Species interactions and the evolution of biological diversity: visual signalling in antagonistic and mutalistic coevolution

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Zoology

Abstract

Much of the world's biological diversity was born of and crucially depends upon interactions between different species. They give us some of the most astonishing examples of adaptation seen in nature: a cuckoo egg perfectly mimicking that of its host, or a long-tongued fly pollinating a long-spurred orchid. These are products of coevolution, which is the process by which two or more species reciprocally influence one another's evolution. But coevolution is not only a potent force in generating biodiversity: it is crucial to human challenges such as conservation of ecosystems and the services they provide us, biocontrol, and the ever-changing threat of infectious disease and drug resistance. To address these challenges, we need a thorough understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved.

This project aims better to understand coevolution and the processes generating biological diversity by studying the interactions between birds and the antagonists they battle against (their brood parasites), and the mutualists they cooperate with (the plants they pollinate). Interactions between species are at their most ancient in the tropics, where they might be most revealing of general evolutionary processes. My parasitic research will therefore exploit three independently evolved tropical brood parasitic systems studied in Zambia. Brood parasites such as cuckoos are the cheats of the bird world, that exploit the care of other species to raise their young. They can become locked in coevolutionary arms races with their hosts, as parasites evolve ever better manipulation of hosts (such as mimicry of host eggs), and hosts respond with ever more refined defences (such as rejecting mimetic eggs).

In this project, I will first ask how interactions between species can generate diversity among individuals, and how this is shaped by visual perception. The Cuckoo Finch and African Cuckoo in Zambia are involved in biological arms races in bird egg appearance, whereby different host females are continually evolving new egg types to escape mimicry by their pursuing parasite. I will ask how hosts might make their eggs most difficult to mimic (just as the watermarks of banknotes deter forgers), how different hosts might affect one another's diversification, and how evolution proceeds when parasites achieve almost perfect egg forgeries. To do so I will carry out field experiments at hosts nests, together with computer modelling of vision in order to express egg appearance through a bird's eye, since birds vision is superior to our own. I will then ask whether similar processes might operate in mutualistic interactions: I will test whether visual discrimination by bird pollinators favours flower colour divergence or convergence between species flowering near one another, and thus cause plants of the same species to diversify between different local communities.

Second, I will attempt to solve a centuries-old conundrum for host-parasite research: how do different female brood parasites of the same species lay eggs that mimic those of their chosen host, despite interbreeding with males raised by other hosts? An hypothesis is that these specialised adaptations are inherited in the female line alone, via the female-specific avian W chromosome. In Zambia we have discovered that lineages of parasitic females have stayed perfectly faithful to their chosen hosts for millions of years, which could allow such specialisation to evolve. I propose to test this by locating the genes involved in mimicry of different host species and different host signatures. I will do so by way of breeding experiments on captive Cuckoo Finches, in combination with advanced DNA sequencing and studies of gene expression in the oviduct where eggs are formed. Finally, I will locate the host genes involved in generating complex egg signatures, to reveal whether similar genetic mechanisms have convergently evolved both in hosts and their parasites that so beautifully mimic them.

Technical Summary

Much of the world's biological diversity was born of and crucially depends upon species interactions. The proposed research will use the interactions between birds and their parasites and mutualists to investigate evolutionary mechanisms and processes generating biodiversity. It will address two main questions: first, what evolutionary processes generate biological diversity within and between interacting species? Second, what genetic mechanisms permit the evolution of specialised adaptations within a single species to multiple coevolutionary partners?

To address these questions, the project will investigate two main model systems. First, antagonistic interactions between hosts and avian brood parasites, which exploit other species to raise their young, leading to coevolutionary arms races between parasitic manipulation (such as egg mimicry) and host defence (such as better egg discrimination). Second, mutualistic interactions between nectar-feeding birds and the specialised plants that depend on them for pollination. Specifically, I will ask: 1. How does frequency-dependent selection generate phenotypic diversity both within and between interacting species, such as egg signatures of identity, and colour polymorphisms in flower colour? 2. How does visual discrimination shape the evolutionary outcome of species interactions, from variation between individuals to properties of entire biological communities? 3. How is specialisation to different coevolutionary partners (such as parasitic host-specificity) genetically maintained within a single species? 4. What is the genetic basis of defensive phenotypic variability (egg 'signatures' of identity) in hosts, and corresponding mimics in parasites?

