Second Generation Sustainable Bacterial Biofuels

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Sch of Molecular Medical Sciences

Abstract

Currently the fuels we use to provide electricity or to run motor vehicles is derived from coal, oil and gas. The availability of these 'fossil fuels' is limited and will be exhausted by the middle of this century. Furthermore, fossil fuels are a major contributor to global warming. Thus, there is considerable interest in using environmentally friendly and renewable systems for producing 'biofuels'. To date, there has been widespread adoption of ethanol production from plant derived starch using yeast in a fermentation process akin to that used in brewing. Two fundamental improvements would be of benefit. On the one hand, more effective fuels to ethanol could be produced. On the other, starch is an important component of the human diet. If we are to feed the expanding world population, alternative feedstocks to starch are required. These challenges would be met by the production of the superior biofuel, butanol, and by using microbes able to convert plant lignocellulose into biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol, can make use of existing petrol supply and distribution channels, can be blended with petrol at higher concentrations without engine modification, offers better fuel economy and has, unlike ethanol, potential as aviation fuel. Lignocellulose, the most abundant source of organic carbon on the planet, is both renewable and does not represent a human food source. Butanol producing bacteria are called 'solventogenic' and belong to a group called Clostridium. Although, the solventogenic species that produce butanol are unable to degrade lignocellulose, Clostridium species do exist that can due to the production of a complex of enzymes called the 'cellulosome'. The cellulosome is one of the most efficient plant cell wall degrading systems known. Using proprietary technology, we will take the genes which code for the cellulosome from one bacterium and introduce them into the chromosome of a butanol producer in a process termed 'synthetic biology'. The ability of the engineered bacterium to degrade plant cell walls and ferment the sugars generated into butanol will be evaluated. Further improvements to the process will be made by alteration of the cell's genetic makeup to improve butanol yields. The most effective strains will be tested on an industrial demonstration scale. The net result will be the creation of more environmentally friendly, sustainable processes for second generation biofuel production. Partner Roles: The programme is led by Prof Nigel P Minton (Nottingham), a world expert in the modification of Clostridium bacteria. The work is underpinned by a portfolio of patented technologies developed within his group and through the skills and expertise of Dr Dave Bolam & Prof Harry Gilbert (Newcastle) who are expert in the functional analysis of the cellulosome. The objectives are supported by key Nottingham strengths in bioinformatics (Prof Charlie Hodgman), mechanistic modeling (Prof John King) and biological circuitry engineering (Dr John Crowe). Crucial, is the participation of TMO Renewables Ltd, a world leader in the development of second generation sustainable biofuels, who will both part fund the work and undertake the small and large scale analysis of the strains generated. These skills are supplemented by input and advice from Prof Hubert Bahl (Rostock) and Dr Wilf Mitchell (Heriot Watt), expert in Clostridium physiology. Collaborative Links between P5 and other programmes: Subject to suitable agreement with the relevant industrial partners involved in other BSBEC Progammes (P1-6), we will undertake the evaluation of; - optimised feedstocks (Willow and Miscanthus) from P1 for biobutanol production, - the potential of enzymes identified by P2 & P6 for incorporation into designer cellulosomes, - a sub-set of barley genotypes showing improved saccharification from P3 will be evaluated for biobutanol production, - optimised wheat feedstocks from P4 for biobutanol production.

