Mechanism of global regulation of ATP dependent transporters by PTS-NTR

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Plant Sciences

Abstract

Bacteria are simple single celled organisms that lack the membrane bound structures found in higher cells of plants and animals. However, while bacteria may have a less complex cellular organisation they carry out a huge range of chemical reactions not found in plants and animals. Bacteria are responsible for the cycling of many nutrients such as N2 (N2 is also known as nitrogen gas and consists of two nitrogen atoms bound by a strong triple bond), which is a very inert atmospheric gas. N2 makes up 78% of the atmosphere but is very unreactive and cannot be used directly as a source of nitrogen, which is needed for amino acid, protein and DNA synthesis. However, a small number of bacteria can reduce (add hydrogen) to N2 and convert it into ammonia (NH3), which is readily incorporated into amino acids and then all the other building blocks of life, by a wide range of organisms including bacteria and plants. In many parts of the world the limitation to growth of plants, which in turn support animal life, is the supply of nitrogen as ammonia or related compounds. Since up to 65% of available nitrogen (eg ammonia) comes from bacteria this makes them essential for life on earth. Within the bacteria, most of the nitrogen is actually produced by one family known as the Rhizobiacea. This remarkable group of bacteria form a symbiotic association (both partners benefit) with plants of the legume family, that results in the formation of root nodules (on pea plants these are 2-3 mm bulbs that can easily be seen by pulling up a plant and inspecting its roots). The rhizobia are held inside the nodules where the plant provides them with an ideal environment (low O2 and lots of energy) in which they can reduce N2 to ammonia. The ammonia is supplied to the plant as its nitrogen source so this is why this is known as a symbiotic interaction. It means that the plant does need any nitrogen added to the the soil and enables rapid growth. The purpose of this research is to understand how the bacteria (rhizobia) regulate transport processes that are essential for acquiring amino acids.

Technical Summary

The largest input of fixed nitrogen in the biosphere comes from biological reduction of atmospheric N2 to ammonium. Most of this comes from legume-Rhizobium symbioses, arising from infection of host plants and results in root structures called nodules within which bacteria reduce N2 and feed the resultant ammonia to the host. However, we showed that nutrient exchange between the plant cytosol and bacteroid is more complex with amino acid transport by two ATP binding cassette (ABC) amino acid uptake systems (Aap and Bra) being essential for N2 fixation. Plants take control of bacteroid differentiation and must provide branched chain amino acids to allow full development and persistence of bacteroids. We called this phenomenon symbiotic auxotrophy because bacteroids only become auxotrophic for branched chain amino acids in planta. We have now shown that these transporters are regulated by PTSNtr at the post translational level and the high affinity KDP system at the transcriptional level. We therefore proposed that PTSNtr is a ubiquitous phosphotransferase system that globally regulates ATP dependent transport systems, making it absolutely central to the regulation of most aspects of bacterial physiology and growth. Therefore, our objective is to elucidate the phosphotransfer pathway between PTS components and identify their target proteins. Absolutely critical to understanding the global role of PTSNtr is to determine how it senses adenylate charge and other metabolites and how this controls ATP dependent transport processes. This is likely to have a major impact in many bacteria because PTSNtr is widely distributed and essential for diverse processes ranging from nutrient acquisition to secretion of toxins, drugs, proteins, virulence factors and symbiotic N2-fixation.

