Next generation auxins and anti-auxins : principles for binding and design

Lead Research Organisation: University of Warwick
Department Name: School of Life Sciences

Abstract

Context: Plant growth and development are dynamically controlled by hormones. Hormones are mobile signalling molecules which coordinate growth in response to environmental cues. Auxin is a hormone and is involved in almost every part of a plant's life, from embryo to wood. In order for auxin to trigger responses it needs a receptor, a protein to which it binds in a very specific and defined way. Auxin binding acts as a molecular switch, initiating a chain of events that leads to changes in which whole groupings of the plant's genes are switched on or off to change developmental decisions. We have been studying a protein called TIR1 as an auxin receptor, along with members of its family called AFB proteins. We have shown that some auxins (there are many) are selective for one or other receptor family member.

Aims and objectives: This proposal describes a set of experiments that allows us to specify and quantify the changes between family members. In turn, this allows us to describe the special features on each type of auxin which determine specificity and allows us to start to understand the molecular rules defining this specificity. Auxins are also valuable agrochemicals. In their main application as herbicides they already present a certain element of selectivity, killing broad-leaved weeds in preference to cereals. However, we now know that there are more layers of selectivity to be exploited. This makes it imperative that we learn much more detail about the rules of specificity if we are to design a new generation of selective plant growth regulators.
Our project sets out a number of complimentary lines of experimentation to investigate in great detail the features which differentiate AFB5, for example, from TIR1. We will use the latest biophysical techniques to measure the speeds of binding and the energy changes on binding. By comparing these values and comparing them with computer-driven calculations of the auxin molecules themselves, we will be able to derive design features specific for each template. Further, we know that when auxin binds to its receptor, this interaction creates a binding site for a second protein, a co-receptor. We believe that the TIR1 receptor acts as an enzyme to modify the shape of the co-receptor during binding. We will investigate this hypothesis and add kinetic details of this second part of the co-receptor assembly into our molecular models. With the two primary stages completed, we will have a matrix of detailed information about what makes a molecule an auxin and how they are selective and we will use this as a platform for designing new auxins and anti-auxins. These will be made by colleagues and tested for efficacy and selectivity.

Potential applications and benefits: Examples of agricultural use of auxins include treatments to flowers, fruits and nuts and as selective weedkillers to kill broadleaved plants, not cereals and grasses and are of great agricultural value. Up to now, millions of compounds have been made and screened to find the chemicals we use. This project will measure in fine detail the very special interactions made by auxins at their several, but specific target sites. From this information we will start to define rules for new and more selective auxinic agrochemicals because, so far, agriculture has exploited only auxin analogues. Our technologies will enable us to add selective auxin antagonists (anti-auxins) into the toolkit. The aim is to create a new generation of safe, selective and low dosage agricultural compounds.

Technical Summary

We will quantify the initial molecular events in auxin binding and, with the aid of chemometrics, develop principles for the development of next-generation selective auxins, both agonists and antagonists.

Surface plasmon resonance will be used to measure on- and off-rates for TIR1 and AFB5 in the absence of co-receptor to define binding to this pocket alone. Isothermal titration calorimetry will be used to determine thermodynamic parameter differences in deltaH, deltaG and deltaS between TIR1 and AFB5. Values measured will be combined with compound chemometrics.

We believe that the TIR1/AFBs may have auxin-dependent prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. NMR will be used to clarify degron transitions in solution and bound. Importantly, the structure of full-length Aux/IAA proteins will be determined to report on the endogenous disposition of the degron. We will add co-receptor degron peptides to measure thermodynamics associated with cis-trans isomerisation. Stapled peptides will be used to measure TIR1/AFB5 isomer preferences by SPR.
Having determined detailed information on the two initial steps of co-receptor assembly we will refine our chemometric ligand classifications and combine the information to create a platform for discovery of TIR1/AFB selective compounds. We will screen a knowledge-led selection of the Syngenta compound library to add robustness to existing datasets and test for early compound predictions. Adding fragment bin screening with SPR will add naive information about each distinct binding pocket to create distinct pharmacophoric models based on receptor binding alone. With these anchor-sites defined, selective anti-auxins will be designed elaborated in chemical space outside the TIR1/AFB binding pocket using what is learnt from degron presentation. Anti-auxin synthesis (Prof Hayashi) and evaluation will follow, using both biophysical and in vivo plant assays and novel reporter lines generated to provide target-specific readouts.