Technical Summary

The generation of the butanol from lignocellulose (plant cell walls) has considerable BioEnergy potential. The major limitation to exploiting lignocellulose, however, is the rate at which these composite structures can be degraded by enzyme consortia. The most economic method of delivering these enzymes into the biomass conversion process is to engineer the fermenting organism to synthesise the plant cell wall degrading apparatus. In this project we will develop a consolidated bioprocessing system by introducing the plant cell wall degrading multienzyme complex from Clostridium cellulolyticum (cellulosome) into the butanol producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. Genes will be stably introduced into the genome using a newly developed, and patented, technological innovation which allows the construction of complex operons encoding the large number of catalytic components involved. Initially in vitro experiments will be used to develop an enzyme cocktail that is optimized for plant cell wall degradation. To assemble the enzymes into a cellulosome, to maximise the essential synergy between the catalytic components, the scaffolding protein will be inserted from Clostridium thermocellum, which will be tethered to the bacterial cell wall though a type II cohesin-dockerin interaction. By engineering promoter strengths the stoichiometries of the enzymes will be optimized for cell wall degradation. The genetic approach will also be used to identify genes that significantly enhance the degradation process by selecting for the activation of 'pro-genes'. The strains developed will be evaluated in butanol fermentation trials using plant biomass as the carbon and energy source. The readout from these initial experiments will inform modelling of cellulosome composition and action, which will inform further modification of the cellulosome through an iterative process. Finally, the influence of scale up will be evaluated through our industrial partner.

Publications

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Bradshaw M (2010) Construction of a nontoxigenic Clostridium botulinum strain for food challenge studies. in Applied and environmental microbiology

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Ehsaan M (2016) Clostridium difficile Genome Editing Using pyrE Alleles. in Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)

 
Description IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE PORTFOLIO OF ENZYMES IN THE DESIGNER CELLULOSOMES
We have identified novel cellulosomal enzymes based on proteins that contain domains of unknown function, and members of enzyme families that deviate from the canonical sequences. These strategies have identified a novel endoglucanase that targets the interface between crystalline and disordered cellulose (PNAS (2011) 108, 5237-42), a xylanase that specifically targets arabinoxylans, which has the capacity to attack how decorated substrates (JBC (2011) 28:22510-20). Finally a novel mannanase has been identified in which the appended CBM32 binds the terminal residues of mannan and prevents wasteful transglycosylations (AEM (2012) 78, 4781-7)

CONSTRUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL CELLULOSOME OPERONS
We used BioBrick2 (BB2) standardised parts to assemble a range of synthetic genes encoding Clostridium thermocellum, Clostridium cellulolyticum and chimeric cellulosomal subunits. These included cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins (CipA and a range of shortened variants, as well as a mini-CipC variant), glycoside hydrolases (GHs, Cel8A, Cel9F, Cel48S and Cel9K from C. thermocellum, Cel48F and Cel9G from C. cellulolyticum and chimeric hydrolases Cel48F, Cel48F*, Cel9G, Cel9E, Xyn10A) as well as synthetic cellulosomal operons comprised of scaffoldin protein and the GHs Cel9F and Cel8A. Further optimised cellulosomal operons are under construction.

INSERTION OF CELLULOSOME GENE MODULES INTO THE C. ACETOBUTYLICUM GENOME
The synthetic genes and operons built by BB2 standard assembly were integrated into the Clostridium acetobutylicum genome using ACE technology. The successful expression, secretion, self-assembly and activity of Clostridium cellulolyticum and Clostridium thermocellum-derived mini-cellulosomes produced by recombinant C. acetobutylicum strains were demonstrated, although the expression levels were low. To counteract this, we developed an orthogonal expression which combines the advantage of achieving high expression levels of the desired cellulosome components in the clostridial host, while negating detrimental expression in E. coli during operon assembly.

TO USE METABOLIC ENGINEERING TO ESTABLISH A MORE FAVOURABLE BUTANOL RATIO
Following a large-scale ClosTron mutagenesis screening of the key genes involved in acid/ solvent production, we undertook novel pathway assembly in a 'blank canvas' strain (pSOL1-minus) using synthetic biology principles. Strains were generated with both improved butanol ratios (relative to acetone and ethanol) and producing the fuel, iso-propanol. A Road Map to gene system development, and subsequent metabolic engineering, in any bacterial species was formulated and exemplified in C. beijerinckii, C. difficile, C. botulinum, C. ljungdahli and Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. The latter allowed the re-creation of the TMO production strain in < 1 month.

ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF LIGNOCELLULOSE DEGRADATION/BUTANOL PRODUCTION BY ENGINEERED STRAINS
Productivity of both cellulosic hydrolases and butanol is presently sub-optimal. To test the influence of BioBrick concatenation, FLAG-tags and RBS sequences, and to incorporate the lessons learned regarding our orthogonal promoter system variants, a range of new engineered strains have been constructed and are currently being tested. In parallel, the efficiency of strains (including our newly isolated C. beijerinckii butanol producer 59B and G. thermoglucosidasius production strain), are being evaluated on hydrolysates derived from rice straw as part of our collaboration with Vietnam.

TO DERIVE MODELS OF CELLULOSOME COMPOSITION AND ACTION
We have been developing model systems to address these issues. In vitro experiments have shown that the novel endoglucanase, described above, acts in synergy with the major reducing end GH48 celloobiohydrolase of the cellulosome, Cel48S (PNAS (2011) 108, 5237-42). We have also explored cohesin-dockerin specificities to develop our understanding of cellulosomes assembly (JBC (2012) 287, 44394-405) and we are currently developing a 3D structure of the complete cellulosomes by combine single catalytic components with the scaffoldin.

A MORE COMPLETE RESPONSE WILL BE SUBSEQUENTLY ADDED FOLLOWING COMPLETION OF A FINAL REPORT FOR THE BSBEC SAB
Exploitation Route Our 'Road Map' to gene system development has opened up whole new avenues of research in terms of 'new' bacterial chassis (Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius) pathogenesis (C. difficile), food security (C. botulinum) and most significantly Gas Fermentation exploitation (C. ljungdahlii).
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description Our 'Road Map' to gene system development has been extensively used in other ongoing projects.
First Year Of Impact 2011
Sector Chemicals,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Cultural,Economic

 
Description BBSRC - DBT SuBB Award: RICEFUEL
Amount £1,393,966 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K020358/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2013 
End 10/2016
 
Description BBSRC Brazil Partnership Award
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M027740/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2015 
End 03/2019
 
Description BBSRC CASE DNA2.0
Amount £100,126 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L016478/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description BBSRC CASE Studentship (GBL)
Amount £109,400 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K013297/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description BBSRC CHINA Partneship Award - Utilising Steel Mill 'Off-Gas' for Chemical Commodity Production using Synthetic Biology
Amount £31,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L01081X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2018
 
Description BBSRC India Partnership
Amount £27,385 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J020427/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2012 
End 11/2016
 
Description BBSRC Network in Industrial Biotechnology and Bioenergy (NIBB) - C1NET: CHEMICALS FROM C1 GAS
Amount £1,827,564 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L013800/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2014 
End 02/2019
 
Description BBSRC sLoLa
Amount £2,396,136 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K00283X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 02/2019
 
Description BBSRC-Vietnam (Uni York)
Amount £8,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/J013838/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2012 
End 07/2013
 
Description BBSRC/EPSRC Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SBRC)
Amount £14,300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L013940/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2014 
End 06/2019
 
Description Chain Biotech Services Rendered
Amount £22,800 (GBP)
Organisation Chain Biotech 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2016
 
Description ERA-IB4: Rational Engineering of Advanced Clostridia for Transformational Improvements in Fermentation (REACTIF)
Amount £365,499 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L000105/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2013 
End 03/2015
 
Description ERA-IB6: C02CHEM: Biological Conversion of CO2 to the Platform Chemical 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid
Amount € 781,416 (EUR)
Funding ID BB/M025896/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 02/2018
 
Description ERANET SysMO2
Amount £452,694 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/I004475/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2010 
End 12/2013
 
Description Evonik Clostridium research project
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 310422601 
Organisation Evonik Industries 
Sector Private
Country Germany
Start 12/2011 
End 07/2014
 
Description FP7 Marie Curie IIF, BUTYROL (ESR 299492): Improving butanol production by solventogenic clostridia.
Amount € 231,283 (EUR)
Funding ID PIIF-GA-2012-329845 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2015 
End 04/2017
 
