Rhizobium bacteroid development

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Plant Sciences

Abstract

Bacteria are simple single celled organisms that lack the membrane bound structures found in higher cells of plants and animals. However, while bacteria may have a less complex cellular organisation they carry out a huge range of chemical reactions not found in plants and animals. Bacteria are responsible for the cycling of many nutrients such as N2 (N2 is also known as nitrogen gas and consists of two nitrogen atoms bound by a strong triple bond), which is a very inert atmospheric gas. N2 makes up 78% of the atmosphere but is very unreactive and cannot be used directly as a source of nitrogen, which is needed for amino acid, protein and DNA synthesis. However, a small number of bacteria can reduce (add hydrogen) to N2 and convert it into ammonia (NH3), which is readily incorporated into amino acids and then all the other building blocks of life, by a wide range of organisms including bacteria and plants. In many parts of the world the limitation to growth of plants, which in turn support animal life, is the supply of nitrogen as ammonia or related compounds. Since up to 65% of available nitrogen (eg ammonia) comes from bacteria this makes them essential for life on earth. Within the bacteria, most of the nitrogen is actually produced by one family known as the Rhizobiacea. This remarkable group of bacteria form a symbiotic association (both partners benefit) with plants of the legume family, that results in the formation of root nodules (on pea plants these are 2-3 mm bulbs that can easily be seen by pulling up a plant and inspecting its roots). The rhizobia are held inside the nodules where the plant provides them with an ideal environment (low O2 and lots of energy) in which they can reduce N2 to ammonia. The ammonia is supplied to the plant as its nitrogen source so this is why this is known as a symbiotic interaction. It means that the plant does need any nitrogen added to the the soil and enables rapid growth. The purpose of this research is to understand how the bacteria develop inside legume root nodules. In this reserach we use peas as our model legume. Questions include how do the bacteria grow inside plants and what factors control this process? How do the bacteria know when to switch on N2 fixation?

Technical Summary

Legume symbioses are initiated by flavonoids released by the host roots which induce transcription of the early bacterial nodulation (nod) genes that initiate the first steps in the infection process. Bacteria are trapped by curling plant root hairs which form infection threads bacteria enter and grow down, during formation of the nodule. The bacteria are engulfed by endocytosis resulting in them being surrounded by a plant derived symbiosome membrane. In nodules of galegoid legumes (a clade in the subfamily Papilionoideae e.g. Medicago, Pisum or Vicia) bacteria undergo dramatic increases in their size, shape and DNA content , before they activate the high level of expression of nif and fix genes involved in N2 fixation. Thus the plant takes control of the bacterial cell cycle by secretion of nodule cysteine rich peptides, resulting in bacteroids from galegoid legumes being terminally differentiated. As plants control bacterial cell division, provide LIV and the cofactor homocitrate for nitrogenase we proposed that bacteroids in galegoid nodules behave like organelles. To understand bacteroid development we used differential microarray analysis to identify those genes specifically up-regulated in bacteria in very early (7 d) rather than mature nodules (>15 d) or the rhizosphere. We have mutated the key 42 genes up-regulated in bacteria in 7 d nodules (16 prevent or reduce N2 fixation) of which 20 are transcriptional regulators. To understand bacteroid development we will use microarray analysis to define the control network between transcription factors and target genes. Chip-seq and 5' transcript mapping will then be used to determine whether transcription factors directly regulate their target genes. The spatial and temporal transcription pattern of development genes in nodules will then be mapped with mCherry fusions. This will be combined with detailed phenotypic analysis of the effects of these mutations on bacteroid development and symbiotic N2 fixation.