Planned Impact

Our aim is to understand regulation of amino acid transport, its role in bacteroid development and nitrogen fixation by legumes. Nitrogen is one of the main constraints on agricultural productivity so its use is essential for high crop yields. In a world where food security is now considered a national priority crop yield is of critical importance. However, the drive for yield alone has led to very high application of nitrogen with consequent nitrate contamination of groundwater and problems of eutrophication. The problem is so serious that reactive nitrogen in the biosphere has doubled from preindustrial levels primarily through massive inputs into agriculture. It also results in the production of N2O which is around 300 times more potent than CO2 as a greenhouse gas. These are problems of regional, national and international scope that require urgent amelioration and are at the forefront of the grand challenges for UK science. By improving our understanding of how rhizobia develop into N2 fixing bacteroids in legume nodule we acquire the understanding to improve the competitive success of desirable strains of Rhizobium. It also lays down a foundation of understanding for the transfer of bacteria to nodules in other plants such as cereals. These aims are long term but ultimately this work has relevance to farming practice as well as government policy in decisions about nitrogen utilization in agriculture. It is also relevant to UK attempts to reduce greenhouse emissions and produce a low carbon economy. Understanding the nitrogen fixation and its role in the nitrogen cycle in agricultural has wider benefits applicable to the UK public because of its importance in food security and meeting international obligations for mitigating the effects of climate change. We propose to reach a wide audience of farmers, the public, national and international policy makers and charitable institutions through active outreach (Friends of John Innes). We also have strong links with "The Nitrous Oxide Focus Group" and the newly formed "Consortium for Legumes in Agriculture, Society and Environment", which is an international consortium to promote understanding on the use of legumes. In addition we have broad links to the environmental impact of this work through the Earth and Life Systems Alliance between JIC and UEA (ELSA) and to the UK government via the "Living With Environmental Change program (LWEC)" which has its secretariat at UEA. The proposal is also broadly in the highlight area "Effects of environmental change on the soil-water interface: Implications for food production and water supply". This is because legume use has a substantial impact on soil and water quality particularly for nitrogen run off problems. Legumes use reduces the need for nitrogen fertilizer and therefore decreases the carbon footprint of agriculture associated with fertilizer production in the energy intensive Haber-Bosch process.
This proposal also deals more generally with the regulation of ATP-dependent processes in bacteria by PTSNtr. ABC transporters are the largest group of membrane transport systems in living organisms and are essential for diverse processes ranging from symbiotic N2-fixation and nutrient acquisition, to secretion of toxins, drugs, proteins and virulence factors. Understanding how these systems are regulated by PtsNtr in bacteria may provide drug targets for development of antimicrobials.

Publications

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Sánchez-Cañizares C (2017) Understanding the holobiont: the interdependence of plants and their microbiome. in Current opinion in microbiology

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Poole P (2018) Rhizobia: from saprophytes to endosymbionts. in Nature reviews. Microbiology

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Poole P (2017) Shining a light on the dark world of plant root-microbe interactions. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

 
Description Understanding how the bacterial cell regulates the amount of carbon and nitrogen it has is important. We are working to understand the system regulating this in a soil-dwelling bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation with peas, its host legume. The results of this work are showing that there is a complicated system of integrated regulation with a cascade of protein modification (through phosphorylation) affecting the uptake of both organic acids and sugars mediated by ATP-dependent transporters. The results have implications for agriculture as increasingly the over-use of nitrogenous fertilisers are causing catastrophic environmental problems and increasingly symbiotic nitrogen fixation becomes a source for means to solving the nitrogen crisis.
Exploitation Route Provides an increase in the fundamental understanding of nitrogen fixation. This is needed for exploitation of the process of symbiotic nitrogen fixation and making it more widely available to plants, especially crops.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria
Amount £4,496,752 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N003608/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria (Co-I with Prof. Martin Buck as Lead PI)
Amount £4,496,752 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N003608/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture (Co-I with Prof. Ray Dixon as Lead PI)
Amount £1,624,659 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N013476/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2019
 