In answering these questions, the projects will bring together behaviour, visual perception, evolution and diversity, using by way of field experiments, visual modelling, comparative analyses, classical genetics, genomics and transcriptomics.

Planned Impact

1. Who will benefit from this research?

1.1. The research will benefit those working in the numerous applied fields to which the coevolutionary process is fundamental. There are particularly clear links with biomedical science (please see 2.1.).

1.2. The research will benefit conservation practitioners and policy-makers.

1.3. The research will benefit practitioners in science education, including preparators of educational materials and museum exhibits.

1.4. The research will benefit innovation in wider society by helping to inspire young people (particularly young women) towards science-related careers.

2. How will they benefit from this research?

2.1. The research will shed further light on the coevolutionary process, which is fundamental to important human challenges such as infectious disease, control of aliens, and pest and disease control in crops. These have clear implications for public health, society and the economy. Mutually beneficial conceptual links with biomedical science are particularly clear, given the close conceptual parallels between diversifying selection from brood parasites on birds' eggs, and diversifying selection from pathogens on tissue antigens (especially those encoded in the major histocompatability complex [MHC]) in adaptive immune systems, including the human immune system. I am currently working on a review paper clarifying these links, in collaboration with an immunologist in the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge. Moreover, there are clear parallels between the evolution of host-specificity in brood parasites exploiting multiple hosts, and the evolution of pathogens exploiting multiple hosts or host genetic strains.

2.2. The biological richness of ecosystems and the services they provide to humans depend on ecological interactions between species. Species interactions also generate cryptic biological diversity. Basic science leading to a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved will become more crucial than ever in the face of environmental change. Globalisation and climate change pose a particularly severe threat to species interactions, and hence to healthy ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services.

2.3. The proposed research is likely to generate vivid examples of the power of natural selection to generate visually striking and easily-appreciated adaptations, with great potential application in science education programmes, including public engagement activities proposed by the applicant (see Pathways to Impact).

2.4. Science is a crucial driver of innovation and the economy. An issue of great concern in the UK is the recruitment of talented young people, and especially young women, to scientific careers. One of the obstacles to overcome is the widespread misconception that scientific careers are stuffy, tedious, and male-dominated. Coevolutionary research in general, and my research on brood parasitic research in particular, has the potential to make a substantial contribution in this regard. The proposed research is vivid, exciting, and easily captures the imagination of the public and young people, and so aids wider understanding and appreciation of science and the dispelling of prejudices about the nature of science and scientists. It has considerable potential to inspire young people, with ultimate benefits to UK society. Science outreach activities will be undertaken by the applicant from the outset of the research programme (see Pathways to Impact).

Publications

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publication icon
McClelland SC (2019) Convergent evolution of reduced eggshell conductance in avian brood parasites. in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

 
Title BBC Natural History Unit: Life Story 
Description The BBC Natural History Unit filmed one of my study systems at my field site in Zambia during October 2012, contributing to the Life Story series broadcast on BBC One in November 2014. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact BBC One reaches many millions of viewers. 
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p026vg04
 
Title BBC Natural History Unit: Worlds Sneakiest Animals 
Description The BBC Natural History Unit filmed another of my study systems at my field site in Zambia during October 2014, contributing to the World's Sneakiest Animals series broadcast on BBC Two at Christmas 2015, presented by Chris Packham. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Unnown, but BBC Two reaches hundreds of thousands of viewers. 
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06twzh9
 
