Understanding resistance and differential vaccine responses to Eimeria in the chicken - novel biomarkers and genetic control.

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Pathology and Pathogen Biology

Abstract

One of the main underpinning factors for a profitable large-scale poultry industry is the fact that the disease coccidiosis, caused by species of the protozoan parasite Eimeria, is controlled primarily through the use of drugs, or coccidiostats. Vaccines do exist, but these are currently primarily produced by passage of Eimeria through birds and therefore not a cheap nor practical solution to replace coccidostats. Reliance on a single main control measure is not ideal, particularly with political pressure in some parts of the world to ban the use of coccidiostats.

Resistance to Eimeria infection has long been known in inbred lines of chickens, but attempts to map this have been largely unsuccessful. Chromosomes associated with resistance have been identified, but we have yet to identify causative genes, or better still causative mutations. Differential responses to vaccines have also been described, presumably due to similar mechanisms, although this has yet to be formally proven. Resistance has always been described as oocyst output - the fewer oocysts excreted, the more resistant the bird. However, resistance is associated with a stronger innate and adaptive immune response in these birds, and it is unclear, particularly in broilers, if this stronger immune response compromises other parameters, such as feed conversion efficiency (FCE). In other words, do birds that produce fewer oocysts, due to a stronger gut immune response, perform better than birds that produce more oocysts, or is the obverse the case?

We plan to revisit mapping disease resistance, and differential responses to vaccines, using modern techniques, in particular the newly available 600K SNP chip. Similarly to funded work on Campylobacter resistance, we will use both inbred birds in a backcross design, and commercial birds in a genome-wide association study, or GWAS, experiment. We will then assess FCE in resistant versus susceptible birds.

The adaptive immune response is that which clears the pathogen causing the infection, and delivers immunological memory against reinfection. For many years, the adaptive immune response has been split into two arms, each involving a different subset of CD4+ Thelper cells. Th1 responses control infection with intracellular pathogens, such as viruses. Th2 responses control infections with extracellular pathogens such as worms. Adaptive responses are now known to be more complicated, with more subsets of CD4+ T cells involved.

It is well established that infection with Eimeria, an obligate intracellular pathogen, requires a strong inflammatory, Th1 response to control it. However, little has been done recently to investigate the role, if any, of other T cell subsets which have only recently become known in mammals and for which reagents have only recently become available in the chicken - i.e. Th17, Th9 and Treg. We will investigate these arms of the adaptive immune response in both the response to primary infection and to vaccination, with the expectation that this will lead to novel tools to defining disease biomarkers and phenotypes.

Technical Summary

Our overarching hypothesis is that QTL controlling resistance to Eimeria are segregating in modern commercial chickens, and that some of these will be in common with those controlling differential vaccine responses. Further, we hypothesise that the sequence variations may allow us to explain the molecular basis of differential resistance and differential vaccine responsiveness. Finally, we hypothesise that innate immune responses and early adaptive immune responses, such as Th17 responses, play a role in driving differential resistance.

We will also perform whole genome association/genomic selection (WGA/GS) for Eimeria resistance in commercial lines and then independently validate the WGA/GS results. We will also determine Eimeria resistance QTL in inbred lines, identify candidate genes and nucleotide changes and analyse the functional consequences of this sequence variation. This dual approach is required as we cannot apply a simple candidate SNP polymorphism approach in the commercial lines, based on the inbred line data, as we have no evidence that there is the same underlying linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the causal mutation and the SNP in the commercial lines. We will then determine QTLs for differential vaccine responsiveness in the inbred lines and determine if these are in common with the QTLs identified for resistance.

The overall aim is to identify markers (SNPs), candidate genes and ultimately causative mutations for resistance/susceptibility to infection with Eimeria in chickens. The resistance-associated genotypes will inform commercial breeding programmes to reduce the incidence of Eimeria infection of poultry but also improve vaccine responses in the same birds. Greater understaning of immune responses to Eimeria infection has the potential to identify novel biomarkers associated with resistance.

