Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

Context: Meat from livestock (cattle, goats, sheep and poultry) is a key protein source for poor farmers, their families and communities. As countries develop, populations grow and move to urban areas and the nature of livestock systems has to change to keep up with consumer demand for meat. This presents an economic opportunity for poor farmers who may seek to produce meat for commercial markets but it also presents a potential threat to public health. Centralization of slaughter and processing facilities and growth of distribution networks that serve wholesalers, retailers and consumers may have major implications for food-borne diseases because risks of infection and contamination are likely to increase with scaling-up of production systems and increasing complexity of supply chains. Already, bacterial food-borne pathogens, including Salmonella and Campylobacter, have been described as the 'forgotten zoonoses' of Africa and changes in the meat supply chain may aggravate the problem. At the same time, improvements in policy, regulatory systems and technical capacity are potential tools to alleviate such problems.

Aims and Objectives: Our aim is to develop a robust understanding of how zoonotic enteric pathogens flow through the meat chain in Tanzania and to use this information to develop policies to improve food safety. We focus on Tanzania because the country has been identified as a hotspot for bacterial foodborne zoonoses and because its National Livestock Policy promotes intensification of livestock production systems to meet growing demand for meat. Furthermore, our team can build on existing infrastructure and laboratory capacity and years of interdisciplinary research collaboration in the livestock dense areas of Arusha and Kilimanjaro. Thus, there is both a need and the capacity to conduct this research. To achieve our aim, we will use an approach called modular process risk modelling (MPRM) to describe livestock meat pathways and hazards in these pathways. In the initial step, each stage of meat production from farm to retail is described by social and veterinary scientists. Local scale commercial production will be compared with wider markets to identify hazards that may emerge as meat production, processing and distribution is scaled up. Once the meat supply chain is charted, microbiologic techniques are used to establish the presence and concentration of non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter at each step in chain. By studying the genetic fingerprint of the bacteria, it is possible to track flow of bacteria from pre- to post-harvest. Comparison of DNA fingerprints of livestock and food isolates with those from bacterial isolates obtained from people with diarrhoea or other diseases will give an indication of the role of meat in human illness. Whilst mapping emerging livestock meat pathways and their associated hazards, we will conduct a formal review of current food safety policies and regulations in Tanzania and assess how they are implemented. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing policies, combined with opportunities and threats identified through analysis of the meat value chain and hazards in the livestock meat pathway will enable scientists and policy makers to develop new food safety policies.

Potential applications and benefits: Through its combination of social, biological and quantitative sciences and collaboration with policy makers, this project will contribute to improved food safety policy and reduction in food-borne exposure of people to non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter. This will provide economic and health benefits to producer and consumer communities in Tanzania. In addition, improved product safety may help farmers to access new retail markets. Finally, the approach developed in this project can serve as a model for other diseases and countries where changes in livestock production systems may affect the availability and safety of our food.

Technical Summary

Tanzania has been identified as a hotspot for bacterial foodborne disease due to zoonotic enteric pathogens including non-typhoidal Salmonella and Campylobacter, with livestock (ruminants and poultry) as confirmed source of Campylobacter. Most livestock meat supply chains are informal but commercial supply chains and markets are expanding rapidly to meet growing demand from consumers. Increased industrialisation may affect occurrence of food-borne pathogens, particularly in poorly-managed systems, with risks of product contamination and human infection likely to increase with scaling-up of production systems and increasing complexity of supply chains. This project applies modular process risk modelling (MPRM) to understand and address hazards for human health associated with the specified zoonotic enteric pathogens in emerging livestock meat pathways in Tanzania. The research is multidisciplinary and transnational, engaging expertise from social science, veterinary and human health, conventional microbiology, molecular epidemiology, and statistics and modelling to develop the MPRM. Supply chain mapping, value chain analysis, prevalence and quantitation studies, standardized molecular typing methods, Monte Carlo methods and Bayesian belief networks will be used to support decision-making concerning control points for intervention, and to provide source level inference or biotracing opportunities that complement risk assessments. By collaborating with an East African human diarrhoeal disease surveillance system, preliminary source attribution may be possible. Finally, policy scientists will conduct systematic reviews of national and international regulations and policy as well as key informant interviews to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) in current Tanzanian food safety policy. SWOT analysis will be informed by MPRM findings to identify gaps and suggest improvements to national, regional, and international food safety policies.

