding applications.
The project will commence in May 2014 and is scheduled to run for 36 months.

Planned Impact

Exile, as understood by this project, did not separate, but, on the contrary, connected individuals and communities over space and cultures, creating new networks that had the power to change politics, law and belief. The results of the project's research are therefore of interest to all organisations and individuals seeking to understand both the positive and negative consequences of legally forced migration and mobility, be this in the historically specific context of late antiquity, or in contemporary society, where this context can serve as comparandum or inspiration. More precisely, beneficiaries of the project's research result beyond academic beneficiaries may include:

- Museum curators, heritage professionals and tourism agencies connected to the locations of banishment who may want to present their collections or sites from the perspective of how exile influenced the locality and connected it to other communities. These include UK based museums, such as the British Museum and the Museum of the Isles of Scilly (a frequent place of banishment in late antiquity), but also museums in Europe, in particular around the Mediterranean.
- Individuals or schools, both nationally and internationally, who would like to learn more about the role of their own localities in the Mediterranean and northern European network created by late antique exile.
- Policy makers at UK or Europe based think tanks, who are interested in understanding how the legal transfer of religious dissidents can lead to multiple, non-hierarchical influences on religious law, doctrine and behaviour, and who would like to explore our research data as a historical comparative to current events.

As this list of potential beneficiaries shows, the impact to be expected from this research is varied. Results of the research have the potential to increase the effectiveness of public policy, for example on religious dissidence and national security. In addition, they have the potential to increase the effectiveness of public services, such as UK based museums and schools, by fostering awareness of the historical role British localities and objects held by British museums played in the larger exchange of people and ideas around Europe and the Mediterranean. In this way our activities also tap into the larger public debate on the potentially artificial distinction between 'British', 'European' and 'Mediterranean' histories. Finally, results from our research may even have the potential to transform historical heritage into economic profit due to the unique combination of famous Church fathers and the topography created by exile, which connects some of the most spectacular tourist destinations, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean (e.g. Alexandria, Istanbul, Cyprus, or Petra), which may well inspire UK and foreign businesses working in the cultural tourism or heritage sector. Some of this impact will be realised and measured during the project's lifetime, though the project's various impact activities (the website, media contributions, the collaboration with museums, and the impact workshop). Staff working on the project, including junior members such as the research associate and the PhD student, will continuously be invited to disseminate their research results for the benefit of a broad and diverse public, particularly via the project blog, and will therefore develop valuable skills in public engagement.
 