Description Understanding and Exploiting Biological nItrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture
Amount £1,624,659 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N013476/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2019
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation Aberystwyth University
Department Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences (IBERS)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Brazil and nitrogen fixation 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Our emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules. Most recently we have been studying how bacteria attach to and colonise roots and have developed methods to open up the whole area of how plants control the microbial root microbiome.
Collaborator Contribution Our major emphasis is on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit. (JIC) Research in the Farrar lab focuses on increasing Miscanthus yields in order to replace fossil fuel usage, sequester atmospheric carbon, and ultimately contribute to climate change mitigation. In order to achieve this, there are two main research areas: Plant developmental biology & genetics and Plant-soil-microbe interactions. (IBERS) Plant electron microscopy: the ultrastructure of beneficial plant-bacterial interactions. I also specialise in immunolocalisation of both conventionally (chemically)- and cryo-fixed plant material. Expertise in nitrogen fixation by legumes and non-legumes (JHI)
Impact Grant awarded from BBSRC Newton Fund. Grant Ref: BB/N013476/1 Understanding and Exploiting Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Improvement of Brazilian Agriculture. PI: Prof. Ray Dixon
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nitrogen economy of bacteria 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Imperial College Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.
Collaborator Contribution Focus on establishing the mechanistic basis of signal perception and propagation that operates to allow the appropriate adaptive patterns of gene expression to be mounted. Study of bacterial systems, of agronomic, medical and industrial relevance. Computational systems biology, drawing together information from macromolecular sequences, protein structures, biological networks and other experimental data to study the evolution and function of biological systems. Emphasis on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit.
Impact Funding obtained from BBSRC for sLoLa 'Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria' Grant Ref: BB/N003608/1. 2nd Jan 2016-1st Jan 2020
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nitrogen economy of bacteria 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Imperial College Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.
Collaborator Contribution Focus on establishing the mechanistic basis of signal perception and propagation that operates to allow the appropriate adaptive patterns of gene expression to be mounted. Study of bacterial systems, of agronomic, medical and industrial relevance. Computational systems biology, drawing together information from macromolecular sequences, protein structures, biological networks and other experimental data to study the evolution and function of biological systems. Emphasis on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit.
Impact Funding obtained from BBSRC for sLoLa 'Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria' Grant Ref: BB/N003608/1. 2nd Jan 2016-1st Jan 2020
Start Year 2014
 
Description Nitrogen economy of bacteria 
Organisation John Innes Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Emphasis is to study the physiology of bacterial growth and survival in the rhizosphere and how they establish symbiotic interactions with plants. A further focus of our work is the physiology and biochemistry of nitrogen fixation in legume nodules.
Collaborator Contribution Focus on establishing the mechanistic basis of signal perception and propagation that operates to allow the appropriate adaptive patterns of gene expression to be mounted. Study of bacterial systems, of agronomic, medical and industrial relevance. Computational systems biology, drawing together information from macromolecular sequences, protein structures, biological networks and other experimental data to study the evolution and function of biological systems. Emphasis on signal transduction cascades that regulate nitrogen fixation genes in response to oxygen, carbon and fixed nitrogen status. A long-term goal of this research is to exploit and engineer nitrogen fixation genes for agricultural benefit.
Impact Funding obtained from BBSRC for sLoLa 'Managing the Nitrogen economy of bacteria' Grant Ref: BB/N003608/1. 2nd Jan 2016-1st Jan 2020
Start Year 2014
 
Description 1st Plant Microbiome Symposium, Brazil Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 1st Plant Microbiome Symposium, Brazil attended by approx. 200 people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Attending UBNFC Annual Meeting in Brazil, Nov 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Meeting of all collaborators on an international project or annual meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description BBSRC Senior Executive visits Plant Sciences Dept. Nov 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact BBSRC visited the lab and heard short presentations from members of the group.

Interest was shown by the visitors in the work that was going on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://synthsym.org/news/
 
Description Back2Roots Advisor, annual project meeting. Jan 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International advisor to the Back2Roots research programme in the Netherlands
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Bacterial World, Natural History Museum, Oxford, Dec 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Phil gave a talk to school children on an open day at the museum as part of the Bacterial World exhibition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/bacterialworld/
 
Description Bath Science Café presentation, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion followed presentation.