Planned Impact

The work proposed has direct relevance to the three ARC aims and three of the four prioritised themes within the overarching objective of 'improving farmed animal resistance to pest and disease organisms'. Outputs will include the identification of regions of the chicken genome associated with resistance/susceptibility to infection by one or more Eimeria species parasites and the ability to raise cross-protective immune responses, supplemented by characterisation of specific immune mechanisms underlying these traits to yield a panel of informative biomarkers. Outcomes will assist in increasing UK competitiveness in the global animal production market, improving animal welfare and helping to guarantee a secure supply of safe, healthy food. The following stakeholders have been identified as beneficiaries of this work:

1. The UK poultry production industry
Eimeria parasites cost the UK poultry industry in excess of £800M per annum including disease-induced losses and the cost of control. Addressing the theme 'Understanding the basis of resistance/resilience to pests and diseases in farmed animal species', identification of genomic regions associated with resistance to eimerian disease will facilitate selection for inherently resistant poultry with no loss of productivity. The structure of the UK poultry industry is such that collaboration with the major breeding companies will provide a cascade of breeding developments, 'ensuring exchange of knowledge between the science base and industry through effective networking'.

2. The UK poultry breeding industry
Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Eimeria and immune responses correlated with relevant immuno-competence will provide a panel of genetic and phenotypic biomarkers which may be developed as accurate, affordable tools to estimate disease susceptibility and inform breeding strategy ('Developing novel tools for defining disease biomarkers and phenotypes to inform breeding strategies for subclinical infections and increased disease resistance').

3. The UK animal health industry
The UK currently leads the world in the production of live attenuated anticoccidial vaccines, although a major cost is the requirement for two strains of Eimeria maxima. The identification of genetic markers or genes associated with the ability to generate cross-strain immune responses is likely to support selection of chicken genotypes receptive to streamlined live parasite vaccines and impact on the future development of vectored sub-unit vaccines ('Understanding variation in vaccine responsiveness, immuno-competence at different developmental stages and disease outcomes').

4. Animal welfare
The effective reduction of disease as a result of improved breeding supports the Five Freedoms implicit to animal welfare as set out by the Farm Animal Welfare Council.

5. General public and the environment
Increased efficiency in poultry production will raise poultry product availability at a lower cost for the consumer, contributing to improved food security. Consequences of improved disease resistance include a reduction in the requirement for prophylactic chemotherapy, reducing drug consumption and the risk of contamination to the food chain and the environment.

6. Skills, knowledge and training
The multidisciplinary nature of this project will provide opportunities for broad training to all staff, in addition to other members and students of each host institution ('strengthen the research community in the areas of disease and pest resistance of farmed animals through interdisciplinary research and the provision of training').

7. International development
Eimerian parasites impose serious costs on animal production in developing counties. Translating 'high quality, innovative, strategic research within UK universities and institutes to improve the resistance of farmed animals to pest and disease organisms' can improve economic income and alleviate poverty.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Eimeria species parasites can cause coccidiosis, most notably in poultry where control relies on routine chemoprophylaxis and/or live parasite vaccination. Both approaches can be highly effective, although legislative pressure on drug use, increasing drug resistance and the limited production capacity of many vaccines pose significant problems. In response, there is now considerable incentive to breed chickens with greater resistance to Eimeria. Here, Cobb500 broilers (a leading commercial chicken line) were subject to parasite or mock challenge for use in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Phenotypes percentage body weight gain and intestinal lesion score were assessed as measures of productivity and pathogenicity, supplemented by serum interleukin-10 (IL-10, measured from blood) as a biomarker of intestinal inflammation. All chickens included in the study were genotyped using a panel of 62,000 genetic markers. Significant variation was recorded in response to infection in all traits, indicating scope to explore the genetic basis of each trait. Percentage body weight gain exhibited a negative association with intestinal lesion score and IL-10, illustrating the cost of parasite infection. A positive association was detected between lesion score and IL-10. GWAS identified genetic markers associated with body weight gain during parasite infection with suggestive genome-wide significance. Complementary analyses with samples collected from historic studies using White Leghorn chickens identified genetic markers which associated with lesion score and IL-10, in addition to parasite replication. Combined, these markers offer the opportunity to breed for chickens capable of improved productivity and welfare in the face of parasite challenge.
At the beginning of the project our hypothesis anticipated two distinct groups of chickens: those that would be resistant or susceptible to parasite infection. Intriguingly, our analyses revealed a third group: chickens who were susceptible to infection but performed as if they were resistant. Such tolerant birds pose a significant welfare concern and the ability to differentiate tolerant from resistant individuals will be important if chickens are to be selectively bred for parasite resistance. Circulating IL-10 was identified as a likely discriminatory marker between tolerance and resistance and is now the subject of a new research project.
Additional outputs from the project include the development and validation of a new quantitative molecular tool to define parasite replication. Application of the tool permits more sensitive analysis than was previously possible using smaller numbers of chickens to achieve statistical significance, providing a key Reduction in ethical terms.
Exploitation Route Findings will be of value to future chicken husbandry and breeding. They are also informing future research strategies in the UK and abroad.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Data generated here has informed on the relative susceptibility/resistance of modern commercial broiler chickens to infection by Eimeria tenella. Detection of a subset of birds which are genetically predisposed to tolerate infection is an important welfare finding and is likely to influence parasite spreading. These findings are now being considered in chicken breeding studies to improve economic performance and animal welfare. The work has also supported a new BBSRC project focused on the use of interleukin-10 as a biomarked of intestinal inflammation, as well as the establishment of a new Global Challenges Research Fund hub: One Health Poultry.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description GCRF One Health Poultry Hub
Amount £17,718,608 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S011269/1 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 02/2025
 