Planned Impact

This project addresses presence of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella and Campylobacter) in livestock meat (ruminants and poultry) because they have specifically been identified as a public health threat in the United Republic of Tanzania in preparatory reviews by the UK Department for International Development. Beneficiaries of the project will include producers, processors and consumers of livestock meat and policy makers with responsibility for food safety and public health.

The project will benefit poor farmers in Tanzania and in similar agro-ecologic settings by informing improvements in the microbiologic safety of meat derived from their livestock, resulting in mitigation of risk for zoonotic bacterial enteric infections (diarrhoea, sepsis) in poor communities and potentially increased economic opportunities. SNV, the Netherlands Development Organization, has been exploring ways to support red meat value chain development in Tanzania since 2009, but limited analysis and understanding of microbiological risks and management strategies has been a major obstacle to the development of adequate food safety practices at meat production, processing and retail level. Through collaboration with HAZEL, SNV will be able to provide better support to local and national stakeholders such as producers' and butchers' associations and the Tanzania Meat Board.

Food safety and livestock development policy makers from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development in Tanzania will participate in a formal policy and regulatory review. Through this process they will identify and have the opportunity to resolve gaps in existing food safety policies that are discovered during the project. Through its contribution to policy development, the project that has the potential to endure well beyond the period of the research and to provide benefits throughout the meat supply system, including a large consumer and livestock-keeping population. In the long term, enhanced food safety is hoped to contribute to reduction in diarrhoeal and systemic illness due to zoonotic enteric pathogens among the Tanzanian population. Collaboration with the CDC's regional diarrhoea surveillance programme based in Kenya will allow for preliminary source attribution, which will indicate the contribution of meat to human disease problems and help to prioritise disease prevention methods and messages.

The interdisciplinary approach adopted by HAZEL will benefit all researchers interested in food safety through its drawing together of insights from quantitative and qualitative researchers in medical, veterinary and social sciences. The project will apply modular process risk modelling of the meat supply chain in a low resource country for the first time, which will generate new methodologies and insights for researchers worldwide with applications in other countries and food supply systems.
Currently, capacity for food safety research and social science in Tanzania is limited, and a major impact of this project will be the establishment of local capacity for social, epidemiological and microbiological approaches to food safety in collaboration with the Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology and Sokoine University of Agriculture and enhancement of laboratory capacity for isolation, identification, and quantitation of pre- and postharvest microbiologic hazards in the food chain at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Tanzanian post-graduate students will be encouraged to develop projects within the HAZEL platform, which will allow them to benefit from mentorship provided by senior Tanzanian and international experts and academics. In this way, the project will benefit Tanzania by helping to develop the next generation of social scientists and food safety experts and will model a science-based and interdisciplinary approach to food safety in a One Health context.

Publications

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Crump JA (2015) A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. in Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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Allan KJ (2018) Assessment of animal hosts of pathogenic Leptospira in northern Tanzania. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases

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Maze MJ (2019) Diagnostic accuracy of leptospirosis whole-cell lateral flow assays: a systematic review and meta-analysis. in Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

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Crump JA (2015) Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. in PLoS neglected tropical diseases

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Ao TT (2015) Global burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease, 2010(1). in Emerging infectious diseases

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Carugati M (2018) Incidence of human brucellosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania in the periods 2007-2008 and 2012-2014. in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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Cleaveland S (2017) One Health contributions towards more effective and equitable approaches to health in low- and middle-income countries. in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