Description Key results from this project have been four-fold. Firstly, we have developed a significant new research resource by constructing a substantial relational database that catalogues c. 500 cases of clerical exile in late antiquity, including information on c. 1200 individuals or groups and 400 geographical locations. The importance of the database lies in the fact that it does not only assemble information on exiled clerics themselves, but also information on all their social contacts established during the course of their exile. The database allows users to combine and analyse data on clerical exile in innovative ways (for example, by filtering out the gender of an exiled cleric's contacts, thereby allowing for further research into the role of women for this substantial legal and social phenomenon of the early Christian church). Furthermore, it allows users to visualise data in an innovative way: in tabular form, but also as charts (quantifying information), as chronologically sensitive maps and as expanding social networks graphs. Secondly, the project has used these data and analytical methods to generate significant new knowledge about the phenomenon of clerical exile itself, grounded in empirical evidence. The project has already published collaborative results in an edited volume (Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity, 2016). A further edited volume (Exile and Mobility at the End of Antiquity) is in press and a special journal issue for Studies in Late Antiquity in preparation (in addition to other mono-authored publications by individual project members). Taken together these publications demonstrate the ubiquity of exile as a legal tool to overcome the division of the Christian church in this period, both in the Roman world and, crucially, in the kingdoms that followed the end of the Roman empire in the west and copied many of its methods of governance, including the use of exile. Exile in the post-Roman kingdom has hitherto been a relatively unknown phenomenon and has never been studied before in relation to exile in the Roman world. More importantly, due to the focus on spatially locatable social contacts of exiled clerics project results clearly and empirically demonstrate the power of clerical exile to foster community in the late antique Mediterranean. This is an important outcome because, as a legal tool, exile had the purpose to isolate exiled clerics. The adoption of social network analysis, and the use of appropriate algorithms to measure relationships, has allowed the project to show that, on the contrary, exile forced many clerics and their often substantial households to strike new and unfamiliar relationships, which led to unexpected brokering of knowledge (for example, the spread of the key practice of early Christian asceticism can be linked directly to the exile of specific clerics in late antiquity). Finally, and most innovatively, the project results show the importance of exiled clerics' social contacts for the construction of memory in late antiquity. Seeing exiled clerics not in isolation, but as part of large and multi-generational communities, allowed the project to empirically trace the development of exile stories and their pivotal role in the writing of Church history in late antiquity, as well as in the development of the concept of 'migrancy' as a metaphor for human life in Christian thought. Thirdly, the project has developed a cutting-edge approach to social network analysis in historical studies that has the potential to be of influence beyond the field of clerical exile in late antiquity. The project team has used social network analysis not only to reconstruct 'real' social networks, but confirms, as other historians have already suspected, that such a method is to be used with caution, due to the fragmented nature of late antique sources. The project has also studied how networks were imagined and described in late antique texts, which has allowed the project team to understand narrative patterns and the construction of memory, centred around exile, in late antique texts. The mathematical calculation of such narrative networks is hitherto almost untested in historical studies. As such, and fourthly, the project is opening up an entirely new research field. Several new collaborations and funding applications have resulted from this, most importantly with a team of network scientists at the University of Porto Alegre (a Leverhulme project grant application is pending) and a postdoctoral researcher from the University of Erfurt (who successfully submitted a Feodor Lynen fellowship application for a 12-months research stay at the University of Sheffield to work with the project PI on the construction of female networks in Patristic texts). These are just two of several new collaborations that have resulted from this project (others include an ERC project, a British Academy small grant, a projected Spanish government grant, a grant from the Faculty of Arts at Ohio State University).
Exploitation Route The methods championed by the project are already generating much interest in the field of digital technology, with a major funding application to the Leverhulme Trust project grant scheme by the PI and a team of network scientists from the University of Porto Alegre pending. The network scientists have explicitly expressed their interest in working with historians who have access to unusual sets of social data that include an element of change that would foster the development of new algorithms on dynamic networks (networks that measure change). The project has also collaborated with a number of journalists and Amnesty International on knowledge exchange regarding issues of forced movements and refugees in the Mediterranean, taking note of the fact that many spaces of exile studied by this project are also spaces of migration and refugee movement today (in particular the Eastern Mediterranean), sometimes affecting groups of people with a clear connection (such as Coptic Christians, whose community historically originates from religious conflict and situations of exile in the sixth century, as one of our publications shows). The PI has been commissioned by History & Policy to summarise these findings in a report.
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)

URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/blog/
 
Description So far, our strategy to disseminate project results to non-academic audiences has been three-fold. Firstly, findings, activities and methods have been fed into teaching both within and outside academia. Our research associate, Dr Dirk Rohmann, has been teaching an UG module at the University of Wuppertal entirely based on students' use of our project database. At the University of Sheffield several postgraduate students have based coursework on the project database (see also our blog https://www.dhi.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/2018/02/23/using-the-clerical-exile-database-benefits-and-limits-of-social-network-analysis/), while the project has sponsored two MA student internships, to assist with its public engagement work and with data entry, as such providing valuable work experience. Findings from the project are also actively used in seminary teaching and the training of priests in Germany. Our Co-I Joerg Ulrich has run several workshops both with trainee priests and with senior management of the churches in Saxony and Sachsen Anhalt. Secondly, the project has organised a variety of events in Sheffield, designed to reach as diverse an audience across the city as possible. We have given talks in Sheffield Cathedral, run stalls and given talks at the Arts and Humanities Festival in the city centre for two years in a row, organised a year-long film club, as well as a book club in local pubs. Through these activities we have engaged with more than 500 people, many of which have left us written feedback of both quantitative and qualitative nature (please see examples of the feedback and statistics in the section 'public engagement'). Finally, we have connected with policy makers and journalists working on the situation of contemporary refugees, to highlight parallels and legacies from the ancient world, in particular regarding rhetorics surrounding the concept of migration, exile and refugees. We organised a panel at our conference at the German Historical Institute to discuss these issues which was attended by Steve Symonds (Amnesty International), Klaus Wivel (Weekendavisen; Copenhagen) and Stephen Brown (RefugeesReporting.eu, http://www.refugeesreporting.eu/). As a result we have been invited to write a policy paper for History & Policy (http://www.historyandpolicy.org/).
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Title Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity 
Description The database assembles prosopographical and spatial information on over 1000 individuals (1193 on 17 February 2018) and 422 locations connected to the historical phenomenon of clerical exile (between 325 and c. 600 AD). It allows for quantitative analysis of features of clerical exile (for example which legal types of exile were imposed on clerics in this period), for spatial analysis (for example patterns of movement of exiled clerics around the Mediterranean) and of their networks (for example, whether some individuals were involved in several cases of clerical exile). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We have presented the database at several research meetings aimed at sharing expertise and practices of digital approaches to late antique studies (with the Late Antique Exile project at Alcala', the Presbyters in Late Antiquity project in Warsaw, the Cult of Saints project in Oxford). In particular we shared our data with the Late Antique Exile project in Alcala' (and they shared their data with us) which helped to make both databases more robust, comprehensive and consistent. Our database is now also actively supporting PhD research (by Noelia Vicent) into locations of late antique exile at the University of Alcala'. The database underpins research already published in Hillner, Ulrich, Engberg, Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity (Peter Lang, 2016), in particular the contributions by Hillner, Rohmann, Engberg and Mawdsley, and due to be published in a special journal issue of Studies in Late Antiquity (contributions by Hillner, Richard Flower from the University of Exeter, Jenny Barry from the University of Mary Washington, Elisabeth O'Connell from the British Museum). We also work closely with Sarah Bond (University of Iowa) and Jenny Barry (University of Mary Washington) who are researching the spatial context of clerical exile and have used data from our database for a presentation at the North American Patristics Society meeting (25-27 Mary 2017). The database is starting to be regarded as a model for digital research in the field of late antiquity and the methods it champions have significantly influenced a British Academy small grant funding application by Dr Richard Flower whose aim is to build a prosopographical database for the late antique city of Trier. 
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/clericalexile/
 