Description Horizon 2020
Amount € 340,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2015 
End 03/2018
 
Description Houghton Trust Small Research Fund
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Houghton Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2016
 
Description The role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the regulation of innate immunity in the domestic chicken
Amount £399,507 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P021638/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2020
 
Title Quantitative PCR for Eimeria parasite genome counting during in vivo infection 
Description A pre-existing quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay used to count Eimeria parasite genomes has been complemented by addition of a second qPCR to quantify host genomes. The assay has been validated and compared with traditional parasitological measures such as total oocyst output per bird. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This research tool will be essential to map the genetic basis of chicken susceptibility/resistance to infection and disease caused by Eimeria species parasites where experimental group sizes will exceed capacity for traditional measures of parasite replication. The technique can also be applied to field studies of coccidiosis and offers considerable opportunitites to improve bird welfare since: 1. In some experimental models there is now no need to cage birds individually to assess parasite replication. Housing birds in groups in floor pens allows them to express more natural behaviours (REFINEMENT). 2. The precision achieved using qPCR improves statistical power, facilitating the use of smaller group sizes (REDUCTION). A manuscript describing this work is currently in preparation. 
 
Description 16th International Scientific Conference (ISCon XVI), Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation at an international conference focused One Health. Included a mixed audience of academics, students, government, industry and practioners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description ARC Dissemination event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ARC dissemination event including peer researchers, policy makers, industry representatives, included feedback on research, direct value to industry and suggestions for future directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ARC Dissemination event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ARC dissemination event, Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description American Society of Parasitologists Annual Conference - invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited conference presentation, disseminating results to a N. American audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Animal Pharm article from Veterinary Vaccines network meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentation plus breakout group - led to a report in Animal Pharm.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description British Council - Higher Education Partnership funded workshop exploring practices in poultry production, rearing and health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A workshop was organised with support from the British Council - Higher Education Partnership to explore current practices in poultry production, rearing and health. the meeting included ~25 representatives from industry, government, veterinary and academic sectors. the workshop was wide ranging, but included aspects of coccidiosis, microbiomes and risks to public through pathogens such as avian influenza and foodborne zoonoses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board (BEMB) Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation followed by discussion of parasite/host/microbiome interactions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board - working group + presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Working group meeting reviewing UK research related to poultry health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description British Society for Immunology vaccine affinity group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ~60 people attended the presentation, which prompted questions and discussion afterwards.

I have become a reviewer for a new journal as a result of increased awareness of RVC science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description British Veterinary Poultry Association Spring meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of latest knowledge related to poultry health to veterinary practitioners and industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Britsh Poultry Council 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented to the BPC and engaged in discussion on intestinal dysbiosis, impact of Eimeria and microbiomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Engormix interview at Poultry Universe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interview related to microbiomes and host genetics talk at Poultry Universe. Published online through the Engormix website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Engormix video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Video of conference presentation 'Broilers, Eimeria and enteric microbiomes - a tale of tolerance' launched on the Engormix website, supplemented by a recorded interview.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/videos/broilers-eimeria-enteric-microbiomes-tale-toleran...
 