Description FP7 Marie Curie IIF, GEO-HPA (ESR 625585): Development of a Sustainable Route to the Important Platform Chemical 3-Hydroxypropanoic Acid Using Synthetic Biology and a Geobacillus Chassis
Amount € 309,235 (EUR)
Funding ID PIIF-GA-2013-625585 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2016
 
Description Fully Funded Commercial Studentship (LanzaTech)
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation LanzaTech 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 10/2011 
End 10/2015
 
Description GASCHEM sLoLa Industrial component (LanzaTech)
Amount £519,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K00283X1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2013 
End 08/2018
 
Description IB Catalyst
Amount £124,471 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N010701/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Invista Commerical Contract
Amount £625,000 (GBP)
Funding ID PO NO.57603334 
Organisation Invista (UK) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2012 
End 05/2015
 
Description KTP8497 TSB/Green Biologics
Amount £97,000 (GBP)
Funding ID KTP008497 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2011 
End 09/2013
 
Description Lanxess Use of a carboxydotrophic organism
Amount £190,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 310441364 
Organisation Lanxess 
Sector Private
Country Germany
Start 02/2012 
End 08/2014
 
Description LanxessUse of Clostridium ljungdahlii
Amount £190,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lanxess 
Sector Private
Country Germany
Start 02/2012 
End 08/2014
 
Description TMO - Solvent Production by Clostridium acetobutyicum
Amount £90,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Minton BBSRC Project 
Organisation TMO Renewables Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2007 
End 09/2011
 
Description TMO Industrial Studentship (Gareth Little)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation TMO Renewables Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2009 
End 09/2013
 
Description TMO Industrial Studentship (Muhammad Ehsaan)
Amount £117,000 (GBP)
Funding ID PO TMO-KLE0176 
Organisation TMO Renewables Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2009 
End 07/2013
 
Description TSB award in the Advancing the Industrial Application of Synthetic Biology Feasibility Study Competition
Amount £244,608 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L004356/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2013 
End 01/2015
 
Title Allele Couple Exchange 
Description A molecular biology tool to enable the sequential construction of large DNA inserts in the target organisms' chromosome using homologous recombination and sequential use of selection markers. 
IP Reference WO2009101400 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2008
Licensed Yes
Impact The technology has facilitated discussions with a number of companies and academics and has lead to new grant applications and new collaborations. This technology along with others developed in the research group form the Minton Roadmap of gene technology development in bacteria. These technologies together helped lay the foundations for a £14.3m Synthetic Biology Research Centre bid to BBSRC and EPSRC which was subsequently funded.
 
Title ClosTron 
Description Genetic tool to enable ClassII intron with selection marker to be inserted into any selected gene to create a knockout mutant 
IP Reference WO2007148091 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2006
Licensed Yes
Impact Material transfer agreements have been put in place with many laboratories across the world to allow them to use this technology. This technology along with others developed in the research group form the Minton Roadmap of gene technology development in bacteria. These technologies together helped lay the foundations for a £14.3m Synthetic Biology Research Centre bid to BBSRC and EPSRC which was subsequently funded.
 
Title Development of a Negative Selection marker for Allelic Exchange in Clostridium difficile 
Description Creating mutants by allelic exchange in Clostridium difficile has yet to be reported, principally due to the lack of negative selection markers. We have developed such a marker and used it to demonstrate the creation of directed mutants (in-frame deletions, as well as SNPs) in 2 different strains of C.difficile. 
IP Reference WO2010084349 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2009
Licensed No
Impact It existence led to an external contract with a major international pharamaceutical company to create specific mutants of C.difficile useful in the development of a vaccine.
 
Title Modular vector Set pMTL80000 
Description A vector set design to facilitate the rapid construction of bespoke plasmids with specific combinations of selectable markers / replication origins etc for bacterial transformations. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Yes
Impact The modular vector set has been used my industry and academia in bacterial genetic manipulations. Over 200 material transfer agreements have been put in place to allow the materials to be sent to researchers globally.
 