Increased requests for delivering talks at similar science cafe events in other geographical areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Bayer Crop Science 16th-17th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Bayer Crop Science 16th-17th Feb 2016. A group of academics advised industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Botanic Gardens seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I talked to the Botanic Gardens about nitrogen and humanity

Lots of questions and feedback. This is widely advertised to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description ChemBioPlants Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop with approx. 100 researchers from three departments at University of Oxford
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Closing Ceremony of the Spanish-UK exchange programme UAM/SRUK 2018, Madrid, Spain Feb 2019 (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Selection was made from the UK participants who hosted an exchange student from Spain and Carmen was chosen. Both Carmen and the student she supervised gave presentations at the ceremony to celebrate the success of the exchange programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Development of Poole Lab website (Rhizosphere.org) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Rhizosphere website is used to describe work performed, profiles lab members, lists outreach activities and celebrates achievements. Also includes a list of Lab publications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org
 
Description ENFC, Budapest posters and talks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact An international conference. Group members presented posters and gave talks to approx. 500 scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description European Nitrogen Fixation Conference, Stockholm Sweden, Aug 2018 (Vinoy Ramachandran, Rachel Wheatley, Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Each named researcher presented a poster at this international conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Facebook LIVE video by Oxford Sparks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Oxford Sparks FacebookLIVE podcast on nitrogen and the importance of nitrogen-fixing legumes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/OxSparks/videos/1210777428999882/
 
Description Fascination of Plants Day, University of Oxford, Harcourt Arboretum, May 2014; 2015; 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interest shown by general public in our displays and conversations concerning the importance of legumes.

Praise from public and interest in plants rose.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Gatsby Plant Science Summer School, Hawkshill, July 2018 (Phil Poole, Vinoy Ramachandran) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Summer school for undergraduates interested in Plant Sciences. Phil gave a talk. Vinoy attended as a post-doc mentor to the undergraduates.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Give peas a chance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We made a film with Oxford sparks on nitrogen fixation

Lots os hits on the web site
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Graduate School Speaker, Lunteren, The Netherlands, April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Graduate School Speaker, Lunteren, The Netherlands, April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Conference on Nitrogen Fixation (ICNF) Asilomar, USA, Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk led to discussions. Poster sparked interest amongst audience.

Interest and approval of work from respected colleagues. Discussion of new ideas in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description KEYS conference, Amsterdam, June 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave a talk to an industry-sponsored conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Lecture at Cirencester Science and Technology Society, Royal Agricultural University, 9th May 2018, (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Lecture given to general public interested in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany Dec 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Seminar and discussion with colleagues at Max Planck Institue.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Meeting minds Oxford Alumni 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a talk to the Oxford biological sciences Alumni

Enthusiastic response from the audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Michigan State University, student workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Student workshop at an American University where I was an international expert.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Microbiome of Agricultural Plants, Saskatchewan, Canada, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk stimulated discussion.

Audience appreciation. Increased collaboration with other scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Molecular aspects of regulation and metabolism in nitrogen fixation - satellite meeting of European Nitrogen Fixation Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug 2018 (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk given to international scientists working in this field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description NIAB-East Malling Research seminar series, Jan 2019 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lunch time seminar at Research Institute. Spent much of the day in discussion with colleagues there.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description NUCLEUS UBNFC (VJC meeting) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A joint meeting of two VJCs who are working in UK and Brazil, held in Brazil, Nov 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Organised Nitrogen Network Workshop, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Nitrogen Network wa a one-day meeting for researchers interested in common themes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Organised OxBacNet meeting - Feb 2018 (Alison East) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact University of Oxford, Bacteriology Symposium and Network meeting. Held three times a year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/oxbacnet/
 
Description Organised a day of presentations: Tackling the nitrogen crisis; what are the solutions? Oxford, Sept 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact We organised a one-day symposium with international experts in the area. Extensive discussions were held throughout the day and new collaborations forged.

New collaborations have been sparked by this day's events, in terms of both existing programmes of work and in the instigation of new proposals and plans for more integrated research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/nitrogen-crisis-meeting-sept-2015/
 
Description Outreach at Somerville College, Oxford Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School students asked questions about the course. They were asked to think about nitrogen and its fixation by legumes.