 
Title Daisy Lafarge Blog - Tall Sister 
Description Personal blog reflecting on the zoonoses research of the LLH team in northern Tanzania. 
Type Of Art Creative Writing 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Original and alternative view of zoonotic disease research which reaches the LLH newsletter audience. 
URL http://dadamrefu.blogspot.co.uk/
 
Description Building on the development of a fully functional Zoonoses Laboratory within KCRI and training of field and laboratory staff in sample collection and processing for detection of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Campylobacter species, we have tested over 950 samples from cattle, > 600 samples from goats, 226 samples from meat processing environments, and over 850 samples from poultry farms. Testing was done across emerging livestock systems, represented by slaughter slabs and abattoirs in the red meat supply chain and by extensive, semi-intensive, intensive and broiler farms in the poultry supply chain.

Our social science research indicated that most meat sellers have not experienced what they would consider "major food safety issues", and cooked meat sellers use risk mitigation strategies such as prolonged cooking to avoid foodborne disease. In addition to differences between supply chains, differences between early and late stages of the chain were observed, whereby the estimated prevalence of NTS on red meat was higher than in faeces or carcasses of cattle and goats. This has opened up an important research question: is the presence of NTS on meat due to contamination originating from animals providing the meat or from people handling the meat? Carcasses and meat could become contaminated with animal faeces during slaughter. However, the low prevalence of NTS in animal faeces and on carcasses suggests that the probability of this happening is relatively low. The proportion of positive samples increases after handling and cutting of meat at butchers' shops, suggesting that contamination from people's hands or tools may contribute to the presence of NTS, particularly in situations where there is no running water for handwashing. Our social science research identified this as one of the problems faced by butchers.

Whole genome sequencing was conducted for 547 Salmonella spp. isolates and 187 Campylobacter spp. isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted for 270 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates. Of 86 human invasive NTS (iNTS) isolates, 58% were serovar Typhimurium and 37% serovar Enteritidis. Both serovars were deteted in the red meat and poultry supply chain at low frequency, including in faecal and cloacal samples taken directly from animals. Serovar Newport and Virchow were identified once each as cause of human iNTS and also in poultry cloacal swabs. Only 5 sequence types (ST) were detected more than 20 times in the dataset, i.e. ST11, ST313, ST639, ST1208 and ST19 were detected 78, 65, 33, 28 and 24 times, respectively. The most common human iNTS was ST313. This was not identified among NTS from the meat supply chain, answering a key question that HAZEL set out to address, i.e. does ST313 have a foodborne origin? Our results suggest that it does not. By contrast, ST11 and ST19 were identified in ruminant and poultry faeces and as cause of human iNTS, implying the possibility of zoonotic and foodborne transmission via the meat supply chain. ST639 and ST1208, although relatively common in red meat, were not identified as cause of iNTS. Multidrug resistance was more common among human isolates than among isolates from the meat supply chain.

Our poultry work did not identify significant differences between supply chains. It did, however, raise concerns about antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR is also a concern in the treatment of NTS infections. Building on findings and collaborations in HAZEL, we have set up a consortium with current and new Tanzanian partners to improve our understanding of drivers of AMR in a One Health context.
Exploitation Route Resources available to the academic community include thousands of Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates held in the biorepository at KCRI and hundreds of whole genome sequences for selected isolates. Isolates will be available under Material Transfer Agreements and relevant export and import permits, whilst genomic data will be deposited in public databases. Genomic analysis will provide new insights into Salmonella and Campylobacter evolution, food safety and antimicrobial resistances and will be of interest to scientists, food producers, policy makers and medical doctors.