Planned Impact

Our aim is to understand bacteroid development and nitrogen fixation by legumes. Nitrogen is one of the main constraints on agricultural productivity so its use is essential for high crop yields. In a world where food security is now considered a national priority crop yield is of critical importance. However, the drive for yield alone has led to very high application of nitrogen with consequent nitrate contamination of groundwater and problems of eutrophication. The problem is so serious that reactive nitrogen in the biosphere has doubled from preindustrial levels primarily through massive inputs into agriculture. It also results in the production of N2O which is around 300 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas. These are problems of regional, national and international scope that require urgent amelioration and are at the forefront of the grand challenges for UK science. By improving our understanding of how rhizobia develop into N2 fixing bacteroids in legume nodule we acquire the understanding to improve the competitive success of desirable strains of Rhizobium. It also lays down a foundation of understanding for the transfer of bacteria to nodules in other plants such as cereals. These aims are long term but ultimately this work has relevance to farming practice as well as government policy in decisions about nitrogen utilization in agriculture. It is also relevant to UK attempts to reduce greenhouse emissions and produce a low carbon economy. Understanding the nitrogen fixation and its role in the nitrogen cycle in agricultural has wider benefits applicable to the UK public because of its importance in food security and meeting international obligations for mitigating the effects of climate change. We propose to reach a wide audience of farmers, the public, national and international policy makers and charitable institutions through active outreach (Friends of John Innes). We also have strong links with "The Nitrous Oxide Focus Group" and the newly formed "Consortium for Legumes in Agriculture, Society and Environment", which is an international consortium to promote understanding on the use of legumes. In addition we have broad links to the environmenral impact of this work through the Earth and Life Systems Alliance between JIC and UEA (ELSA) and to the UK government via the "Living With Environmental Change program (LWEC)" which has its secretariat at UEA.

Publications

10 25 50

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Karunakaran R (2013) Malonate catabolism does not drive N2 fixation in legume nodules. in Applied and environmental microbiology

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Poole P (2017) Shining a light on the dark world of plant root-microbe interactions. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Poole P (2018) Rhizobia: from saprophytes to endosymbionts. in Nature reviews. Microbiology

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Terpolilli JJ (2016) Lipogenesis and Redox Balance in Nitrogen-Fixing Pea Bacteroids. in Journal of bacteriology

Related Projects

Project Reference Relationship Related To Start End Award Value
BB/J007749/1 01/08/2012 31/08/2013 £449,097
BB/J007749/2 Transfer BB/J007749/1 01/09/2013 31/07/2015 £298,235
 
Description Our aim is to understand bacteroid development and nitrogen fixation by legumes. Nitrogen is one of the main constraints on agricultural productivity so its use is essential for high crop yields. In a world where food security is now considered a national priority, crop yield is of critical importance. However, the drive for yield alone has led to very high application of nitrogen with consequent nitrate contamination of groundwater and problems of eutrophication. The problem is so serious that reactive nitrogen in the biosphere has doubled from pre-industrial levels primarily through massive inputs into agriculture. It also results in the production of nitrous oxide which is around 300-times more potent than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas. These are problems of regional, national and international scope that require urgent amelioration and are at the forefront of the grand challenges for UK science. By improving our understanding of how rhizobia develop into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids in legume nodules we acquire the understanding to improve the competitive success of desirable strains of Rhizobium. It also lays down a foundation of understanding for the transfer of bacteria to nodules in other plants such as cereals. These aims are long term but ultimately this work has relevance to farming practice as well as government policy in decisions about nitrogen utilization in agriculture. It is also relevant to UK attempts to reduce greenhouse emissions and produce a low carbon economy.
Exploitation Route With the importance of the nitrogen crisis, we propose to reach a wide audience of farmers, the public, national and international policy makers and charitable institutions through active outreach and publicity of our research findings. We also have strong links with "The Nitrous Oxide Focus Group" and the newly formed "Consortium for Legumes in Agriculture, Society and Environment", which is an international consortium to promote understanding on the use of legumes.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment

 
Description My Science Inquiry to the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee by Ms Isabel Webb
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/science-and-technology-c...
 