Description The main aim of the first part of this grant was to address the long-standing conundrum of how individual females of the same brood-parasitic bird species (such as cuckoos, which exploit other species by laying eggs in their nests) lay eggs that mimic those of their chosen host species, despite interbreeding with males raised by other hosts. We aimed to test the hypothesis that host-specific mimicry is maternally inherited on the female-specific W chromosome, such that egg mimicry remains well-adapted to a particular host species despite interbreeding between male and female parasites raised by different hosts. We have discovered strong evidence from the brood-parasitic cuckoo finch that the genes determining egg mimicry are indeed on the W chromosome which is passed down intact from mother to daughter. An important implication of this finding that in the constantly evolving biological arms race between host and parasite, parasites are able to adapt to mimic their hosts despite the absence of recombination (genetic mixing) between males and females, which means that cuckoo finches rely only on mutation to generate new genetic variants on which natural selection can act.
Exploitation Route Our research sheds light on evolutionary principles which are also common to interactions between ourselves and the pathogens that cause disease.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Our findings from research supported by this grant have been used in education (undergraduate textbooks, childrens' books, popular science magazines, and documentaries) and cultural output (radio and TV programmes on the BBC and elsewhere; and inspired several different art projects and museum exhibits around the world).
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Education,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Consolidator Grant
Amount € 1,998,885 (EUR)
Funding ID 725185 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description EC FP7 MC Intra-European Fellowships
Amount € 231,283 (EUR)
Funding ID 331232 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 05/2013 
End 04/2015
 
Description NRF Incentive Grant for Rated Researchers
Amount R 160,000 (ZAR)
Funding ID 109466 
Organisation South African National Research Foundation (NRF) 
Sector Public
Country South Africa
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description NRF Research Grant
Amount R 473,000 (ZAR)
Organisation South African National Research Foundation (NRF) 
Sector Public
Country South Africa
Start 07/2016 
End 07/2019
 
Description National Geographic Society Standard Grant
Amount $25,000 (USD)
Organisation National Geographic 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description The Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant
Amount £183,593 (GBP)
Funding ID RPG-2013-251 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2017
 