Genomic analysis will also inform on policy recommendations regarding food hygiene or food safety in the meat supply chain. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the system have been identified through policy analysis and interviews with red meat value chain stakeholders and poultry farmers. As recognized for other aspects of the food production system in Tanzania, e.g. for the role of extension officers, policy is often highly developed but implementation may be hampered by infrastructure or the growing role of the private sector, e.g. in provision of veterinary care for the poultry sector. This information is shared through ongoing dialogue with food safety experts and policy makers in the Ministry of Livestock and FAO-Tanzania.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Retail

URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/
 
Description The Zoonoses laboratory is contributing to capacity strengthening in Tanzania by providing a bespoke space for zoonoses research. The laboratory is used for ZELS-funded projects, including HAZEL, as well as projects on anthrax, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and abortifacient agents that could be implemented thanks to the availability of appropriate facilities and trained staff. The number of procedures, protocols, and staff members trained in their use is growing, both within the organisations directly involved in HAZEL and beyond, e.g. the Tanzania Veterinary Laboratories Agency and Endulen Hospital. In addition, the range of disciplines involved in collaborative One Health research is growing, whereby Tanzanian qualitative scientists are now involved in new projects on AMR. Feedback sessions have been held with poultry farmers and extension officers and new policy and research questions have been identified, e.g. around dissemination of antimicrobials and information about antimicrobial resistance in poultry and ruminant farming households. Specifically, this has led to collaboration with current and new Tanzanian and international partners in the medical, veterinary and pharmacological sector and the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children around drivers of AMR. This has led to a successful bid for a £3M consortium on AMR research, funded by MRC. This consortium includes existing partners, as well as new collaborators (Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences, Bugando Medical Centre) in an area of the country where the University of Glasgow wasn't previously active (Mwanza region). Whilst the HAZEL project has yielded a large amount of data on the red meat value chain, poultry farming and microbiological status of ruminants, poultry and red meat across emerging livestock systems, we need to be cautious with translation of research findings policy recommendations to avoid potential unintended socio-economic consequences. For example, differences were observed between red meat supply chains in the likelihood of detecting non-typhoidal Salmonella. However, until it is known whether the presence of NTS poses an actual health risk, actions that might restrict the ability of actors in the supply chain to operate their business are not scientifically justified. Detailed genomic analyses and mathematical modelling efforts are in progress to provide greater clarity on the contribution of the meat supply chain to the human burden of disease, and priorities for further research investment,
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Healthcare
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Anthrax and Brucellosis Contribution (ABC) - Input to National Strategy Development
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Integrated priority zoonotic diseases surveillance guidelines development validation retreat Jan 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Knowledge Exchange Workshop - NCA Aug 2016
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Attended by 25 people (Community Animal Health Workers, Livestock Field Officers, nurses, medical attendants, hospital administrators, pastoral council representatives, medical doctors, medical attendants and clinical officers) representing nine wards of the eleven wards in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Ngoile, Ngorongoro, Olbalbal, Eyasi, Kakesio, Endulen, Laitole, Misigiyo, Alailelai). Content of the 3-day workshop focussed on anthrax and brucellosis, particularly identifying the nature of the challenges associated with these diseases and developing ideas for surveillance, prevention and treatment.
 
Description Livestock Modernization Initiative
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://agriprofocus.com/upload/post/Tanzania_Livestock_Modernization_Initiative1437567817.pdf
 
Description One Health Strategic Plan for Tanzania
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description Writeshop to develop Strategic prevention and control plans for Anthrax and Brucellosis, August 2017
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Alma C. Baker Trust Fellowship
Amount $17,250 (NZD)
Organisation AgriFood Charities Partnership (AFCP) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Antimicrobial Resistance in a Global Context Development Award
Amount £79,563 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/R015066/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description BBSRC IAAF
Amount £150,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 04/2017
 
Description Impact Accelerator 2015
Amount £5,900 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Lord Kelvin-Adam Smith PhD Studentship
Amount £72,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Description MRC-AHRC Global Public Health: Partnership Awards
Amount £176,425 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/R024448/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 08/2019
 
Description STARS Training Grant: ASTRAL
Amount £93,590 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R020280/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 02/2020
 