Description ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS
Amount £1,146,829 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L011484/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2018
 
Description India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC)
Amount £1,680,948 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N013387/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria
Amount £4,496,752 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N003608/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture (Co-I with Prof. Ray Dixon as Lead PI)
Amount £1,624,659 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N013476/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2019
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Aberystwyth University
Department Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department ICAR - Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi
Country India 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science
Country India 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda
Department Department of Bio-Chemistry
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation The Energy and Resources Institute
Country India 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation University of Calcutta
Department Department of BioChemistry
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description India and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation University of Hyderabad
Department Department of Plant Sciences
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have developed high-throughput community analysis to characterise the microbiome of the rhizosphere and endosphere of plants. Using the latest techniques in synthetic biology I have developed high-throughput screening techniques to assess rhizobial competitiveness and ability to fix nitrogen. We have developed biosensor reporter technology linked to Lux imaging of whole roots to assess root secretion and its impact on microbial colonization and nitrogen fixation.
Collaborator Contribution University of Hyderabad- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh- experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea. Also experience in metagenomic diversity of rhizospheric microbes of major crops. M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara, Gujarat - experience with different Indian soils and agricultural expertise of growth of pigeon pea ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - interaction with India subsistence farmers and legume-Rhizobium symbiosis under salt and nitrate stress. Also expertise on coordinating microbiological trials in different agroclimatic zones in India. University of Calcutta - expertise in nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis in Arachis hypogaea. The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi - bioengineering of rice for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. John Innes Centre - world-leading expertise in the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation and biochemical characterisation of its transcriptional control. James Hutton Institute - specialised in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes, particularly those from the tropics. Techniques include high-resolution microscopy (light and EM) and 15N-based methods, which in combination have been used to confirm the effectiveness of many novel nitrogen-fixing plant-bacterial interactions Oxford India Centre for Sustainable Development (OICSD)-(inter-disciplinary) expertise on Indian life, cultural and practices from the aspect of sustainable development. Examining the interactions and trade-offs between different players in socio-ecological systems, especially in the Indian food system.
Impact A successful application was made to BBSRC-DBT as part of the Newton initiative by this group, led by Prof. Philip Poole. We have set up a VJC - the India-UK Nitrogen Fixation Centre (IUNFC) which was funded from Jan 1st 2016 in UK. This funding is likely to lead to many outputs, and as this collaboration is multi-disciplinary, in many areas, however as the project has only just begun, these are yet to be realised.
Start Year 2016
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation Montana State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation Plant Biology Division
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description SynSym Project 
Organisation University of Wisconsin-Madison
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Bacterial physiology and genetics of nitrogen-fixing symbiotic microorganisms.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetics of legumes (JIC and University of Wisconsin), the enzyme nitrogenase, responsible for fixing nitrogen in both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (Montana State university), plant physiology (Noble Foundation) and synthetic biology (MIT). We are working together on a project - Synthetic Symbioses - which aims to use synthetic biology to enable bacteria associating with plant roots to fix nitrogen. This symbiotic association, where the bacteria fixes nitrogen and benefits the plant, occurs naturally between legumes (plants) and rhizobia (bacteria).
Impact A research grant from BBSRC/NSF was obtained to study Synthetic Symbioses. GRANT TITLE: ENGINEERING SYNTHETIC SYMBIOSES BETWEEN PLANTS AND BACTERIA TO DELIVER NITROGEN TO CROPS Grant Ref: BB/L011484/1
Start Year 2013
 
Description 1st Plant Microbiome Symposium, Brazil Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 1st Plant Microbiome Symposium, Brazil attended by approx. 200 people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) conference of Plant Biology 2015, Minneapolis, USA July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Interesting questions and discussion followed the talk.

Colleagues were interested in my work and follow-up plans for collaboration were made.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Attending UBNFC Annual Meeting in Brazil, Nov 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Meeting of all collaborators on an international project or annual meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description BBSRC Senior Executive visits Plant Sciences Dept. Nov 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact BBSRC visited the lab and heard short presentations from members of the group.

Interest was shown by the visitors in the work that was going on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synthsym.org/news/
 
Description Back2Roots Advisor, annual project meeting. Jan 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International advisor to the Back2Roots research programme in the Netherlands
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Bacterial Electron Transfer Processes and their Regulation, Portugal, March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to discussion.

