Thermography as a tool for the assessment of stress and affective states in an avian model

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

Animal welfare is an important issue influencing the health, wellbeing and/or productivity of animals in a wide range of contexts such as farm, laboratory and wild animals. Effective and reliable welfare assessment techniques are essential to identify issues and make progress in this area. Current approaches to welfare assessment may be time consuming and rely primarily on measuring behavioural responses that are indicative of pain or distress such as vocalisations or more subtle changes such as suppression of normal behaviour, redirection of behaviour or changes in behaviour patterns. Physiological approaches to welfare assessment have also been used and these are based on the release of stress hormones which are usually measured in the blood. While this approach is well established, it is usually invasive (requiring a blood sample) and circulating levels of these hormones may be influenced by many biological factors other than stress. Perhaps most importantly, hormone based welfare assessment has so far focused on the measurement of negative states, and we do not currently have a measurement approach that can reliably differentiate between positive and negative mental or emotional states. New techniques are required that are more reliable and less invasive or time-consuming. During stressful events, rapid physiological changes in the body alter the pattern of blood flow, directing blood away from the periphery of the animal to its body core. This leads to warming of the body core and localised cooling of the skin and these changes occur in response to both acute (short term) stress as well as chronic (longer term) stress.

Recent advances in thermal imaging cameras provide an opportunity to develop remote methods of assessing the welfare of animals. Thermal imaging, otherwise known as infrared thermography, records the surface temperature of an animal by measuring the quantity of thermal radiation it emits. Surface temperature is therefore an indirect measurement of blood flow and has the potential to be a non invasive method of assessing physiological responses to stress without the need for blood sampling or probe attachment. Most importantly, there is evidence that this method may be able to distinguish between negative and positive mental states in animals.

The aim of this research project is to validate the use of infrared thermography as a novel, non invasive tool to provide relevant and immediate information on welfare state in birds. We will work on the domestic fowl (laying hen) which is highly relevant species because millions of birds are reared annually in the UK poultry industry. Commercial poultry may be affected by confinement, lameness, hunger, undiagnosed disease or poor handling and we need better ways of assessing their welfare.

The specific objectives of this work are to:
1. Determine the accuracy of surface temperature measures as indicators of stress by comparing surface temperature in responses to increasing severities of the same short term stressor and also examine responses to different types of stressors. We will validate this information against well established welfare measures including stress hormones, core body temperature and behaviour.
2. Establish the use of thermography as an indicator of chronic stress by examining responses to long term stressful situations and comparing these to unstressed birds.
3. Examine the extent to which body surface temperature patterns are associated with negative and positive mental states, to determine if thermal imaging could be a novel way of distinguishing good and bad welfare.

The work will lead to significant advances in our understanding of the thermal responses to stress in birds. It will develop appropriate thermographic approaches for welfare assessment and establish the potential for commercial application of this technique to monitor the welfare of birds.

Technical Summary

Reliable measurements of stress and affective state in animals are extremely important tools for animal welfare assessment. Quantifying stress hormone levels and behaviour have been the basis of significant progress in welfare research but further methods are required that are less invasive or time-consuming. Stressors induce autonomic responses through the sympatho-adrenal axis affecting heart rate, blood flow and respiratory rate. Rapid changes in the pattern of blood flow, from the periphery to the core lead to stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH). The aim of the project is to validate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) as a novel, non invasive tool to provide relevant and immediate information on physiological, welfare and affective state in birds. In pilot experiments we recorded a decrease in surface temperature of zebra finches exposed to acute and chronic stressors, showing that stress induced temperature changes are quantifiable with IRT. In this study, we will work on the domestic fowl (laying hen) because of its strategic relevance to poultry welfare in commercial contexts. Specific objectives are to:

1. Compare quantitative measures of body surface temperature change using IRT between different severities of the same acute stressor and responses to different types of stressors, and validate these against measures of plasma corticosterone, core body temperature and behaviour.
2. Establish the use of IRT as an indicator of chronic stress by making chronic stress related measurements and examining responses to acute stress in normal and chronically stressed birds.
3. Examine the extent to which thermographic spatial patterns are associated with negative and positive affective states.