Description Supporting Evidence Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Supporting Evidence-Based Interventions
Amount $1,149,879 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Supporting the National Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance (SNAP-AMR) in Tanzania
Amount £3,089,371 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S004815/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Description William Evans Visiting Fellow
Amount $7,500 (NZD)
Organisation University of Otago 
Sector Academic/University
Country New Zealand
Start 09/2016 
End 11/2016
 
Description Wolfson Laboratory Refurbishment Scheme
Amount £249,549 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description ZELS-AS doctoral training centre
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 03/2019
 
Title Molecular detection and typing of pathogenic Leptospira in febrile patients and phylogenetic comparison with Leptospira detected among animals in Tanzania 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description HAZEL-IDS 
Organisation Institute of Development Studies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution HAZEL has collaborated with members of IDS on the socio-anthropological asspects of food safety. HAZEL has provided the context, contacts and biological input for this collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution HAZEL has collaborated with members of IDS on the socio-anthropological asspects of food safety. IDS has provided the anthropological expertise for this collaboration.
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration involving anthropology, human geography, food microbiology, veterinary epidemiology, mathematical modelling. Outputs include 4 blogs, one published paper (PMID: 31269927), one submitted manuscript, and two additional manuscripts in preparation.
Start Year 2018
 
Description HAZEL-IFR 
Organisation Quadram Institute Bioscience
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Gary Barker contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Dr Barker contribute intellectually to the research and participates in monthly skype calls as well annual in-person meetings.
Impact Successful grant proposal HAZEL submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems). This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Team member Gary Barker has published two blogs on the Institute for Food Research website: http://news.ifr.ac.uk/2015/11/tying-up-the-ends-of-tanzanias-meat-supply-chain/ http://news.ifr.ac.uk/2015/06/reducing-the-risk-of-foodborne-disease-in-tanzanias-meat/ Conference Presentations: R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-Massey 
Organisation Massey University
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Nigel French, Dr. Jackie Benschop and Dr. Gerard Prinsen contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Prof French and Drs Benschop and Prinsen contribute intellectually to the research and participate regularly in skype and in-person project meetings. Prof. Nigel French attended a HAZEL meeting in London on 10 November 2014 and Dr. Benschop attended the launch meeting in Tanzania on 10 December 2014. Dr Prinsen attended the ZELS grantholders' meeting in Tanzania in January 2017.
Impact Successful funding application: HAZEL which was submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (Zoonoses in Emerging Livestock Systems) call. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-NMAIST 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Paul Gwakisa contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL that was submitted under the ZELS call. NMAIST hosted the launch meeting in Arusha, Tanzania, in December 2014. Professor Joram Buza has since taken over as lead contact for this project. Prof Buza participated in the BBSRC-DfiD ZELS launch meeting in London, 10 November 2014, and in a project specific meeting in London, 11 November 2014. Prof Buza contributes regularly to project discussions and hosted the 2017 Grantholders' Meeting at NM-AIST.
Impact Successful application for the HAZEL project funding. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Successful application for funding of the Afrique One ASPIRE project Co-supervision of an MSc project: Assessment of risk factors that lead to prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter in chicken managed in different production systems Co-supervision of a PhD project: Development of surveillance and typing schemes for anthrax epidemiological studies in endemic areas Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-SUA 
Organisation Sokoine University of Agriculture
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal "HAZEL" submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Rudovick Kazwala and Dr. Esron Karimuribo contributed to the writing of the grant proposal "HAZEL" that was submitted under the ZELS call. Prof. Kazwala participated in the BBSRC-DfiD ZELS launch meeting in London, 10 November 2014, a project specific meeting in London, 11 November 2014, project specific meeting in Moshi in January 2016, and in the ZELS grantholders' meeting in Arusha in January 2017. Prof Kazwala additionally participates in monthly project skype calls. Contribution to the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in submission of the grant proposal "HAZEL" which has been submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (zoonoses and emerging livestock systems) call and which has been selected for funding. The project officially started on 30 November 2014 but face-to-face meetings between international collaborators and interviews for appointment of staff members have already taken place. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Publications: Halliday, JEB; Allan, KJ; Ekwem, D; Cleaveland, S; Kazwala, RR; Crump, JA. Endemic zoonoses in the tropics: a public health problem hiding in plain sight. Veterinary Record. 2015. 176: 220-225. doi: 10.1136/vr.h798 Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description HAZEL-UoG 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Jo Sharp coordinated the writing of the social science elements of the grant proposal HAZEL that was submitted under the ZELS call.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in submission of the grant proposal HAZEL; which was submitted to BBSRC and DfID for funding under the ZELS (Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems) call and which was selected for funding. The project officially started on 30 November 2014 but face-to-face meetings between international collaborators and interviews for appointment of staff members have already taken place. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Jo Sharp has developed a new class at the University of Glasgow as part of the Honours Core Course. The new class is 4 two-hour seminars on "Impacts of Environmental Change on Zoonotic Disease in the Global South" Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description IDS-Napier 
Organisation Edinburgh Napier University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have contributed to a grant application to MRC led by Napier University, which builds on contacts developed in part during the HAZEL project.
Collaborator Contribution Napier University has led on a grant application to MRC, which builds on contacts developed in part during the HAZEL project. IDS has contributed to a grant application to MRC led by Napier University, which builds on contacts developed in part during the HAZEL project.
Impact This collaboration resulted in submission of a grant application to MRC (MRC-NIHR funded Global Maternal and Neonatal Health call; submitted 24/04/2019; not funded). Multi-disciplinary collaboration, involving anthropology, veterinary epidemiology, molecular biology, maternal and child health.
Start Year 2018
 
