Mechanical function of the primate craniofacial skeleton

Lead Research Organisation: University of Hull
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

This project aims to build computer models that allow us to emulate and experiment with growth of the facial skeleton in primates, chosen because they are anatomically similar to and therefore informative regarding human facial growth. Although genetic systems regulate the early part of post natal craniofacial growth, later development is strongly regulated by mechanical loading. The craniofacial skeleton responds to its immediate mechanical environment by passively growing where bones meet (the sutures) in response to the expansion of the soft tissues (e.g. brain, tongue, muscles). It is also resculpted by modelling and remodelling mechanisms that add and remove bone from surfaces, being modulated by the mechanical milieu. It is important we understand these mechanically regulated processes because they are essential not only in normal growth but also when things go wrong. Further we need to know how the features of craniofacial form that characterise and vary between related species come about. Commonly our teeth do not fit well to our mouths, yet in the historical past this was not the case; what has happened? The answer likely lies in the change to softer diets that alter the mechanical loading of the growing face and subsequent growth. More rarely sutures may fuse too early or skull cartilages may not grow adequately because of inherited conditions. The subsequent growth of the skull has to adapt to the altered starting conditions and optimise function. The mechanical signals are key in this. Understanding mechanical regulation should lead to better prediction of normal and altered growth and understanding of which features of the facial skeleton are inherited and which adapted to local mechanics. This is important in resolving arguments about the relationships among fossil and living species. One approach to understanding the mechanical regulation of the growth of the face is to carry out experiments in which animals are operated on to cut muscles, move teeth, excise structures etc and observe the outcomes. This has been a very profitable line of research especially in primates, our nearest relatives but now it is ethically and economically difficult to carry on this work in the UK. Our current best sources of information in these areas come from continuing animal studies outside Europe, especially in the USA. Animal experiments are very useful but they are difficult to properly control and lengthy and time consuming to carry out and interpret. They could be replaced if we had a good computer model of facial, and eventually, skull growth. While such a full model is long way off we plan in this project to emulate the mechanical regulation of facial bone adaptation that will allow prediction of the consequences of altered loading. The work will build on computer models that we have developed over the past three years employing engineering techniques for predicting how loads are distributed (finite elements analysis / FEA). We will apply them to two related old world monkey groups, macaques and mangabeys, with similar faces at birth that develop very different features of adult form. Thus macaques develop air sinuses in the maxilla but mangabeys do not, instead they develop deep excavations of the external aspect of the face, the maxillary fossae. We will extend our models by simulating what we know of how bone adapts so that initial loading is used to drive simulated bone deposition or resorption. We will then carry out a series of experiments with our computer models to test ideas about the development of features of facial form and in so doing work to improve our models and our understanding. In this way we will advance knowledge of how the face grows and develop technologies that will underpin future, more complete models of craniofacial development that will eventually underpin predictions of growth with applicability in biology, medicine and studies of human and primate origins.

Technical Summary

We propose to extend our work on primate craniofacial mechanics to the prediction and simulation of aspects of growth. We will model mechanical regulation of bony development first by attempting to explain the development of characteristic remodelling fields and then of anatomical features of adult form, not present at birth such as bony thickenings (e.g. pillars) and structures (e.g. the sinuses, fossae processes and prominences). We will capitalise on our novel software tool developments, extending and validating these to address these issues. Multibody dynamics analysis (MDA) will be used to estimate the external forces applied by biorealistic muscle models during normal skull loading. Finite elements analysis (FEA) and a unique adaptive FEA approach from earlier work will be validated against experimental data and incorporated into our present software (Vox-FE). This will be used to model the skulls, predicting their response to changing patterns of stress/strain that result from enlargement of the brain and/or sense organs, variations in sutures and jaw muscles, and the developing dentition. These predicted outcomes will be compared with observed features and discrepancies will guide reformulation of our models and the underlying algorithms for adaptive responses. We will extend our knowledge of craniofacial ontogeny in primates and progress towards the eventual goal of a detailed in silico model that will incorporate the passive expansion of sutures, active growth of cartilages, patterning of bony responsiveness to mechanical conditions and systemic and intrinsic biochemical regulation. To support this work we have access to cadaveric and dried skulls, 3D microCT data and to a supercomputer for highly detailed static and adaptive skull remodelling studies. The work will be carried out by a multidisciplinary team working in state of the art engineering, anatomical and computational facilities and building on years of prior experience and development.