This work will lead to significant advances in our understanding of the thermal responses to stress in birds, develop appropriate thermographic protocols for welfare assessment and establish the potential for commercial application of this technique.

Planned Impact

Animal welfare is an important international issue, and there are both ethical and economic reasons for improvement of welfare, particularly in the reduction of acute and chronic stress in farm and laboratory animals. For progress in this area, reliable and efficient techniques for the assessment of welfare are required. This project will validate the use of infrared thermography as a novel, non invasive tool to provide relevant and immediate information on the physiological welfare and mental state of birds.

The global poultry industry rears 50 billion chickens annually, is increasingly concerned with bird welfare and values methods which can distinguish different welfare states. Avian research laboratories also have a responsibility to assess welfare and maintain standards of welfare for experimental birds. However, to date there is only very limited information available on the effect of housing conditions on laboratory birds. Both of these industries will benefit from this new welfare assessment approach. Animal welfare organisations also have an interest in clear scientific advice on welfare implications of husbandry. Animal welfare has been described as 'a public good' and remains a source of passionate concern for the public. New assessment methods and the studies arising from these will allow the public to make more accurate judgments on the welfare of birds in a range of contexts.

The research team has a strong track record in effective dissemination of results at scientific meetings and in peer reviewed publications. Public engagement will be delivered through talks at local and national Science Festivals, through the University of Glasgow's community engagement programme and through the media.

At the beginning of the project we will set up a group of practitioners interested in assessing welfare in a range of contexts and the Infrared R&D Industry. Annual meetings of this group will ensure that the development of assessment protocols is taking into consideration the specific needs of practitioners that would apply these methods. This group will also be used to devise the most effective dissemination method to deliver the final measurement protocols and set up appropriate systems that will advice users about the approach.

This project has developed from previous collaborations between the researchers, the poultry industry and discussions with FLIR systems over a number of years. McKeegan will manage the project and arrange regular review meetings with the PDRA and co-investigators and the stakeholders in thermal imaging, poultry industry and general animal welfare assessment. McKeegan has very good contacts with the poultry industry and McCafferty has good contacts with the thermal imaging industry. This will provide effective knowledge exchange between all of the interested parties.

This work provides the opportunity for commercial exploitation of thermal imaging technology for welfare assessment. This can be achieved by working with the manufacturers of thermal imaging cameras and the poultry industry to develop and evaluate automated welfare monitoring systems.

The impact activities will be undertaken and delivered by the research team. The investigators have previous experience of providing presentations and reports to technical and lay audiences. McKeegan has previously presented to DEFRA, the Farm Animal Welfare Council, the European Food Safety Authority and is a member of the British Veterinary Association Welfare and Ethics Group. Nager has regularly presented public talks on his research at a number of local public science events. McCafferty coordinates public outreach activities in life sciences at the University of Glasgow. The application of thermal imaging to captive laboratory birds has already generated a co-authored fact sheet together with the thermal imaging industry.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Cold adapted species images 
Description Collection of thermal images of cold-adapted species, collected in collaboration with the Highland Wildlife park, for use as a teaching and public speaking resource. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Use of images to engage members of the public of all ages at public outreach events (e.g. Sparking impact, Science Sunday). 
 
Description Under stress, hormonally-mediated vasoconstriction in the skin causes the redirection of blood from the periphery to the core. With the movement of blood, this causes an increase in core temperature (stress induced hyperthermia) but also, we predicted, a corresponding decrease in surface temperature. In experiments conducted so far, we have discovered that the pattern of skin temperature changes with acute stress varies across the face, with some areas instead warming. However, thermoregulatory tissues, such as the comb and wattle in the chicken, show the predicted cooling, and more importantly, the magnitude of cooling is proportional to stressor magnitude. As such, skin temperature changes (warm or cool) may be used to identify stress, and cooling in some facial regions may be used to quantify that stress.
Exploitation Route We aim to develop methods for the measurement of stress and affective states in chickens via thermal imaging of skin temperature. Testing within an industrial poultry context is beyond the scope of this project, but ultimately we expect this method to have practical applicability in industry. Beyond industrial applications, this method may also be developed for use in other systems, to improve welfare (compared to invasive methods of measuring stress) for research animals as well as improving housing conditions from insights gained.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