Description KCMC 
Organisation Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMS)
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team. I also led the writing of the SNAP-AMR consortium building grant and the full SNAP-AMR grant with KCMC as partner.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Moshi Ntabaye contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Prof. Gibson Kibiki initially took over as the main collaborator and he helped our team to implement a BSL2 laboratory for testing of samples of animal origin at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute where the laboratory component of our project will be based. Gibson Kibiki was replaced by Prof Blandina Mmbaga in mid-2015, and has contributed intellectually to the ongoing research. Prof Mmbaga attends monthly skype calls and attended two ZELS grantholders' workshop' in 2015 (Cambridge) and 2017 (Arusha). Prof Mmbaga contributed to writing of the SNAP-AMR consortium building and full grant proposals.
Impact Successful funding application for the HAZEL project Operationalization of a new Zoonoses Laboratory at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute Successful application for Afrique One ASPIRE project funding Successful application for Marie Curie Fellowship (MEBA - DLV-659223): Molecular epidemiology of Bacillus anthracis: novel data and techniques for local surveillance in Tanzania. Fellow: Taya Forde (UoG). Lab work is being conducted at the Zoonoses Laboratory UoG undergraduate veterinary student Milou Nijenhuis conducted a placement in the Zoonoses Lab in Moshi. Co-Supervision of PhD Student: Development of surveillance and typing schemes for anthrax epidemiological studies in endemic areas Conference Presentations: Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description MoLFD-TZ 
Organisation Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal "HAZEL" submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Emanuel Swai and Dr. Niwael Mtui-Malamsha contributed to the writing of the grant proposal "HAZEL" that was submitted under the ZELS call.
Impact Successful application of the Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) BB/L017679/1 Contribution to the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts. Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers.
Start Year 2012
 