Local schools were keen to participate next year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description OxBacNet seminar - Feb 2019 (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Carmen gave a seminar at this networking and seminar series held termly.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Oxford Botanic Gardens Seminar Series, Nov 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Evening seminar to interested members of general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Ratan Tata visits Poole Lab, June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Ratan Tata, the prominent Indian businessman, visited the Poole Lab as part of a visit to Oxford. He expressed interest in the work that we are doing.

Increased awareness of our research amongst businessmen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Research Seminar, Lisbon, March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research Seminar, Lisbon, March 2017 at II Semana Bioengenharia, Instuto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, UK. Seminar, 29th April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, UK. Seminar, 29th April 2016, addressed audience made up of academic colleagues and post-grad students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Schools one week Intensive course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Intensive one week course for A level students in practical plant and microbial science

Students all keen to apply for science based university courses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science Cafe, Sherborne, Dorset 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A science cafe held in a village hall for approx. 60 members of the general public. Many interested participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://sites.google.com/site/sherbornesciencecafe/
 
Description Seminar at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk led to discussion. Met with interested parties for discussions over the course of the day.

Improved understanding of the area by colleagues working in closely related fields.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Seminar, University of Southampton, Feb 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar, Crop Systems Engineering Seminar Series, University of Southampton, Feb 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminars in Frontiers on Genomics, Centro de Ciencias Genomicas (CCG) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), Mexico, Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact I presented three seminars to a group of undergraduates from Mexico in Seminars in Frontiers on Genomics series, organised by Centro de Ciencias Genomicas (CCG) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The seminars are broadcast to participating institutions in Mexico. One-to-one discussions were had with the students on a wide-range of topics to stimulate their interest.

Enormous appreciation and interest from the post-grad and under-grad students that I interacted with. Discussions with academics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Talk to Zoological Society of London, London Zoo,13th March 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Seminar to an audience interested in science, but not specialists in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Thatcher Development Programme's Foundation Day Panel Discussion, 'Climate Change: Approaches and Innovations for the Future' - Feb 208 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Broad-ranging panel discussion with students from different disciplines held at Somerville College, Oxford.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description The Microbiome: human medicine and agriculture in a bacterial world, Royal Society, Oct 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Royal Society organised two days of discussion to formulate policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Queen's College, seminar series (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Queen's College, seminar series (Carmen Sanchez-Canizares) Title: Life Underground: The basis and future of agriculture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Twitter account Rhizosphere @PooleLabOxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Twitter account to publicise the work of the Poole Lab
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com
 
Description University of York, Dept. of Biology invited seminar- Feb 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar and active discussion with members of Dept. of Biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description VI Annual Meeting of the Plant Genetic and Biotechnology Network, Graduate School, Italy, June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact VI Annual Meeting of the Plant Genetic and Biotechnology Network, Graduate School, Italy, June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Visit to Murdoch University, WA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Spent 1 month in Australia as Sir Walter Murdoch Adjunct Professor with Australian colleagues. Liaising, gave a seminar and got involved with their research activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit to Murdoch University, Western Australia as Sir Walter Murdoch Visiting Fellow, Dec 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Visit to another laboratory for several weeks. Included giving two seminars and extended discussions with colleagues in the field.

Strong ties formed and fostered with the research groups in universities in Western Australia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Winchester College, Nov 2018 (Phil Poole) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Phil gave a talk to the students of Winchester College.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Wow! How? Family Science Fair, March 2013, 2014, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Demonstrations stimulated discussion about simple science with children aged 5-10yrs and their parents/carers

Favourable comments from the audience on how the stand sparked their interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
URL http://rhizosphere.org/lab-news/
 
Description Wymondham academy school visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk to 6th form students to encourage them to consider science as a career

Students keen to apply for university places
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014