Description Collaboration with ERC Starting grant CONNEC, UNIVERSAL CHURCH IN THE LATE ANTIQUE WEST (380-604 CE) 
Organisation Austrian Academy of Sciences
Country Austria, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The PI has worked with the ERC grant holder, Dr David Natal, on the application, giving advice in particular on aspects of legal history and the employment of social network analysis in historical studies.
Collaborator Contribution The ERC grant holder has nominated the PI, Julia Hillner, to serve on the advisory board of this project. The doctoral student on The Migration of Faith project, Harry Mawdsley, has been named as postdoctoral researcher in the ERC application.
Impact Successful ERC starter grant application for Dr Natal; nominally, postdoctoral position for Harry Mawdsley, doctoral student on the project The Migration of Faith (on condition of successfully completing his doctoral programme by February 2019).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Prof. M. Vallejo-Girves, Universidad de Alcala. 
Organisation University of Alcalá
Country Spain, Kingdom of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Prof Margarita Vallejo-Girves heads a project on late antique exile similar to ours. The project also involves assembly of a database. We have shared expertise on data categories and also some of the data. Our project team (Hillner, Ulrich, Engberg, Rohmann, Mawdsley) have attended a workshop organised by Vallejo-Girves in October 2017 in Alcala and all delivered research papers. Vallejo-Girves' PhD student Jaime de Miguel López has spent three months at the University of Sheffield in summer 2017 to be supervised by our PI. Her postdoctoral assistant, Dr Mattia Chiriatti, has applied for funding to the Spanish Ministry of Education to spend six months in Sheffield.
Collaborator Contribution Prof Vallejo Girves has shared her expertise on exile data and some of the data assembled by her project team. Her project has also funded attendance of a workshop in Alcala by our entire project team (Hillner, Ulrich, Engberg, Rohmann, Mawdsley). In addition Prof Vallejo-Girves has visited Sheffield and Halle to give research papers, and has delivered a research paper at our conference in London in April 2017. Vallejo-Girves' three PhD students have given research papers at our workshop in Halle in September 2016. Vallejo-Girves his co-editing one of our project outputs (Exile and Mobility at the end of antiquity, please see publications).
Impact Margerita Vallejo Girvès, "Banished Bishops Were Not Alone: The Two Cases of Theodorus Anagnostes, Guardian and Assistant", in J. Hillner, J. Ulrich, J. Engberg, Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity, Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 2016, pp. 193-209; J. Ulrich, D. Rohmann, M. Vallejo Girvès, Exile and Mobility at the End of Antitquity (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, forthcoming 2018)
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaborative project 'Displaced Persons in the Pre-Modern World', with Kristina Sessa and Ying Zhang at Ohio State University 
Organisation Ohio State University
Country United States of America 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI Julia Hillner will visit Ohio State University in April 2018 for a meeting involving the three principal collaborators and Hillner's PhD student Rob Heffron, who studies female movement and segregation in Rome and Constantinople. These visits will include the presentation of research papers by both Hillner and Heffron. Among others, Hillner will give a paper at the Confinement Working Group, for the Pre-Modernist Working Group in the Department of History or for the Global Mobility Project. Hillner will also teach a master class for postgraduates on the Clerical exile database. The main aim of the visit is planning the next steps of this collaboration (an international workshop on Displacement in Classical Antiquity, and a co-edited volume on Displacement in the Pre-Modern World).
Collaborator Contribution Hillner, Sessa and Zhang together applied for funding to the Faculties of Arts at, respectively, the University of Sheffield and Ohio State University. Sessa and Zhang will host Hillner and her PhD student Heffron at Ohio State University for a week and organise a calendar of academic events during that week to further the project aims.
Impact Succesful funding application to the Faculties of Arts and Humanities of, respectively, the University of Sheffield and Ohio State University for the project 'Displaced Persons in the Pre-Modern World'.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Connecting Late Antiquity, with Dr Richard Flower 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department Classics and Ancient History
Country United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland (UK) 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our PI Julia Hillner has collaborated with Dr Richard Flower on a British Academy small grant application for a project on digital late antique prosopography (Connecting Late Antiquity), which has been submitted with Flower as PI in November 2017. Clerical Exile: The Migration of Faith is listed as a project partner in this application. If the project is successful, Hillner will be contributing to this project not only through sharing data collected in the Migration of Faith database, but also through providing her expertise of the issues involved in creating and using a catalogue of this sort. The project to be funded by the British Academy small grant is planned as a pilot project for a larger application to the AHRC, with Flower as PI and Hillner as Co-I.
Collaborator Contribution Richard Flower has submitted the British Academy small grant application, with Clerical Exile: The Migration of Faith listed as a project partner.
Impact British Academy Small Grant application 'Connecting Late Antiquity', November 2017
Start Year 2017
 