Planned Impact

Our primary route to exploitation will be in collaboration and under the guidance of Syngenta working with our University technology transfer offices . The PI and Co-I have a long-established relationship with Syngenta Jealott's Hill. Some of the key resources provided in the previous IPA project are still in use under agreement (e.g. recombinant baculovirus lines) and we value this relationship highly. A new Agreement for access and confidentiality, covering IP generated in this project by individual parties and joint discovery, and covering rights for exploitation by all partners will be drawn up if, and as soon as, the project is supported (as noted in the letter of support from Syngenta).
We expect the project to create a novel platform from which new auxinics may be predicted or designed. This platform, based on the many quantitative datasets generated by the PI and Co-I and the chemometric analyses contributed by Ferro (Bonn), will be tested through the synthetic chemistry of Hayashi. These third parties bring much foreground IP to the partnership and this will be recognised. The platform itself may have high exploitation value and we would work closely with our University technology transfer offices to ensure that the partners recognise all subsequent income, but our primary drive will be to make the research work available. It is expected that most parts of the raw research findings, synthetic procedures, understanding of plant processes will be published in refereed journals without undue delay. Syngenta have always supported open access publication of jointly supported research results. The algorithms generated by Ferro may need special consideration, but this will be primarily an agreement between IPTC Bonn and Syngenta, although the PI and Co-I will be involved because the algorithms will be fed by the data from this project.
Beneficiaries include not only Syngenta, but other agrochemical companies as more is learnt and published about the principal target sites for auxinic herbicides. Managing resistance to herbicides is becoming an increasing problem worldwide. Auxinics are amongst the oldest lineages of herbicides and resistance is widespread, but local in nature. Indeed, the next generation of GM herbicide tolerant crops will target auxin (oxyacetic acid) metabolism (Dow AgroSciences) on top of glyphosate resistance (Monsanto), showing that there is confidence that there remain considerable commercial potential in auxinic products. Nevertheless, all stakeholders need to be wise to, and manage these products for the future and greater knowledge of the protein target sites will be invaluable. Further, from our work, novel routes to selective auxinic resistance can be envisaged such that new generations of herbicide tolerant crops may be realised through (natural variation using markers, TILLED breeding selections etc., as well as GM). We will put forward additional project proposals to follow such opportunities.
Given the utility of auxins as agrochemicals (in e.g. fruit farming as well as herbicides), beneficiaries further downline include farmers and growers, and ultimately all those with responsibility towards Food Security. Herbicides are essential for sustaining and growing the productivity of all managed crops (outside the organics sector), The PI and co-I will ensure we take the research and its more general importance out to public and non-specialist audiences in order to contribute to awareness on the issues of herbicides in agriculture and of the importance of blue-skies research for agriculture and food security.
This project will help establish the leadership for this research in the UK, and with the primary route to exploitation benefitting the UK economy through Syngenta and lead partners. Part of our role as leaders will be to ensure that the PDRAs and students who become associated with the work are trained for drug discovery in the agricultural sector.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have defined the essential characteristics a molecule needs to have to be an active auxin. Auxins are natural regulators of plant growth and they govern how plant life develops into the beauty and utility we see around us. Auxins are also used commercially in agriculture and horticulture.
We have described some rules about what it takes to be an auxin and an anti-uxin. These pharmacophoric maps have been developed further into a set relating to each of the 3 major classes of receptor site in Arabidopsis. We are writing papers on auxin cheminformatics and mechanistic studies into how molecules are filtered en route to the final binding site - in-flight selection.

We have developed new computer programmes to help scientists across life sciences to examine molecular filters in deep binding pockets. These are now being utilized across the world in fields of medicine as well as agriculture.

We have used rational design to discover and define a novel auxin molecule with different functional group from all other active auxins. This compound is also shown to be selective for a single class of auxin receptor, the first molecule to be shown to be this specific for its target. Further rounds of rational design have improved its efficacy.
Our partners on the project have used nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry to solve the structure of an auxin co-receptor protein in complex with the receptor and auxin. This work will give further insight into how this fundamentally important receptor complex forms and what drives selectivity.
Exploitation Route The binding site software might be incorporated into many drug discovery programmes
The details on molecular auxin binding will be used by agchem companies to help screen for better and novel auxinics.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/lifesci/research/molrecognition
 
Description We address how specificity is determined in the initial events of auxin perception and how this variation relates to the ability of auxin to control such remarkably diverse developmental processes. Because of this pivotal role in plant development, synthetic auxins are used commercially in agriculture, mainly as herbicides, but also in horticultural applications. This project allowed us to define some of the basic rules of recognition of auxins and this information is helping to underpin new advances in understanding of how this hormone works and to inform molecule discovery programmes in agropharma businesses. In particular, we work with Dow AgroSciences and have helped them understand the mechanistic basis of site selectivity for two new global product launches. These two new auxin herbicides have very attractive field rates, and we have shown that this is due in part of very high affinity binding to one of many specific sites in the plant. This also distinguishes these products from previous generations of auxin products, helping develop the market opportunity. We have also discovered new details of how auxins are selected from non-auxins in atomic detail and are developing the first receptor-specific pharmacophore maps. As part of our outreach activities, we are making sure information is interpreted during discussions and presentations to the public
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Economic