Description Anthropology collaboration 
Organisation University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contribute ideas, data, and access to a field site.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborator contributes ideas, data, and access to a field site.
Impact Data collection for a first paper from this collaboration is complete and a manuscript is in preparation.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Biophysical research on eggshell adaptations 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed ideas, samples and writing.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators contributed ideas, technical expertise and writing.
Impact A first manuscript on our findings is nearly complete.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Brood parasite population genetics, genomics and transcriptomics 
Organisation Boston University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My research team and I have contributed ideas, field samples and expertise, and contributions to writing and analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborator has contributed ideas, laboratory methodology and expertise, and contributions to writing and analysis.
Impact We have previously published one paper together, prior to the current grant (Spottiswoode et al. 2011, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 108: 17738-17742). We currently have several manuscripts in progress but none are yet submitted for publication.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Camouflage research 
Organisation University of Exeter
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed ideas, access to field study systems and field methodology.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators contributed ideas, data collection and analytical methodology.
Impact Four papers have been published (in Scientific Reports, American Naturalist, Behavioral Ecology and Ecology & Evolution) and a final manuscript is currently in revision. This research project has generated large amounts of media attention (please see details under Engagement Activities), including a BBSRC-produced short video which has received 537,000 views on YouTube.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Ecophysiological research on parasitic egg and chick adaptations 
Organisation Royal Holloway, University of London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contribute ideas, samples and writing.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators contribute idea, technical expertise and writing.
Impact A first manuscript on our findings is in progress.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Honeyguide-human mutualism 
Organisation Niassa Carnivore Project
Country Mozambique 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I contributed ideas, field methodology, data collection, and writing.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators at the Niassa Carnivore Project contributed ideas and access to a field study site; my collaborator at Yale University contributed ideas, data and access to a field study site
Impact A first paper on this research was published in Science in 2016. This paper received worldwide media coverage at the time and led to many subsequent articles being written on human-animal communication in popular science magazines and scientific journals. This research led to a successful application for a European Research Council Consolidator Grant awarded to C Spottiswoode in 2016. Talk given at the International Society for Behavioral Ecology congress by C Spottiswoode in 2014. Presentation given to the Wildlife Conservation Society headquarters in New York, regarding application of the research to conservation management of the Niassa National Reserve (Mozambique) where the study was carried out. Subsequent discussion with reserve management on the ground in Mozambique in 2015-2016.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Honeyguide-human mutualism 
Organisation Yale University
Department Department of Neuroscience
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed ideas, field methodology, data collection, and writing.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators at the Niassa Carnivore Project contributed ideas and access to a field study site; my collaborator at Yale University contributed ideas, data and access to a field study site
Impact A first paper on this research was published in Science in 2016. This paper received worldwide media coverage at the time and led to many subsequent articles being written on human-animal communication in popular science magazines and scientific journals. This research led to a successful application for a European Research Council Consolidator Grant awarded to C Spottiswoode in 2016. Talk given at the International Society for Behavioral Ecology congress by C Spottiswoode in 2014. Presentation given to the Wildlife Conservation Society headquarters in New York, regarding application of the research to conservation management of the Niassa National Reserve (Mozambique) where the study was carried out. Subsequent discussion with reserve management on the ground in Mozambique in 2015-2016.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Mathematical modelling of eggshell signatures and forgeries 
Organisation Harvard University
Department Department of Physics
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided ideas and data.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators are providing ideas and applied mathematical expertise.
Impact So far this new collaboration has resulted in one conference presentation; manuscripts will be prepared in due course.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Memorandum of Understanding with a Zambian university 
Organisation Copperbelt University
Country Zambia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have contributed academic interactions (exchanges, seminars, workshops).
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have liaised on our behalf with the Zambian WildLife Authority to ensure that we obtain research permits, as now required under Zambian law.
Impact Several new collaborations initiated between Copperbelt University and the University of Cape Town as a result of our connection, and a student from Copperbelt University will be taking UCT's MSc course in Conservation Biology in 2016.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Spatial analyses of host-parasite interactions 
Organisation University of Cape Town
Country South Africa 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed ideas and writing.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators contributed data, analysis and writing.
Impact A paper was published in Journal of Animal Ecology in 2016.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Theoretical analyses of host-parasite coevolution 
Organisation National Museum of Natural History
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed ideas and writing.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators contributed ideas, theoretical modelling and writing.
Impact A first manuscript on our findings is nearly complete.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Visual and cognitive modelling of host-parasite interactions 
Organisation Princeton University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I contributed ideas and experimental data.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators contributed ideas and modelling expertise. ? In which
Impact A first paper on our findings was published in 2019.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Capacity building at Livingstone Museum, Zambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We hosted at our field site for a week and helped further to train a Zambian ornithologist, Ms Maggie Mwale, from the Livingstone Museum, who reported benefitting greatly from the further training.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Community outreach in Zambia (Musumanene) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked a better understanding of the purpose and findings of our research amongst local communities in the study area.

Audience reported a better understanding of our research and their role in it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Community outreach in Zambia (Semahwa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked a better understanding of the purpose and findings of our research amongst local communities in the study area.

Audience reported a better understanding of our research and their role in it.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www2.zoo.cam.ac.uk/africancuckoos/fieldwork/outreach.html
 
Description Conference talk at Joint Congress on Evolutionary Biology, Montpellier 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Selected talk on "What limits speciation in the parasitic finches of Africa?" at the joint meeting of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, the American Society of Naturalists, the Society for the Study of Evolution and the Society of Systematic Biologists, by PDRA Dr Gabriel Jamie. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Crick Institute Postdoc retreat 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact I gave a presentation about academic careers to an audience of postdocs from the various London institutes comprising the Francis Crick Institute, and this was well received and sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description International Society for Behavioural Ecology congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Media interest (aggressive mimicry study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release issued by the Australian National University.
Press articles in various places including Nature and The Conversation, amongst many others.