 
Description This is a proof of concept study. The research is at an early stage, but promising results, such as proportionality between stressor magnitude and temperature change, suggest thermal imaging may be developed into a noninvasive tool for measuring stress in animals. Through public engagement, we have attracted industrial as well as academic groups interested in applying this method to other systems. We have also supported a three students and begun collaborations with a number of groups, developing skills and sharing practical knowledge on thermal imaging more broadly.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Impacts of stress on brood patch temperature in a wild, incubating bird
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Society of Biology (RSB) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 04/2020
 
Description UFAW student scholarship
Amount £1,700 (GBP)
Organisation Universities Federation for Animal Welfare 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2014 
End 11/2014
 
Title Guidance on how to extract quantitative information from thermal images 
Description In our recent methods paper published in the Journal of Visualised Experiments, 'Thermal imaging to study stress non-invasively in unrestrained birds' we provide guidance and some R code on validated methods to extract and analyse quantitative information from thermal images. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These techniques have wide application and the methodology is now available to any researcher accessing the published paper. 
URL http://www.jove.com/video/53184/thermal-imaging-to-study-stress-non-invasively-in-unrestrained-birds
 
Description Deer Chronic Stress project 
Organisation Utrecht University
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collection of pilot data to demonstrate that eye temperature is varies amongst fallow deer under the same conditions, thus may have sufficient variation to detect temperature changes associated with stress. Hosting group meeting.
Collaborator Contribution Offering opportunity to validate our thermal stress methodology in mammals in a largescale study of chronic stress.
Impact Collaborative effort to collect pilot data in 2015 via one to two masters projects at Glasgow University. Potential to develop method to measure stress non-invasively in a wild mammal, that may become important under future legislation to give responsibility for wild animal welfare to land owners. Completed MSc project - Evaluation of infrared thermography as a tool to assess chronic stress in fallow deer (Dama dama) in captive environments - Eirini Symeon. Ongoing project with MRes student on same topic student - Pierce McKeon.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Steering Committee 
Organisation Scotland's Rural College
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosting annual steering group meetings to share preliminary results and discuss future experiments into thermal imaging as a tool for the measurement of stress.
Collaborator Contribution Advice to refine experiments from partners representing welfare, thermal imaging, veterinary and industrial perspectives.
Impact Development of new research network, sharing unpublished and pilot data to inform our own research. Connections to partners with potential to fund further research, e.g. Cobb.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Steering Committee 
Organisation University of Bristol
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosting annual steering group meetings to share preliminary results and discuss future experiments into thermal imaging as a tool for the measurement of stress.
Collaborator Contribution Advice to refine experiments from partners representing welfare, thermal imaging, veterinary and industrial perspectives.
Impact Development of new research network, sharing unpublished and pilot data to inform our own research. Connections to partners with potential to fund further research, e.g. Cobb.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Steering Committee 
Organisation University of Technology of Compiègne
Department French National Centre for Scientific Research Lab (CNRS Lab)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosting annual steering group meetings to share preliminary results and discuss future experiments into thermal imaging as a tool for the measurement of stress.
Collaborator Contribution Advice to refine experiments from partners representing welfare, thermal imaging, veterinary and industrial perspectives.
Impact Development of new research network, sharing unpublished and pilot data to inform our own research. Connections to partners with potential to fund further research, e.g. Cobb.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Ecology Group 
Organisation Lund University
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative network. Biannual meetings hosted at Glasgow University. Hosted thermal ecology workshop at the 5th International Biologging Symposium (BLS5).
Collaborator Contribution Invited to attend meetings, to discuss research, exchange and collaboratively collect pilot data and compare and disseminate new methods.
Impact Collaborative authorship of two thermal methods reviews (in preparation). Collaborative hosting of BLS5 workshop, extending the network and bringing in new collaborative partners. Sharing skills and equipment to extend the thermal stress measurement methods we are developing to new systems.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Ecology Group 
Organisation Scotland's Rural College
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative network. Biannual meetings hosted at Glasgow University. Hosted thermal ecology workshop at the 5th International Biologging Symposium (BLS5).
Collaborator Contribution Invited to attend meetings, to discuss research, exchange and collaboratively collect pilot data and compare and disseminate new methods.
Impact Collaborative authorship of two thermal methods reviews (in preparation). Collaborative hosting of BLS5 workshop, extending the network and bringing in new collaborative partners. Sharing skills and equipment to extend the thermal stress measurement methods we are developing to new systems.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Ecology Group 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative network. Biannual meetings hosted at Glasgow University. Hosted thermal ecology workshop at the 5th International Biologging Symposium (BLS5).
Collaborator Contribution Invited to attend meetings, to discuss research, exchange and collaboratively collect pilot data and compare and disseminate new methods.
Impact Collaborative authorship of two thermal methods reviews (in preparation). Collaborative hosting of BLS5 workshop, extending the network and bringing in new collaborative partners. Sharing skills and equipment to extend the thermal stress measurement methods we are developing to new systems.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Ecology Group 
Organisation University of Technology of Compiègne
Department French National Centre for Scientific Research Lab (CNRS Lab)
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative network. Biannual meetings hosted at Glasgow University. Hosted thermal ecology workshop at the 5th International Biologging Symposium (BLS5).
Collaborator Contribution Invited to attend meetings, to discuss research, exchange and collaboratively collect pilot data and compare and disseminate new methods.
Impact Collaborative authorship of two thermal methods reviews (in preparation). Collaborative hosting of BLS5 workshop, extending the network and bringing in new collaborative partners. Sharing skills and equipment to extend the thermal stress measurement methods we are developing to new systems.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Thermal Ecology Group 
Organisation University of Tromso
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative network. Biannual meetings hosted at Glasgow University. Hosted thermal ecology workshop at the 5th International Biologging Symposium (BLS5).
Collaborator Contribution Invited to attend meetings, to discuss research, exchange and collaboratively collect pilot data and compare and disseminate new methods.
Impact Collaborative authorship of two thermal methods reviews (in preparation). Collaborative hosting of BLS5 workshop, extending the network and bringing in new collaborative partners. Sharing skills and equipment to extend the thermal stress measurement methods we are developing to new systems.
Start Year 2013
 