Description University of Otago 
Organisation University of Otago
Department Dunedin School of Medicine
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL; submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. John Crump contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL that was submitted under the ZELS call and led the interview process for appointment of a postdoctoral research associate based in Tanzania. Professor John Crump participates in monthly skype calls, annual in-person meeting and contribute intellectually to the project. PDRA Kate Thomas run the Zoonoses Laboratory at the Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute in Tanzania, contributes intellectually to the laboratory components of the project and attends all project meetings.
Impact Successful submission of the grant proposal HAZEL under the ZELS (Zoonoses in Emerging Livestock Systems). This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. Publications: Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4): S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Conference Presentations: Crump JA. The highs and lows of typhoid disease burden: a story of inequities and moving targets. In symposium 510. Bridging the gap towards defining the burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Crump JA. Insights on global epidemiology of severe febrile illness. In symposium 501: Febrile illness: epidemiology, diagnostics, management. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Hopkins H, Thomas NV, Crump JA, González IJ, Guérin PJ, Newton PN, Schellenberg D, Bell D, Reyburn H. Mapping fever aetiologies in malaria-endemic areas: an interactive, open-access, on-line map. Abstract. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel Switzerland. 6-10 September 2015. Thomas KM, Crump JA, Benschop J, Buza J, Cleaveland S, French N, Karimuribo E, Kazwala R, Mmbaga B, Mtui N, Prinsen G, Sharp J, Swai E, Zadoks R. 2016. Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livestock meat pathways (HAZEL) - Understanding meat safety in Tanzania through a One Health approach. Abstract number OR-VF-025. FoodMicro2016. 25th International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene Conference. Dublin, Ireland. 19-22 July 2016. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. Zhang HL, Omondi OM, Musyoka AM, Afwamba IA, Swai RP, Karia FP, Muiruri C, Reddy EA, Crump JA, Rubach MP. The challenges of maintaining Good Clinical Laboratory Practices in low-resource settings: a health program evaluation framework case study from East Africa. Abstract 1326. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2012
 
Description WSU 
Organisation Washington State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I led the write up of the grant proposal HAZEL, submitted under the ZELS call, with contributions from my research team incl. Dr Margaret Davis at WSU. Prof Douglas Call, also at WSU, led a NSF-BBSRC project on AMR in Northern Tanzania and Klebsiella isolates or sequences from that project will be included in data analysis under SpARK.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Margaret Davis contributed to the writing of the grant proposal HAZEL; that was submitted under the ZELS call. Dr Davis contributes intellectual input into project activities and attends annual in-person meetings and monthly skype calls. Conference Presentations: G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. G. Prinsen, J. Benschop, N. French, E. Swai, R. Zadoks, J. Sharp, L. Waldman. Food Safety Awareness and Practices in Urban and Rural Butcheries and Eateries in Northern Tanzania. 9th Biennial Conference New Zealand International Development Studies Network, 5-7 December 2016, Wellington, New Zealand. Audience: researchers, development experts. R. Zadoks, K. Thomas, G. Barker, J. Benschop, J. Buza, S. Cleaveland, M. Davis, N. French, E. Karimuribo, R. Kazwala, B. Mmbaga, N. Mtui, G. Prinsen, J. Sharp, E. Swai, L. Waldman, J. Crump. Of Meat and Men, Models and Microbes - Understanding Salmonella risks in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain. . 34th Tanzania Veterinary Association Conference, 6-8 December 2016, Arusha, Tanzania. Audience: veterinarians, policy makers, PhD students, researchers. Since then, the collaboration has been extended to include Professor Douglas Call, who has shared a collection of ~600 AMR resistant E. coli isolates with us to inform writing of a follow-on grant proposal. He is also contributing material to the Klebsiella-focussed SpARK project, funded by MRC through a JPI-AMR grant.
Impact (1) Successful application for funding of the HAZEL project. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving medics, veterinarians, quantitative scientists, social scientists, and molecular epidemiologists. (2) Submission of a grant application to MRC. This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration involving representatives of the following disciplines: anthropology, bioinformatics, health economics, epidemiology, human geography, mathematics, medicine, microbiology, pharmacology, sociology, veterinary medicine
Start Year 2012
 