Positive feedback from the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v522/n7556/full/522258c.html
 
Description Media interest (bird song study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Magazines (including New Scientist, The Atlantic, and the Smithsonian Magazine) contacted us for interviews and published articles, and the lead author was interviewed on Canadian national radio ('Quirks & Quarks' science programme).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Media interest (camouflage study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The BBSRC issued a press release about our collaborative research.
Two videos about our collaborative research, made by the BBSRC, received over a half a million views on YouTube.
The Guardian (Grrlscientist) blogged about our research.

There has been much public interest in our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JzELgqdicQ&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Media interest (cuckoo finch repeat laying study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The BBSRC issued a press release on our study, which resulted in articles in, amongst others, The New York Times, the BBC Nature News website, Wired, the Christian Science Monitor, the Smithsonian Magazine blog, the Pentagon Post, and the LA Times.

Unknown.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Media interest (egg signature study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release issued by Duke University.
Paper covered by Royal Society Publishing's blog.
Media coverage from various sources.

Positive feedback from the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://blogs.royalsociety.org/publishing/natures-best-con-artists-egg-signatures-and-cuckoo-forgeri...
 
Description Media interest (honeyguide multiple parasitism study) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The University of Cambridge issued a press release about this research which resulted in articles on a National Geographic blog, the Take Part blog, the Earth Times, and a podcast from the The Behaviour, Ecology & Evolution Podcast.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/honeyguide-birds-destroy-own-species-eggs-to-eliminate-competitio...
 
Description Plenary talk at Max Planck Institute workshop: The Biology and Economics of Mutualisms 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk sparked lots of questions, discussion and offers of collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at WCS (New York) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards, concerning how the results of our work could be incorporated into management of the Niassa National Reserve, co-managed by WCS (Wildlife Conservation Society) and the Mozambique government.

Continued communication with the Niassa National Reserve management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Press coverage of camouflage research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our camouflage research was covered by the international press including The Telegraph, The Daily Mail, The International Business Times, Cosmos Magazine and Audubon Magazine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Press coverage of coevolutionary research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our research on brood parasite-host coevolution was the focus of an article in The Economist (18 May 2017).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Press coverage of honeyguide research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our honeyguide research was widely covered by the international press including The New Yorker, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Los Angeles Times, National Geographic, Scientific American, The Times, The Guardian, The Daily Mail, the BBC News website, etc, and many non-English language national newspapers. A press release was issued by the University of Cambridge press office. I continue to receive regular enquiries about this research for coverage in popular science magazines and childrens' books internationally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public lecture at Edward O. Wilson Biodiversity Laboratory, Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture to conservation practitioners, Mozambican national politicians, postgraduate students, and foreign tourists visiting national park; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public talk, BirdLife Zimbabwe, Harare 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Radio Interview - National Public Radio 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interview for a food & science programme ("The Salt") on National Public Radio (USA).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2016/07/21/486471339/how-wild-birds-team-up-with-humans-to-guide...
 
Description Radio feature - BBC Radio 4 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Substantial contribution to an episode of the BBC Radio 4 series "Natural Histories".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Radio interview - BBC World Service 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Two radio interviews for BBC World Service, one live for the programme "Newsday", reported to have one of the largest audiences of any radio programme in the world.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p041hc9x
 
Description Radio interview - Voice of America 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interview for a science programme on Voice of America news.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.voanews.com/a/honeyguides-lead-human-hunters-to-honey/3432394.html
 
Description Research design and scientific writing training workshop with Mozambican MSc students 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I presented a week-long module on research design and proposal writing to Mozambican MSc students (and field technicians) in conservation biology at the Edward O. Wilson Biodiversity Laboratory, Gorongosa National Park (a joint initiative between Lúrio University, Zambeze University, and Manica Higher Polytechnic Institute). The students reported that they found this extremely useful and it gave them fresh focus and confidence with their research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Impact does not seem measurable for a public event such as this.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://royalsociety.org/events/2014/07/scientists-in-the-field/
 