Title Orthogonal Expression System 
Description Use of C. difficile transcriptional factor to obtain elevated expression of heterologous genes in Industrial process organisms 
IP Reference WO2013144647 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Has enabled implementation of mariner transposition in any Clostridium species This technology along with others developed in the research group form the Minton Roadmap of gene technology development in bacteria. These technologies together helped lay the foundations for a £14.3m Synthetic Biology Research Centre bid to BBSRC and EPSRC which was subsequently funded.
 
Title Transposon Mutagenesis and Libraries 
Description A transposon system to facilitate forward genetics allowing the creation libraries of bacteria with unique mappable gene knockouts 
IP Reference WO2013144653 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact This technology along with others developed in the research group form the Minton Roadmap of gene technology development in bacteria. These technologies together helped lay the foundations for a £14.3m Synthetic Biology Research Centre bid to BBSRC and EPSRC which was subsequently funded.
 
Description SGM York Sept 2011 press coverage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Nigel Minton (co-ordinator) featured in a podcast at the SGM website - where he explains the work his group presented on a poster at SGM Autumn Conference 2011 in York, September 2001.

In all, this presentation led to 156 stories in various publications all over the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.sgm.ac.uk/NEWS/podcast.cfm
 
Description School visit (Nottinghamshire) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The presentation and workshop caused a discussion involving the students and myself with lots of interesting questions.

Raising awareness and encouraging students to study science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBSRC Media interview for publication in Corporate Magazine 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact interview on Bioenergy
http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/publications/corporate/

article in BBSRC Corporate Magazine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Big Bang Sciences Fair, London, 2011 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A large number of school children, their teachers and the general public visited our bioenergy stand to watch demonstrations and presentations regarding the development of first, second and third generation biofuels. Very interesting questions were asked which sparked discussions throughout the day.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/
 
Description Marie Curie project promotion on University of Nottingham School website 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact article promoting the Marie Curie Project
http://mol1.nottingham.ac.uk/Events.aspx

promotion of Marie Curie Project to academics for potential future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2008
 
Description School visit (West Bridgford), Title: Bacterial biofuels 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was part of an outreach activity organised by the University of Nottingham. Designed and presented a specific activity to demonstrate the energy content of different alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol produced by microorganisms. Students engaged in the activity and asked lots of relevant questions throughout the activity.

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Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Science Fair (Big Bang) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School pupils learnt all about the aims of our BBSRC BSBEC project.

The pupils were engaged with learning about how science is tackling global issues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
URL http://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/
 
Description Science Wow Day - Primary School Visit, Firbeck Academy Wollaton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The children all had hands on experiences which aided their learning and sparked questions to volunteers
The day was completed by a presentation Assembly in the afternoon when the KS2 children were able to share what they had learnt with the rest of the school


Pupils enjoyed the day so much they have asked for another 'Science Wow Day' to take place soon
Received a letter of thanks from Firbeck Academy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description University of Nottingham podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact podcast

promotion of research work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL http://wirksworthii.nottingham.ac.uk/Podcasts/files/rmg/public/environment/bbsrc.mp4
 
Description article in Metro Free paper 05/09/2011 "Bugs to sow the seed for cancer cure" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact article on "Bugs to sow the seed for cancer cure"

to raise public awareness
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description article on University of Nottingham News website 29th March 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact article on BBSRC Activating Impact shortlisting

made impact shortlist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.universitiesnews.com/2013/03/29/nottingham-technology-transfer-experts-recognised-for-a-1...
 
Description local press coverage on Biofuels research Nottingham Evening post 2009 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact press coverage of work 19th January and 27th and 28th January
http://www.thisisnottingham.co.uk/news/Nottingham-scientist-lead-3m-C-diff-study/article-625011-detail/article.html http://www.thisisnottingham.co.uk/news/City-lead-27m-biofuels-research/article-647652-detail/article.html

A research article published in the local paper - raising awareness of C Diff and biofuels to the region's public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
URL http://www.thisisnottingham.co.uk/news/Nottingham-scientist-lead-3m-C-diff-study/article-625011-deta...