Description "Thermographica: visualising the thermal world of birds" - Exhibition at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this Science Showcase exhibition, we highlight how researchers at the University of Glasgow are using thermal imaging to explore the thermal world of birds. Thermal images show how birds are adapted to cold and why thermography is a useful technique to monitor the welfare of captive and wild birds.
The exhibition will run from December 2018 until May 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/hunterian/visit/exhibitions/scienceshowcase/thermographica/#d.en.625236
 
Description Argyll Bird Club Meeting (Arrochar) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dominic McCafferty presented a talk on 'Thermal Imaging and Avian Science', leading to discussions and improved understanding of the research of the group by members of the bird club.

The talk was well received, which may be important to gaining support for further work involving wild birds in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Article in 'Long Room' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article on US website 'Long Room' featuring the Jerem Scientific Report paper 'Thermal imaging can detect how animals are coping with their environment, avoiding the need for capture'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.longroom.com/discussion/866651/thermal-imaging-can-detect-how-animals-are-coping-with-th...
 
Description BBSRC video 'How can you tell if an animal is happy or sad?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Work from this BBSRC project appeared in a video and accompanying text produced by BBSRC to engage the general public in Animal Welfare Science. The article and video was entitled 'How can you tell if an animal is happy or sad?' and the subsection relating to our project was called 'The stress is cool'. The article contains links to the PI's University website and a recent publication and is available on the BBSRC website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2016/160510-f-how-can-you-tell-if-an-animal-is-happy-or-sa...
 