Description Royal Society mentorship scheme 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The mentee I have acted as a mentor to (a newly appointed Sir Henry Dale Fellow) reported that interactions with me were constructive for her career.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Royal Society public event (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Panel discussion sparked questions afterwards and received excellent audience feedback via The Royal Society's audience questionnaire.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://royalsociety.org/events/2015/11/life-through-a-lens/
 
Description School outreach (Mariri Environmental Centre, Mozambique) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Bird walk and discussion about bird ecology, conservation and our local research with schoolchildren (and their teachers) from various villages in the Niassa National Reserve, Mozambique, visiting the Mariri Environmental Centre. Children and teachers were very interested and engaged and asked good questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description School visit (Cambridge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions afterwards and pupils reported to teachers that they had found it interesting and inspiring.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description School visit in Mozambique (Mbamba) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Schoolchildren asked questions and showed a good understanding.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Bangor University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Seminar at Bielefeld University (Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Boston University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar at Bristol University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Durham University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Liverpool University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Manchester University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar at Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar at Oxford University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Seminar at Princeton University, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar at Royal Society for the Protection of Birds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at Stellenbosch University, South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar at Trinity College Dublin (Ireland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Feedback from talk organisers that graduate students present found talk inspiring with respect to continuing their careers in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at University of Cambridge (Spottiswoode) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar at University of Cambridge (Tong) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar at University of Cape Town (South Africa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at University of Cape Town (South Africa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar at University of Exeter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at University of Lausanne, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar at University of Limpopo (South Africa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards and led to my sharing samples with researchers at this institution.

Students and researchers from University of Limpopo have stayed in contact by email.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar at University of Lincoln 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar at University of Pretoria (South Africa) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar at University of Roehampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research seminar to students and faculty; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Seminar at University of Sussex 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar at University of York 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

None known.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Society for Experimental Biology Satellite Meeting (Brighton, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote talk at Satellite Meeting of Society for Experimental Biology conference: "An Integrative Biology of the Egg".Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Stamford Raffles Lecture, Zoological Society of London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture at Zoological Society of London; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards and several students got in touch later, interested in the research field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at African Bird Club AGM, Natural History Museum, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on "Africa's avian cheats: exploring the deceitful ways of cuckoos, honeyguides and parasitic finches", by PDRA Dr Gabriel Jamie. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at Cambridge University Wildlife and Conservation Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Talk on "Africa's avian cheats: exploring the deceitful ways of cuckoos, honeyguides and parasitic finches" by PDRA Dr Gabriel Jamie. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at Department of National Parks and Wildlife (Zambia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given to relevant government department (conservation practitioners and national research permit authority) in Lusaka; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at St Johns College Science Society, Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Talk to a student science society; sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at the British Ornithologists Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a talk about our research to local birding enthusiasts; the talk sparked some interesting, engaged and insightful questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at the Cambridge Bird Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a talk about our research to local birding enthusiasts; the talk sparked many interesting, engaged and insightful questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2017
 
Description Talk at the Cambridge Conservation Initiative: Cuckoo Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk to interested members of the general public; talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at the Livingstone Museum, Zambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Together with other members of my research group, I gave a talk about our research to local birding enthusiasts, local educators and museum scientific staff; the talk sparked many interesting, engaged and insightful questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk on at Choma primary school, Zambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to school pupils on "Becoming a scientist", at Choma primary school, Zambia, by PDRA Dr Gabriel Jamie. Talk sparked enthusiasm and questions from the pupils.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Youth Day presentation in Choma, Zambia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Address at "Entrepreneurship and Future Leaders" event in preparation for National Youth Day at Choma Museum, Zambia, to local schoolchildren and other youth, and Zambian government ministers, on birds, science and conservation, by PDRA Dr Gabriel Jamie. As a result of this event, a local conservation issue was discovered and resolved.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019