Publications

10 25 50
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Curtis N (2014) Development and three-dimensional morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. in Folia primatologica; international journal of primatology

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Curtis N (2013) Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. in Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

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Curtis N (2008) Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. in Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)

 
Description This project examined how the skull is shaped by mechanical loading. Our main aim was to simulate mechanical loading and its effects on the skull, both in adults and in younger individuals to test current hypotheses concerning the regulation and control of skull growth. In particular how does the skull come to develop and maintain such things as brow ridges, air sinuses, thickenings of bone and cavites within bones? In order to investigate these questions we first had to make advances in methods for virtual simulation and comparison of skull loadings and their outcomes. The loadings applied to the skull by muscles when biting were simulated using multibody dynamic analysis, a technique that replicates the forces generated by muscles taking account of skull and muscle geometry. We built the most sophisticated models to date of any primate of adult and juvenile macaque and mangabey crania, and used these to simulate biting. Our findings replicated published data and so we can be confident that the models correctly predicted muscle forces in subsequent experiments. We then applied the predicted loading scenarios for bites on each tooth in finite elements analyses of the same crania; simulating how they deform when loaded. We were able to show in separate experiments that the predicted deformations matched experimental ones, and so are reliable. In order to optimise our simulations we then carried out extensive experiments varying and assessing our modelling. These provided important new insights into how to build reliable functional models of the skull and how to assess the impact of modelling decisions on functioning. Additionally we discovered a potential mechanism whereby the zygomatic arch, the cheek bone, is protected from developing high strains during forceful bites. This is significant in that it potentially explains the slenderness of the arch and how the zygomatic region tolerates what until now was thought to be very high strains. Finally, we successfully extended our software (VOX-FE) such that it allows us to more accurately represent models and can now simulate how bones adapt to loads by adding and removing material as necessary. The second component of our work explored linkages between facial loading and morphology. These indicated, amongst other things, that facial sutures do not reduce strains in the face during biting, this was thought to be a possibility. Additionally, we assessed the extent to which loadings can predict where bone is deposited or removed during growth or after altered jaw functioning (e.g. following surgery). Our results suggest that prediction is feasible, which is of potential value in clinical situations. We were also able to complete work on browridge mechanical function with the finding that the supraorbital region experiences generally low levels of strain during biting. This is consistent with what was already known but our new data suggest that, where browridges are large, they appear to act as a bar, stiffening the upper face. We developed a novel approach that allowed us to understand how the deformation of the skull during biting leads to bone wall thickenings. Finally, we were able to apply our new adaptive remodelling software with the exciting result that 'remodelling' driven by loading re-creates sinuses in skull models where these have been filled in. This supports the hypothesis that sinuses are mechanically regulated and our findings strongly suggest that much of the facial skeleton is optimised (minimum material) for the loading it experiences. These methods and findings have given us considerable confidence that we will be able to make predictions of skull growth and of the effects of injury or surgery on skull growth, although there is much to be done before this is a reality. Further, our approaches have significance for zoologists and palaeontologists who seek to understand how and why skulls differ among related species.
Exploitation Route a) Suture work developed into further projects into mammal skull growth and research into craniosynostosis and its treatment b) New approaches to the modelling of biological systems c) Education and museums Research continues - with increasing interest in clinical problems.
Sectors Healthcare

 
Description The research has provided much useful information on the relationship between biomechanical forces and skull geometry, which (with BB/E009204/1) has led directly to two follow-on projects to further elucidate: (1) the role of sutures and skull flexibility (kinesis) in some animals; and (2) the biomechanics of mandibles, which is providing information that will be useful to future dental research. In addition, the work has led to a long-term research project investigating craniosynostosis, a rare clinical condition where premature fusion of the sutures in the skull occurs. That project includes an investigation into the biomechanics of skull growth, which will have other potential clinical applications.
First Year Of Impact 2012
Sector Healthcare
 
Description Mechanical adaptation of cortical and trabecular bone morphology in the mammalian mandible
Amount £342,040 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/I008462/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2011 
End 08/2014
 
Description RAEng Fellowship for Dr Mehran Moazen
Amount £438,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2012 
End 02/2017
 
Description The role of skull flexibility in feeding - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques
Amount £310,869 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/H011668/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2010 
End 10/2013
 
Description The role of soft tissues in cranial biomechanics - an investigation using advanced computer modelling techniques.
Amount £764,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M008525/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Three dimensional analysis of maxillofacial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate
Amount £96,401 (GBP)
Funding ID 205923/Z/17/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description Understanding the functional evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw joint across the cynodont-mammaliaform transition
Amount £53,398 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/K013831/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Title Combined MDA and FEA for investigating the biomechanics of skulls 
Description A combined computer modelling technique to predict musculoskeletal loading of skulls. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Better understanding of the role of sutures in skulls. This could lead to a reduction in animal use. 
 