Helped refine ideas for the rest of research project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Bacterial World, Natural History Museum, Oxford, Dec 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Phil gave a talk to school children on an open day at the museum as part of the Bacterial World exhibition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/bacterialworld/
 
Description Bath Science Café presentation, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion followed presentation.

Increased requests for delivering talks at similar science cafe events in other geographical areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Bayer Crop Science 16th-17th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Bayer Crop Science 16th-17th Feb 2016. A group of academics advised industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Botanic Gardens seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I talked to the Botanic Gardens about nitrogen and humanity

Lots of questions and feedback. This is widely advertised to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Bring and share pulse lunch 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Bring and share pulse lunch to celebrate world pulse day 18th Jan 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Development of Poole Lab website (Rhizosphere.org) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Rhizosphere website is used to describe work performed, profiles lab members, lists outreach activities and celebrates achievements. Also includes a list of Lab publications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org
 
Description ENFC, Budapest posters and talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact An international conference. Group members presented posters and gave talks to approx. 500 scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Early Career Researcher Workshop on Plant-Microbe Interactions, Thailand, Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Workshop generated discussion and made links with other researchers.

Affected way of thinking about experiments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Facebook LIVE video by Oxford Sparks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Oxford Sparks FacebookLIVE podcast on nitrogen and the importance of nitrogen-fixing legumes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/OxSparks/videos/1210777428999882/
 
Description FacebookLIVE - the future of food 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Facebook LIVE podcast in association with Oxford Sparks (latest 6.6k views)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/OxSparks/videos/1210777428999882/
 
Description Fascination of Plants Day, University of Oxford, Harcourt Arboretum, May 2014; 2015; 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interest shown by general public in our displays and conversations concerning the importance of legumes.

Praise from public and interest in plants rose.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Gatsby Plant Science Summer School, Hawkshill, July 2018 (Phil Poole, Vinoy Ramachandran) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Summer school for undergraduates interested in Plant Sciences. Phil gave a talk. Vinoy attended as a post-doc mentor to the undergraduates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Give peas a chance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We made a film with Oxford sparks on nitrogen fixation

Lots os hits on the web site
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Graduate School Speaker, Lunteren, The Netherlands, April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Graduate School Speaker, Lunteren, The Netherlands, April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Conference on Nitrogen Fixation (ICNF) Asilomar, USA, Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to discussions. Poster sparked interest amongst audience.

Interest and approval of work from respected colleagues. Discussion of new ideas in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description KEYS conference, Amsterdam, June 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave a talk to an industry-sponsored conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Lecture at Cirencester Science and Technology Society, Royal Agricultural University, 9th May 2018, (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture given to general public interested in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany Dec 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Seminar and discussion with colleagues at Max Planck Institue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Meeting minds Oxford Alumni 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a talk to the Oxford biological sciences Alumni

Enthusiastic response from the audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Michigan State University, student workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Student workshop at an American University where I was an international expert.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Microbiome of Agricultural Plants, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk stimulated discussion.

Audience appreciation. Increased collaboration with other scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Microbiota studies - satellite meeting of European Nitrogen Fixation Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug 2018 (Andrzej Tkacz, Rachel Wheatley, Vinoy Ramachandran, Marcela Mendoza-Suarez, Tim Haskett, Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talks were given by all those listed to the audience of scientists from all over the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description NIAB-East Malling Research seminar series, Jan 2019 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lunch time seminar at Research Institute. Spent much of the day in discussion with colleagues there.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description NUCLEUS UBNFC (VJC meeting) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A joint meeting of two VJCs who are working in UK and Brazil, held in Brazil, Nov 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Organised Nitrogen Network Workshop, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nitrogen Network wa a one-day meeting for researchers interested in common themes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Organised OxBacNet meeting - Feb 2018 (Alison East) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact University of Oxford, Bacteriology Symposium and Network meeting. Held three times a year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/oxbacnet/
 
Description Organised a day of presentations: Tackling the nitrogen crisis; what are the solutions? Oxford, Sept 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact We organised a one-day symposium with international experts in the area. Extensive discussions were held throughout the day and new collaborations forged.