Description Biological sciences review - invited cover article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Through the University 'Images with impact' competition, Kevin O'Dell, an editor of Biological Sciences Review, became aware of our work. We have subsequently contributed the image and a short article to appear on the back cover of the next issue, currently in press. This publication has a circulation of 11,000 and is aims to encourage A-level students to pursue careers in science.

The purpose of the publication (available to students in all schools and colleges) is to influence decision about their A-level and subsequent career goals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bsr.manchester.ac.uk/
 
Description Dom McCafferty talk to Glasgow Natural History Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact PI Dominic McCafferty gave a talk to a meeting of the Glasgow Natural History Society entitled 'Avian Thermoregulation in Winter', followed by questions and discussion afterwards. The audience consisted of members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Evaluation of skin temperatures using thermal imaging, Scotland v Italy rugby match 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact One of the PIs on the project, Dominic McCafferty, was invited to Murrayfield Stadium to evaluate skin temperatures of rugby players using thermal imaging at the Scotland v Italy match, 29 August 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Explorathon 16 - European Researchers Night (Glasgow) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We participated in a Schools Activity with the title "Research Careers in Health Science". Out specific activity was entitled "Stress is cool" and introduced students to the science of thermal imaging, inviting them to explore how this technology is being used in innovative research to study stress in wild and domesticated animals. The class we presented to was an S5/6 higher biology class. The activity sparked questions and discussion, particularly about careers in the biological sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/
 
Description Gist video - 'Stress is cool' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact In their first ever documentary, theGIST produced a short video explaining the work of our group.

The video has been viewed 1300 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://the-gist.org/2015/06/stress-is-cool/
 
Description Glasgow Science Festival Classroom Activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We provided an interactive classroom event as part of the Glasgow Science Festival with the title 'The colourful world of cool (and hot!)'. The event introduced students to the science of thermal imaging, allowing them to explore how this technology is being used in innovative research to study stress in wild and domesticated animals. The class involved was an S5/6 higher biology class. The activity sparked questions and discussion, particularly about careers in biological sciences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.glasgowsciencefestival.org.uk/
 
Description Glasgow Science Festival Science Sunday 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We presented an interactive stand titled 'The colourful world of cool (and hot!)'.Visitors had a chance to view thermal images of themselves and participate in a stress test to show changes in surface temperature. The demonstration of infrared thermography sparked questions and discussion in visitors. Our stand was filmed and later included in a BBC Alba children's television show (in Gaelic).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.glasgowsciencefestival.org.uk/
 
Description Image feature in showcase of BBSRC research as part of 'Images on the Clyde' initiative 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Poster and accompanying text is currently on display at the Glasgow Science Centre

Recently installed so no specific impact yet
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/colleges/mvls/researchimpact/imagesontheclyde/
 
Description Images with impact competition - runner up 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Image from project was runner up in multi-departmental 'Images with impact' competition. Poster displayed on University Building and University website (image in current use as link to our research institute).

Through the competition, Kevin O'Dell, an editor of Biological Sciences Review became aware of our work. See separate point for details. We have subsequently agreed that the image may be used on the back cover of the next issue, currently in press. This publication has a circulation of 11,000 and is aims to encourage A-level students to pursue careers in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/colleges/mvls/researchinstitutes/
 
Description Imaging and machine vision Europe article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A newsletter article based on the Scientific Reports paper appeared on the website of magazine 'Imaging and machine Vision Europe'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.imveurope.com/news/thermal-imaging-shows-how-animals-cope-environmental-change
 
Description Invited talk at IRT workshop Newcastle - Herborn 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation entitled 'Variation in baseline surface temperature and stress', presented by former post doc Katherine Herborn as part of an infrared thermography workshop organised by Newcastle University. The audience contained academics, students and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://conferences.ncl.ac.uk/irtnewcastle2018/
 
Description Invited talk at IRT workshop Newcastle - McCafferty 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation entitled 'Insights from the wild: thermography as a tool for monitoring metabolic heat production, tagging and handling', presented by PI Dominic McCafferty as part of an infrared thermography workshop organised by Newcastle University. The audience contained academics, students and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://conferences.ncl.ac.uk/irtnewcastle2018/
 