Description Partnership with Dundee Dental School 
Organisation University of Dundee
Department School of Dentistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Skull biomechanics. Image processing and visualisation.
Collaborator Contribution Dental expertise.
Impact Wellcome Trust Seed Award gained by early career colleague
Start Year 2016
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Hull York Medical School
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation National History Museum, Paris, France
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation Ruhr University Bochum
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Chicago
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Description Skull modelling group 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution FEA and MDA modelling expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Anatomy expertise, geometric morphometrics expertise, in vivo measurement.
Impact • PJ Watson, F Gröning, N Curtis, L Fitton, A Herrel, S McCormack, MJ Fagan. 2014. Multi-body dynamics modelling of the rabbit skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 11:99, 20140564. • SW McCormack, U Witzel, PJ Watson, MJ Fagan, F Gröning. 2014. The biomechanical function of periodontal ligament fibres in orthodontic tooth movement. PLoS One 9:7 e102387. • Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 1983-92. • N Curtis, U Witzel, MJ Fagan. 2014. Development and 3D morphology of the zygomaticotemporal suture in primate skulls. Folia Primatologica 85: 77-87. DOI: 10.1159/000357526 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. 2013. Cranial sutures work collectively to distribute strain throughout the reptile skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:86, 20130442. • F Gröning, MEH Jones, N Curtis, A Herrel, P O'Higgins, SE. Evans, MJ. Fagan. The importance of accurate muscle modelling for biomechanical analyses: a case study with a lizard skull. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:84, 20132016. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Comparing the distribution of strains with the distribution of bone tissue in a human mandible: a finite element study. Anatomical Record, 296:1, 9-18, 2013. • P O'Higgins, LC Fitton, R Phillips, JF Shi, J Liu, F Gröning, SN Cobb, MJ Fagan. 2012. Virtual functional morphology: novel approaches to the study of craniofacial form and function. Evolutionary Biology, 39:4, 521-535. • MEH Jones, I Werneburg, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. The head and neck anatomy of sea turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and skull shape in Testudines. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47852, 2012. • J Shi, N Curtis, LC Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Developing a musculoskeletal model of the primate skull: predicting muscle activations, bite force, and joint reaction forces using multibody dynamics analysis and advanced optimisation methods. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 310, 21-30, 2012. • MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans, N Curtis. Shearing mechanics and the influence of a flexible symphysis during oral food processing in Sphenodon (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia). Anatomical Record, 295:7, 1075-1091, 2012. • LC Fitton, JF Shi, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loadings and cranial deformation in Macaca fascicularis: a finite element analysis sensitivity study. Journal of Anatomy, 221:1, 55-68, 2012. • F Gröning, JA Bright, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Improving the validation of finite element models with quantitative full-field strain comparisons. Journal of Biomechanics. 45:8, 1498-1506, 2012. • PG Cox, EJ Rayfield, MJ Fagan, A Herrel, TC Pataky, N Jeffery. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents. PLoS One, 7(4): e36299, 2012. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Modelling the human mandible under masticatory loads. Which input variables are important? Anatomical Record. 295(5):853-63, 2012. • F Gröning, MJ Fagan. Comment on "The effects of modelling simplifications on craniofacial finite element models: The alveoli (tooth sockets) and periodontal ligaments" (volume 44, issue 10, pages 1831-1838). Journal of Biomechanics. 45:9, 1749-50. • J Liu, JF Shi, LC Fitton, R Phillips, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The application of muscle wrapping to voxel-based finite element models of skeletal structures. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology. 