New collaborations have been sparked by this day's events, in terms of both existing programmes of work and in the instigation of new proposals and plans for more integrated research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/nitrogen-crisis-meeting-sept-2015/
 
Description Outreach at Somerville College, Oxford Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School students asked questions about the course. They were asked to think about nitrogen and its fixation by legumes.

Local schools were keen to participate next year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Oxford Botanic Gardens Seminar Series, Nov 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Evening seminar to interested members of general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Posters at ICNF, Granada, Spain, Sept. 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact International conference. 11 posters from Lab. 2 short presentations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Ratan Tata visits Poole Lab, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ratan Tata, the prominent Indian businessman, visited the Poole Lab as part of a visit to Oxford. He expressed interest in the work that we are doing.

Increased awareness of our research amongst businessmen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Research Seminar, Lisbon, March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research Seminar, Lisbon, March 2017 at II Semana Bioengenharia, Instuto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Rhizosphere4, Maastricht, the Netherlands, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Four posters from the lab were the focus of much interest.

Scientific audience appreciated the ideas behind the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, UK. Seminar, 29th April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, UK. Seminar, 29th April 2016, addressed audience made up of academic colleagues and post-grad students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Schools one week Intensive course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Intensive one week course for A level students in practical plant and microbial science

Students all keen to apply for science based university courses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science Cafe, Sherborne, Dorset 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A science cafe held in a village hall for approx. 60 members of the general public. Many interested participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://sites.google.com/site/sherbornesciencecafe/
 
Description Seminar, University of Southampton, Feb 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Crop Systems Engineering Seminar Series, University of Southampton, Feb 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminars in Frontiers on Genomics, Centro de Ciencias Genomicas (CCG) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Mexico, Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I presented three seminars to a group of undergraduates from Mexico in Seminars in Frontiers on Genomics series, organised by Centro de Ciencias Genomicas (CCG) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The seminars are broadcast to participating institutions in Mexico. One-to-one discussions were had with the students on a wide-range of topics to stimulate their interest.

Enormous appreciation and interest from the post-grad and under-grad students that I interacted with. Discussions with academics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Society for Applied Biology in Edinburgh, Jul 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk to conference audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Society for General Microbiology Annual Conference, The Microbiome, Birmingham, April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to discussion with audience.

Increased collaboration with colleagues in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Talk to Zoological Society of London, London Zoo,13th March 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar to an audience interested in science, but not specialists in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Thatcher Development Programme's Foundation Day Panel Discussion, 'Climate Change: Approaches and Innovations for the Future' - Feb 208 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Broad-ranging panel discussion with students from different disciplines held at Somerville College, Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description The Microbiome: human medicine and agriculture in a bacterial world, Royal Society, Oct 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Royal Society organised two days of discussion to formulate policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Queen's College, seminar series (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Queen's College, seminar series (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) Title: Life Underground: The basis and future of agriculture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Twitter account Rhizosphere @PooleLabOxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Twitter account to publicise the work of the Poole Lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com
 
Description University of York, Dept. of Biology invited seminar- Feb 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar and active discussion with members of Dept. of Biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description VI Annual Meeting of the Plant Genetic and Biotechnology Network, Graduate School, Italy, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact VI Annual Meeting of the Plant Genetic and Biotechnology Network, Graduate School, Italy, June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Visit to Murdoch University, WA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Spent 1 month in Australia as Sir Walter Murdoch Adjunct Professor with Australian colleagues. Liaising, gave a seminar and got involved with their research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit to Murdoch University, Western Australia as Sir Walter Murdoch Visiting Fellow, Dec 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Visit to another laboratory for several weeks. Included giving two seminars and extended discussions with colleagues in the field.

Strong ties formed and fostered with the research groups in universities in Western Australia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Winchester College, Nov 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Phil gave a talk to the students of Winchester College.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Wow! How? Family Science Fair, March 2013, 2014, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Demonstrations stimulated discussion about simple science with children aged 5-10yrs and their parents/carers

Favourable comments from the audience on how the stand sparked their interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Wymondham academy school visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to 6th form students to encourage them to consider science as a career

Students keen to apply for university places
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014