Description Feodor-Lynen Fellowship (sponsored by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation) 
Organisation Alexander von Humboldt Foundation
Country Germany, Federal Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution PI Julia Hillner will act as a host for a Feodor Lynen fellow, Dr Maik Patzelt from the University of Erfurt, in 2018. Dr Patzelt will work on a project on women and aristocratic networks in late antiquity that will draw directly on the methods developed and some of the data collected by The Migration of Faith: Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity.
Collaborator Contribution The Alexander von Humboldt Foundation sponsors Dr Patzelt's 12-month fellowship to be held at the University of Sheffield. More information about the Feodor Lynen Fellowship, a prestigious award for German academics for research stays abroad, can be found here: https://www.humboldt-foundation.de/web/lynen-fellowship.html
Impact Successful application by PI Julia Hillner and Dr Patzelt to the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Funding application with Profs Dahmen and Kenna 
Organisation Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Country Brazil, Federative Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PI Julia Hillner has submitted a funding application for a Leverhulme project grant with Prof Silvio Dahmen, University of Porto Alegre, Brazil, and Prof Ralph Kenna, University of Coventry (as Co-Is). This application and the research it is proposing is building on the results drawn from the application of social network analysis in this project. An outline application to the Leverhulme Trust was successful in February 2017 and a full application has been submitted in November 2017. Results are pending.
Collaborator Contribution The project is designed as true collaboration between historians (Julia Hillner and a PDRA) and network scientists (Prof Kenna and Prof Dahmen). Prof Dahmen and his team at the University of Porto Alegre will use historical data to further research into algorithms of dynamic network analysis. Prof Kenna will contribute quality assurance and general expertise in network science using historical data.
Impact Women, Peace and Conflict: Gendered Networks in Early Medieval Narratives, Full Project Grant application, submitted to the Leverhulme Trust in November 2017 (£166,000). Prof Dahmen and his collaborator Prof Ana Bazzan have received 10,000 Brazil Real (=c. £2200) to organise a small workshop in Porto Alegre on this topic in 2019 from the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Porto Alegre (RIMP grant).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Bischöfe im Exil. Beobachtungen zur Verbannung von Klerikern in der Spätantike -- priest seminar training 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our Co-I, Prof Joerg Ulrich, gave two seminars at the University of Halle, Germany, on clerical exile in late antiquity for priests in training (c. 30-40 participants, on 16/11/2016 and 11/1/2017).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Clerical Exile Film Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project has organised a film series around the themes of mobility, forced movement and religious conversion in the Roman and late Roman empire. Four films have been screened, attracting an audience of altogether ca. 250 people. The films were followed by a Question and Answer session with an academic expert on the topic at hand (Dr Daniele Miano from the University of Sheffield for the first, Dr Meredith Warren from the University of Sheffield for the second, Prof Kate Cooper from the University of Manchester for the third and Dr Richard Flower from the University of Exeter for the fourth). Feedback cards were handed out, of which altogether 48 were filled in. Of these 28 reported that the attendee had changed their views on the period studied by this project, while 45 reported that they had received new information. One attendee wrote 'I had never before considered the intersection between the early Church and Rome. I will research this further'. Others wrote they learned 'how ancient themes are still relevant today' and that they appreciated the 'links with modern day events'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/2017/06/15/sheffield-travels-into-late-antiquity/
 
Description Clerical exile book club 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project organised a series of book clubs held in local pubs, reading a variety of novels focussing on the topic of mobility, religious conflict, exile and conversion in late antiquity (Carrere, The Kingdom; Waugh, Helena; Spinella, Heresy; Ziedan, Azazeel). Attendance of the book club was static (i.e. the same people attended at least two) and overall engaged about 10 members of the local community. One attendee commented:"I very much valued these book group sessions [I attended]. To be able to to discuss two books which take determinedly but very different modern approaches to the retelling of ancient historical events in the company of university staff who were familiar with the ancient sources and context was both instructive and rewarding - especially in the case of the Carrère which was completely new to me and which I have recommended elsewhere, for all its idiosyncrasies. The reading and discussion stimulated interest in a period about which I know little as well as increasing my knowledge about both authors."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/2016/10/
 
Description Festival of Arts and Humanities, Sheffield, March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project had a multi-media stand at the Sheffield Festival of Arts and Humanities on 11 March 2017. The stand was open from 11am-4pm on that day and involved hands-on-activities as well as question and answer sessions with visitors to the Festival. In addition, our PhD Student, Harry Mawdsley, gave a ten-minute talk. Visitors were also asked to fill in feedback cards, of which we collected 25. Of these, 18 reported that they had changed what they thought about the period and themes under study ('the Mediterranean, the early Christian church or the Roman empire'). All reported that they had received new information. One reported that the stall invited them 'to remain open-minded about faith. Additionally how important history is to our progression and future'. Another thanked us for 'telling me history which I knew nothing about'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Festival of Arts and Humanities, Sheffield, May 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project had a multi-media stand at the Sheffield Festival of Arts and Humanities on 20 May 2016. The stand was open from 11am-4pm on that day and involved hands-on-activities as well as question and answer sessions with visitors to the Festival. Visitors were also asked to fill in feedback cards, of which we collected 16. Of these, 12 reported that they had changed what they thought about the period and themes under study ('the Mediterranean, the early Christian church or the Roman empire'). All reported that they had received new information. One reported that the stall 'opened up new ideas to explore'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description First Advisory Board Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The project held an international workshop in Sheffield in January 2015 which was attended by ca. 15 colleagues from Sheffield, British and international institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/events/project-events/first-advisory-board-workshop/
 