Description Invited talk at IRT workshop Newcastle - McKeegan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation entitled 'Stress is cool: thermography as a non-invasive approach to assess welfare in birds', presented by PI Dorothy McKeegan as part of an infrared thermography workshop organised by Newcastle University. The audience contained academics, students and industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://conferences.ncl.ac.uk/irtnewcastle2018/
 
Description Invited talk at Infrared thermography workshop run by the Animal Welfare Research Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr McKeegan gave an invited talk on IRT work with birds at the methodology workshop sponsored by the BBSRC funded Animal Welfare Research Network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/scientific-events/archive/infrared-thermography-workshop
 
Description Invited talk at SEB Symposium on non invasive stress assessment - McKeegan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr McKeegan presented an invited talk titled "Infrared thermography: a non-invasive tool to measure stress in birds" at a symposium "Advances in non-invasive monitoring of stress in the field and laboratory: Applications for conservation" at the SEB annual meeting in Florence. The audience was mostly academics with an interest in stress assessment. Afterwards, the speaker received some emails expressing interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Item on BBC Scotland News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The work of our group 'Glasgow University uses thermal imaging to detect stress in birds' was featured in a news item on BBC Scotland, and a short article on the story (with video panel) remains on the BBC website.

The news item stimulated some public inquiries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-30496166
 
Description Jerem - Scientific reports blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog post by Paul Jerem for the blog site of the British Ornithologist's Union - a special interest group for bird biology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bou.org.uk/blog-jerem-thermal-imaging-physiology/
 
Description Phys Org article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An article based on the Jerem Scientific Reports paper appeared on Phys Org, part of Science X™, a leading web-based science, research and technology news service.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://phys.org/news/2018-01-thermal-imaging-animals-coping-environment.html
 
Description Radio interview on project for BBC 'Inside Science' programme 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dominic McCafferty was interviewed for a radioshow that was broadcast nationally.

Contact from a potential collaborator (Cobb Poultry) interested in funding work on thermal imaging to measure stress and health in young broilers as a direct result of the interview.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/inscience/inscience_20140320-1713a.mp3
 
Description SNH workshop Sharing Good Practice on the Challenge and Opportunity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact PI Ruedi Nager gave presentation and workshop for using infrared thermography in conservation work. Q&A session and discussion, examples of best practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Science Sunday public engagement event (Glasgow) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Members of the public of all ages were encouraged to pose for thermal photographs, which encouraged questions about the work of the research group.

A local newspaper reporter asked to write an article when the first paper is published.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.glasgowsciencefestival.org.uk/
 
Description Scottish Center for the Natural Environment (SCENE) Sparking Impact events (Glasgow) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Open evenings to promote the new field center at SCENE. Katherine Herborn attended evenings involving interactive presentations of the thermal imaging equipment and research, and Dorothy McKeegan presented the work of the group in a talk at the opening ceremony. Open days were held for local community, funders of the SCENE building and potential academic funders, allowing all to find out how the funds had been spent, and about the research at Glasgow University.

Dorothy McKeegan was approached by the RSPB to collaborate on outreach work involving thermal imaging of black grouse.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/researchinstitutes/bahcm/research/researchfacilities/scene/scenere-launch/
 
Description University newsletter article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A university newsletter article dated 16th December 2015 'Thinking outside the box' profiled the work of the Thermal Ecology Group and described the use of thermal imaging to assess stress states in birds.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.gla.ac.uk/news/archiveofnews/2014/december/headline_383993_en.html
 
Description Why is stress cool? Insights from captive and wild birds. Hunterian Museum Insight Talk by Dr Dominic McCafferty 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr McCafferty gave a 15 minute talk entitled "Why is stress cool? Insights from captive and wild birds" as part of the Hunterian Museum Insight Talk series, against the backdrop of the temporary Science Showcase Exhibition "Thermographica: visualising the thermal world of birds". The talk was attended by around 30 people and sparked questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019