 
Description A briefing article was developed for the publication Impact. Title "Adding to the agricultural toolkit". It summarised the impact of this BBSRC project and how our results fit with agricultural practice and need globally. It was distributed around all the offices of the agricultural agencies of the EU and was published online and on my website.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description BBSRC Global Challenge Research Fund Impact Acceleration Account Award (GCRF-IAA)
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/22 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description BBSRC Responsive mode
Amount £790,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Description ISCF Agri-food Technology Catalyst Seeding Award
Amount £13,246 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/SCA/Warwick/17 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description ISCF Agri-food Technology Catalyst Seeding Catalyst Award
Amount £13,690 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/SCA/Warwick/17 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Royal Society International Exchanges
Amount £6,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IE150373 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 09/2016
 
Title TomoDock 
Description TomoDock is a novel application for molecular docking for target sites that have deep binding pockets. It creates a pseudo series of ligand moves in time and space to mimic the passage of a small molecule down a receptor pocket. In this way it is possible to discover atomic interactions en route to the final docking site, interactions which we show can influence binding selectivity profoundly. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A few other research groups are downloading the code (which is open access) 
URL http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/complexity/people/staff/delgenio/tomocode/
 
Description Collaboration with Dow AgroSciences 
Organisation Dow Europe GmbH
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Warwick has screened a number of auxin analogues in a specific receptor assay. We have helped show that the new 6-arylpiclinate auxin herbicides have a receptor-selective activity and act through a single receptor within the auxin receptor family.
Collaborator Contribution Dow provide know-how and compounds
Impact Dow AgroSciwnces has launched two new auxin herbicides and are positioning them in the market based on their differentiated mode of action to distinguish them from long-established alternatives. These new selective herbicides are active at very low field dose rates and our research shows how this can be attributed, at least in part, from the very high affinity they have for a specific auxin receptor sub-class.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Leeds 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution we have drafted grant proposals We have developed protein purification protocols We have purified target proteins and run activity assays We have drafted publications (2 published so far, more due)
Collaborator Contribution They have refined proposals They brought partner Syngenta to the table They created expression cassettes They input critical ideas
Impact Publications (2 so far), more pending Presentations to national and international audiences Initial IPA award New responsive mode award Industrial CASE studentship
Start Year 2006
 
Description Partnership with Syngenta 
Organisation Syngenta International AG
Department Syngenta Crop Protection
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Syngenta became a partner in the IPA grant proposal to BBSRC. The funded grant allowed the partnership to flourish. Contact has continued through a consultancy since the original project completion.
Collaborator Contribution Syngenta brought a series of specialists (chemists, molecular biologists, structural biologists etc) to review and planning meetings They supplied recombinant baculovirus lines, which included cloning and preparation of transfer vectors. They supplied fine chemicals
Impact Joint publication Multidisciplinary (chemistry, biology, protein chemistry, agronomy)
Start Year 2008
 
Description Research collaboration with VIB Ghent 
Organisation VIB Department of Molecular Genetics
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Warwick has received compounds from the Ghent group and we have tested them for binding to different auxin receptors. We have contributed to publications with them.
Collaborator Contribution The Ghent group are exploring novel bioactivity from a range of compounds associates with lignin biosynthesis in plants. Some have activity resembling the activity of he plant hormone auxin. They evaluate these properties using genetic tools and we help by offering specific biochemical assays helping them to test their hypotheses on mechanism of action.
Impact Two scientific publications so far.
Start Year 2014
 
Description "Tomographic docking suggests the mechanism of auxin receptor TIR1 selectivity", "Modeling of Ligand-Receptor Interactions'' Workshop, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, November, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A training workshop for researchers in biophysics and pharmacology.
Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2 conference presentations at the 7th International Weed Science Conference, Prague, Czech Rep 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two lecture presentations made to the International Weed Science Society; "evaluating the target specificity of two new auxin herbicides" and "A structure-activity profile for the auxin uptake carrier AUX1". The conference attendance was about 500, with around 100 in each of these specific sessions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.iwsc2016.org
 
Description ACPD 2009 and 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions, discussions and plans for further work

Engagement in a wider network of linked researchers globally
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2014
URL http://lhr.ueb.cas.cz/en/index.php?text=6-international-conference-acpd-2009
 
Description ACPD conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact About 350 researchers from academia and industry attended a conference over a week. There were over 90 presentations, plus 90 posters, all driving vigorous critical discussion. We gained up to 6 new collaborators from around the world.