Description Information event for the Kirchenleitungen der Evangelischen Kirche in Mitteldeutschland und der Evangelischen Kirche Anhalts 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-I Prof Joerg Ulrich held an information afternoon about the Migration of Faith for senior management of the Protestant Church of Sachsen-Anhalt (German Bundesland) at the University of Halle in December 2017. Ten Oberkirchenraete and two bishops attended. They reported much interest in our research into aspects of church history of which they had not been aware before.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Julia Hillner of the University of Sheffield discusses cruel and unusual punishments, inequality before the law and why the Romans did (and didn't) put people in prison with Dr Richard Flower from the University of Exeter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://soundcloud.com/university-of-exeter/dr-julia-hillner-on-crime-and-punishment
 
Description Kirchenkreiskonferenz in Leipzig 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our Co-I, Professor Joerg Ulrich held a workshop about The Migration of Faith for priests of the Protestant Church in Saxony at the Kirchenkreiskonferenz in Leipzig in November 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Project blog and social media activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project team maintains a regular blog that reports about project activities and relates these to topics of current public interest. We also maintain a twitter account to showcase our research and activities. So far we had more than 8000 views of the blog and ca. 500 twitter followers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/blog/
 
Description Project workshop, Exile in Late Antiquity, University of Halle, September 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact 9-9.30 Coffee

9.30-10 Welcome, The Clerical Exile Project: Objectives and Current Stage (Jörg Ulrich, Jakob Engberg, Julia Hillner)

10-11.15 Clerics and Exile

Melissa Markauskas (Manchester): 'Some Bishops are More Equal than Others: Re-Assessing the Evidence for Episcopal Immunity from Imperial Jurisdiction before Theodosius I'

Ariane Bodin (Paris-Ouest Nanterre ): 'Faustus of Praesidium and his exile'



11.15-11.45 Coffee break



11.45.-13.00 Lay People and Exile

Belinda Washington (Edinburgh): 'The changed nature of exile for imperial women in the fourth and fifth centuries AD'

Jaime de Miguel López (Alcalá): 'Exile and Prison in Late Antiquity. The Penalties against Pagans during the reign of Emperor Zeno'



13.00-14.00 Lunch



14.00-15.15 East and West

Fernández Aitor (Alcalá): 'Is that diplomacy? Exilium, confinement and physical punishments within Roman diplomatic practice during the long sixth century'

Harry Mawdsley (Sheffield): 'Exile in the Barbarian Law Codes: A Comparative Study'



15.15-15.45 Coffee



15.45-17.00 Places of Exile

Noelia Ramirez (Alcalá): 'Where to banish the convict? The typology of places of exile in North Africa (ss. III-VI)'

Paola Lavarini (Padova): 'Places and types of exile during the Gothic Kingdom of Italy (1st half of the VI century)'



17.00-18.00 Feedback on the Clerical Exile Database (to be shared beforehand with all participants)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.hrionline.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/halle-late-antique-exile-workshop-2-september-2016/
 
Description Radio programme, KNR (National Radio of Greenland), "Omvendelse og Romerrigets Kristning ca. 50-400 e.Kr." 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact On 11 November 2014 Dr Jakob Engberg (Co-Investigator forthe Migration of Faith project) gave a lecture at Ilisimatusarfik (University of Greenland) that was broadcast on KNR (National Radio of Greenland). The lecture discussed the project, specifically with regard to examples of how exile might have facilitated the spread of Christianity in two known cases during late antiquity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://knr.gl/da/radio/omvendelse-og-romerrigets-kristning-11112014
 