Description European Coccidiosis Discussion Group (ECDG) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Industry/academia networking event including presentations and discussions around ongoing RVC projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Eurotier, Hannover 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Attended Eurotier tradeshow, including presentation on current projects and relevance to poultry producers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Further education college visit (Bedfordshire) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact 15 pupils attending a short lecture on DNA fingerprinting and its application, followed by two practical sessions. In the first session we extracted genomic DNA. In the second we set up a PCR and resolved the product by agarose gel electrophoresis. The sessions sparked questions and discussion, including some email correspondence over the following week.

Several of the students reported that they had enjoyed the sessions, prompting them to consider registering for a third year degree upgrade programme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Hipra visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Visit to animal health company to discuss projects and future possible opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Huvepharma advanced Eimeria workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Industry led training workshop - included theoretical and practical aspects in two day format.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description IHSIG lecture posted online 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Recording of conference presentation, posted on Engormix network
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/videos/broilers-eimeria-enteric-microbiomes-tale-toleran...
 
Description Industry magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lay article written and translated for publication in the magazine 'Polish Poultry', describing modern understanding of coccidiosis control in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Internet interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with Engormix at the IHSIG conference, loaded onto website with international audience, advertised to network by email.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://en.engormix.com/MA-poultry-industry/videos/damer-blake-talks-about-his-research-eimeria-geno...
 
Description Intestinal Health Scientific Interest Group (IHSIG) - invited presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited conference presentation, followed by participation in public debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Noble Foods industry training 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Noble Foods Ltd requested a training workshop focused on RVC studies with relevance to laying chickens. I organised the 1.5 day workshop, including provision of a series of talks from RVC academics and a industry representative working group.

Interest in contract research facilities at RVC and opportunities for industrial partnership research applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Parasitology conference (Dresden) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited presentation focused on the occurrence of Eimeria around the world, their impact on poultry, microbiomes and society.

Preliminary discussions related to future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.icc2014.de/?node=55
 
Description Plenary presentation - Eimeriana Avia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ~200 delegates at an international conference that primarily drew practitioners and businesses from Eastern Europe. Considerable discussion around microbiomes, chicken genetics and the potential to modulate the microbiome and immune responses to improve productivity and welfare.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Polish veterinary workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training and update on the state of understanding in veterinary parasitology with relevance to poultry production and health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Poultry Diseases Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry practitioner workshop covering current issues in poultry health and production - included host, parasite and microbiome information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poultry Diseases group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ~20 people, including veterinary practitioners, animal production and health company representatives, government officials and academics, attended the meeting. During this meeting we briefly presented and discussed our work to map the genetic basis of resistance or suscpetibility to Eimeria in chickens.

Discussion about provision of samples and future data dissemination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Poultry Health Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting the pathology and control of Eimeria, including interactions with host genetics and the enteric microflora.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
 
Description Poultry Universe orund table debate 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Round table debate on poultry health, dysbiosis, coccidiosis and the importance of husbandry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Practioner workshop, University of Kwazulu-Natal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ~30 industry representatives and veterinary practioners attended a workshop at the University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Discussed project outcomes and follow application to the field. Dissemination of results to a wider community, capacity/capability building.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description RVC Bioinformatics day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ~50 people including undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as early career researchers, attended a workshop focused on improving awareness and understanding of next-generation sequencing technologies. Prompted questions and discussion, as well as one embryonic collaboration.

Support offered to a postgraduate towards application for research fellowship funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SAPHIR network newsletter contribution 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Contributed article to SAPHIR network newsletter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Student workshops and training, University of Kwazulu-Natal 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact ~20 students (undergraduate and postgraduate) attended a series of taught sessions and practical workshops focused on Eimeria, parasite, microbiome and chicken genetics at the University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Dissemination of results to a wider community, capacity/capability building.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description University of Kent invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact ~80 people attended an invited talk in the University of Kent external seminar series. A series of questions were addressed after the talk, followed by 1-2-1 discussions on possible projects and grant applications. focused on the microbiome, as well as aspects of host susceptibility and genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description World Veterinary Poultry Association - scientific committee and conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific committee + public panel debate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description World Veterinary Poultry Association CPD day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ~150 delegates attended a CPD training day organised by the World Veterinary Poultry Association, Malaysia branch. The day featured a series of talks from academics, industry representatives and veterinarians. Two talks decribing BBSRC funded studies were presented, focusing on (i) occurrence and genetic diversity of Eimeria, and (ii) the poultry enteric microbiome and links to chicken genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020