11:1 35-47, 2012 • N Curtis, MEH Jones, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Functional relationship between skull form and feeding mechanics in diapsid reptiles. PLoS One, 6:12, e29804, 2011. • MJ Higham, T Compton, C Stringer, R Jacobi, B Shapiro, E Trinkaus, B Chandler, F Gröning, C Collins, S Hillson, P O'Higgins, C FitzGerald, MJ Fagan. The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in Europe. Nature, 479, 521-524, 2011. • PG Cox, MJ Fagan, EJ Rayfield, N Jeffery. Finite element modelling of the rodent skull: sensitivity analyses of finite element models of rat, guinea pig and squirrel skulls. Journal of Anatomy, 219, 696-709, 2011. • N Curtis, U Witzel, L Fitton, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The mechanical significance of the temporal fasciae in Macaca fascicularis: an investigation using finite element analysis. Anatomical Record, 294:7, 1178-90, 2011 • MEH Jones, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, SE Evans. Hard tissue anatomy of the cranial joints in Sphenodon (Rhynchocephalia): sutures, kinesis, and skull mechanics. Palaeontologia Electronica, 14:2, 17A:92p. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. The effects of the periodontal ligament on mandibular stiffness: a study combining finite element analysis and geometric morphometrics. Journal of Biomechanics, 44:7, 1304-1312, 2011. • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Why do humans have chins? Testing the mechanical significance of modern human symphyseal morphology with finite element analysis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144: 593-606, 2011. • P O'Higgins, S Cobb, LC Fitton, F Gröning, R Phillips, J Liu, MJ Fagan. Combining geometric morphometrics and functional simulation: an emerging toolkit for virtual functional analyses. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1 3-15, 2011. • N Curtis. Craniofacial biomechanics: an overview of recent multibody modelling studies. Journal of Anatomy, 218:1, 16-25, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01317.x • PJ Watson, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan, CA Dobson. Validation of a morphometric reconstruction technique applied to a juvenile pelvis. Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 225:1, 48-57, 2011. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Feedback control from the jaw joints during biting: an investigation of the reptile Sphenodon using multibody modelling. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:16, 3132-3137, 2010. • N Curtis, MEH Jones, AK Lappin, P O'Higgins, SE Evans, MJ Fagan. Comparison between in vivo and theoretical bite performance: using multi-body modelling to predict muscle and bite forces in a reptile skull. Journal of Biomechanics, 43:14, 2804-2809, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, JF Shi, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Predicting muscle activation patterns from motion and anatomy: modelling the skull of Sphenodon (Diapsida: rhynchocephalia). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 7, 153-160, 2010. • N Curtis, M Jones, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Visualising muscle anatomy using three-dimensional computer models - an example using the head and neck muscles of Sphenodon. Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:3, 7T:18pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_3/194). • M Jones, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. The head and neck muscles associated with feeding in Sphenodon (Reptilia: lepidosauria: rhynchocephalia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 12:2, 7A:56pp, 2009. (http://palaeo-electronica.org/2009_2/179) • F Gröning, J Liu, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Validating a voxel-based finite element model of a human mandible using digital speckle pattern interferometry. Journal of Biomechanics. 42, 1224-1229, 2009. • K Kupczik, CA Dobson, RH Crompton, R Phillips, CE Oxnard, MJ Fagan, P O'Higgins. Masticatory loading and bone adaptation in the supraorbital torus of developing macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139: 193-203, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Biomechanical assessment of evolutionary changes in the lepidosaurian skull. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 20, 8273-8277, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, P O'Higgins, MEH Jones, SE Evans, MJ Fagan Assessment of the role of sutures in a lizard skull - a computer modelling study. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Part B, 276, 39-46, 2009. • M Moazen, N Curtis, SE Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull. Journal of Anatomy, 213, 499-508, 2008. • M Moazen, N Curtis, S Evans, P O'Higgins, MJ Fagan. Rigid body analysis of the lizard skull: modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics, 41:6, 1274-1280, 2008. • N Curtis, K Kupczik, P O'Higgins, M Moazen, MJ Fagan. Predicting skull loading: applying multibody dynamics analysis to a macaque skull. The Anatomical Record, 291, 491-501, 2008. • K Kupczik, CA. Dobson, MJ Fagan, RH Crompton, CE Oxnard, P O'Higgins. Assessing mechanical function of the zygomatic region in macaques: validation and sensitivity testing of finite element models. Journal of Anatomy, 210:1, 41-53, 2007.
Start Year 2007
 
Title VOX-FE voxel based FE software 
Description Voxel based FE software 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2012 
Impact Nothing significant so far. A follow on project should see it developed it unique software for very high resolution FE modelling.