Description Roundtable: Who was/is a Refugee? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact At the project's final conference in London in April 2017 the project organised a panel consisting of academics, policy makers (from Amnesty International) and journalists to discuss differences and parallels of the definition for and experiences of refugees in late antiquity and in the contemporary world. On the basis of this the PI has been invited to submit a policy paper to History & Policy (www.historyandpolicy.org).
Stephen Brown, editor of Ecumenical Review commented: "The "Forced Movement in Late Antiquity" conference was useful for various reasons. As editor of The Ecumenical Review, the quarterly journal of the World Council of Churches, the conference offered many insights on Christianity in late antiquity and the role played by conflict, exile and refuge in the development of doctrine during this period. From a more contemporary perspective, I have been the chair of the steering committee for a project on Refugees Reporting (www.refugeesreporting.eu) that has been dealing with issues of media representation of refugees and migrants as well as the opportunities for refugees and migrants to speak for themselves and articulate their own interests. The roundtable held during the conference on "Who was/is a Refugee?" was of direct relevance to this project - and were many of the issues raised at the conference are also issues we have been dealing with in the project - including refugees from legal prosecution and wars, refugees from slavery or tenant labour, refugees from civic obligations, wage labourers looking for work, or women married across communities. The conference helped place current reflections on refugees and migrants in a broader historical perspective, not least with the Mediterranean and Middle East focus, given the many refugees arriving in Europe from Syria and transiting through Mediterranean countries.
Dr Stephen Brown
Editor, The Ecumenical Review (www.oikoumene.org/erev)
President, World Association for Christian Commuication/Europe region (www.wacceurope.org)"
Klaus Wivel, a journalist from Danish Weekendavisen (Copenhagen, https://www.weekendavisen.dk/bog/anmelder/klaus-wivel), commented: "Last Spring 2017 I was honored to be invited to participate in the Forced Movement Conference in London among a selection of the most distinguished scholars in the field of Christian migration during the Roman period and the Middle Ages. I was asked to talk about the current migration of Christians in the Middle East on the basis of my recent book on the topic, and even though I'm a journalist I was struck by the depth of the knowledge which raised many new aspects of the topic for me."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dhi.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/2017/04/24/conference-report-forced-movement-in-late-antiq...
 
Description Second Advisory Board Workshop Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The project held its second advisory board workshop in Sheffield in January 2016. The workshop was attended by ca. 15 colleagues from local, British and international institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.hrionline.ac.uk/sites/clericalexile/events/project-events/second-advisory-board-workshop/
 
Description Talk in Sheffield Cathedral 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our PI, Dr Julia Hillner, gave a talk at Sheffield Cathedral in the series Religion and Law: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives in Autumn 2016. About 25 members of the public attended. The talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards. Ca. 14 attendees filled in a feedback card of which ca. 90% explained that they had learned something they had never considered before.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://turbulentpriests.group.shef.ac.uk/exile-creating-orthodoxy-in-the-roman-empire/
 
Description Visit to the Historical Association in Hull 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Julia Hillner gave a talk at the Hull Historical Association on 26 February 2016. This was attended by ca. 20 members of the general public. the talk sparked question and discussion afterwards and the chair of the Historical Association afterwards reported by email:

"Having heard about the subservience expected of women in antiquity I shall certainly celebrate International Women's day with enthusiasm. As well as enjoying learning more about the later Roman period and the impact in the later centuries, it was good to see how much can be learned about women's lives by studying the laws and customs society (men) set up to control women. A real advantage to be reminded of this."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop at the Oxford Patristics Conference 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project organised a workshop, with three sessions over three days, for the International Patristics Conference in Oxford, August 2015. The workshop brought together a group of 12 scholars from the UK, Europe and North America. The work was presented to a large audience of scholars and other audiences (mainly clergy) and sparked vibrant discussion and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://oxfordpatristics.blogspot.co.uk/2015/03/julia-hillner-clerical-exile-in-late.html