We gained up to 6 new collaborators from around the world, leading to significant resource exchanges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description AgriNET 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact around 100 scientists and industry representatives, students and technicians attended for talks and posters followed by discussion of the science

Interactions with leading Agrochem companies greatly increased.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description AgriNet 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talks and discussions led to increased network of interactions

interest in research programmes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014
 
Description Auxin workshop Leeds 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Seminar and associated discussions as part of an academic workshop on auxins in plant development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Auxins in Europe meeting Brno, Czech Rep 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and discussion workshop to focus n developing research in the area of auxin signaling around the EU.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Biochem Soc 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact discussions led to improved efficiency

new network links formed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description British Pharma Society conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Around 500 pharmacologists attended for information exchange, discussion and networking

Pharmacologists started to recognise the value in research on non-animal targets (ie plant/crops)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Conference session organization and 2 conference presentations at the Annual Conference of the Society for Experimental Biology, Brighton, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I organized a session over 2 days at the SEB meeting on the subject of "The structure of Plant hormone receptors and biosensors" In this I made two presentations: A structure-activity profile of the auxin uptake carrier AUX1" and "Evaluating target selectivity of two new auxin herbicides". Arising from the session we had several requests for collaboration. There was much discussion during and around the session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sebiology.org/events/meetings_archive/SEB_Brighton_2016
 
Description Discussion and talk to Royal Star and Garter organization, Solihul, West Midlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A talk on "Plant Biotechnology and crop improvement" was made at this retirement organization.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Euphorus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact workshops for growers sparked discussions and sharing of information

press releases and reports
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2012
 
Description European Biophysics Congress, Dresden, Germany, July 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation at this international conference to introduce and collect feedback from practitioners and interested parties. Our TomoDock application was new and needed interaction with potential user groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ebsa.org/ebsa-2015/
 
Description Gatsby 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk and open discussion forum

many students become engaged with plant sciences
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009
 
Description Ghent ISHS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk followed by questions and discussions

led to application for joint EU funding and a research partnership
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description Host commonwealth fellow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training selected fellows in new technologies and providing skills and experience for subsequent teaching

Two Fellows returned to India to pursue teaching careers with improved understanding and experience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2013,2014
 
Description International Plant Growth Substances Association, TORONTO, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A research presentation was made by Dr Prusinska from my group. "Evaluating the target selectivity of two new auxin herbicides"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://pages.wustl.edu/ipgsa/events/12673
 
Description MLSRF 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact New links with land owners and farm managers around Midlands

further trips to find out more. May receive charitable income
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Nanjing Agricultural University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar on auxin signalling and auxin herbicides to an open, but academic audience at NAU, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description OPen days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact engagement sparked applications for degrees in Biosciences

engagement left visitors enthused
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013
 
Description Presentation and consultation at Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific presentation "Auxin as a pharmacophore and the mechanism of selection by TIR1". This was at DAS headquarters, but weblinked to all their offices around the world. We also spent 2 days in consultation with the herbicide groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation and discussion on plant biotechnology with The Aldridge Probus Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 50 retired and unemployed members of the public attended a seminar and discussion session on "Plant Biotechnology".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Regents Club Kineton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussion

Group asked for further information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Rotary talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk followed by discussions

Public enthused and questioning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2013
 
Description SEB conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact talk and posters led to formative discussions, partnerships and new ideas

Higher number of requests for collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012
 
Description School talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact talk sparked discussions and questions

invited back
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Scientific conference, SEB Brighton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A professional research seminar at the annual international conference of the Society for Experimental Biology. Held in Brighton, UK in 2016, the conference attracted over 600 delegates, and approx 100 attended the session on plant hormone receptors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.sebiology.org/events/meetings_archive/SEB_Brighton_2016
 
Description Seminar Brno, Czech Repubic 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact The talk sparked several collaborative discussions over possible joint research activities

At least one joint research project is underway
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar Freiburg, Switzerland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact seminar sparked questions and discussions and offers of collaborative research

After the talk I was asked by several research groups for more information about the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar Prague 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact seminar warmly welcomed, several offers of collaborative research.

Several offers of collaboration. Input to one grant proposal in Prague developed as a result
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar in Leuven 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact seminar developed into discussions on further joint research

I participated in a grant proposal to FWO Belgium with a researcher from host university.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description U3A Wolverhampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation and open discussion on improving crops and GM technlogies

vigorous discussion and open sharing of views. Some realignment of viewpoints
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description U3A presentation Worcester 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact talk sparked questions and discussions

Further invitations to talk from other similar groups
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Warwickshire Farm Management Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 15 influential farm managers attended a talk on new improvements to crops and then spent time discussing and asking questions afterwards over pizza.

Enthusiasm for the expertise in their neighbourhood.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description work experience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact students made informed decisions about degree courses and career paths

the students involved chose science courses at university
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2011