Description Blog - GB, Reducing the risk of foodborne disease in Tanzania's meat 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact IFR's Dr Gary Barker blogs about the need for the HAZEL project, as highlighted by the news of meat shortages prompted over hygiene fears.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifr.ac.uk/news/latest-news/2015/06/reducing-risk-foodborne-disease-tanzanias-meat/#
 
Description Blog - GB, Tying up the ends of Tanzania's meat supply chain 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In this blog article, originally published on the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health website, Dr Gary Barker explores issues around the meat supply chain in Tanzania, and how mathematical modelling could be used to better understand how this system works, and the threats of food contamination.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ifr.ac.uk/news/latest-news/2015/11/tying-ends-tanzanias-meat-supply-chain/
 
Description Blog - Shades of Grey, Gerard Prinsen 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Gerard Prinsen wrote a blog entry on preliminary findings from interviews with meat sellers in Tanzania.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/shades/
 
Description Blog Challenges at the coalface: Tanzania's Livestock Field Officers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog on Livestock, Livelihoods and Health website by SEEDZ and HAZEL team member T. Hrynick on Challenges at the coalface: Tanzania's Livestock Field Officers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/challenges-coalface-tanzanias-livestock-field-officers...
 
Description Blog Making meat safety work in low-resource contexts: adapting to realities 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog on Livestock, Livelihoods and Health website by SEEDZ and HAZEL team member T. Hrynick entiteld Making meat safety work in low-resource contexts: adapting to realities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/making-meat-safety-work-in-low-resource-contexts-adapt...
 
Description Blog Making meat safety work in low-resource contexts: trust, training and selective enforcement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Blog on Livestock, Livelihoods and Health website by SEEDZ and HAZEL team member T. Hrynick on Making meat safety work in low-resource contexts: trust, training and selective enforcement.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/making-meat-safety-work-in-low-resource-contexts/
 
Description Blog series: Livestock, Livelihoods and Health. Making meat safety work in low-resource contexts - TH 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog series by Tabitha Hrynick. 27th September 2018,14th January 2019, 4th July 2019. Livestock, Livelihoods and Health. Making meat safety work in low-resource contexts:
- trust, training and selective enforcement.
- adapting to realities.
- working together and leveraging local relationships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/making-meat-safety-work-in-low-resource-contexts/
 
Description Brucellosis Research & Policy Links Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop was organized and hosted by Jo Halliday, utilizing additional funding secured from BBSRC. The meeting brought together representatives from Tanzanian and UK based organisation to: i) share findings from the ZELS Brucella project with a broad range of Tanzanian stakeholders ii) share updates on the Tanzanian brucellosis policy development process & iii) identify and prioritise next step research projects and/or linked activities that can help guide the development of sustainable brucellosis control. Several SEEDZ and HAZEL partners attended the meeting along with representatives from the Food and Agriculture Organization - Tanzania, Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Development, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratories Agency, Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Endulen Hospital and the Arusha Archdiocese Ethiopia National Animal Diagnostic and Investigation Centre, Kenya Directorate of Veterinary Services, Tanzania National Institute for Medical Research, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Tanzania One Health Coordination Unit.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Contribution of food animals to human nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in East Africa. - Kate Thomas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research meeting at 10th International Conference on Typhoid Fever and Other Invasive Salmonelloses, Kampala, Uganda. 4-6 April 2017. Abstract: Contribution of food animals to human nontyphoidal Salmonella disease in East Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Final SEEDZ Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The SEEDZ project hosted a final two-day workshop in Arusha and invited a number of Tanzanian stakeholders to attend including representatives from the Tanzanian One Health Coordination Desk, TVLA, NIMR, MoH&SW, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, and FAO ECTAD, the Norhern Zonal Veterinary Centre (ZVC) and District Veterinary Officers from Karatu, Mbulu, Meru, Longido, Babati, Monduli, Simanjiro and Arusha District Coucils. Community leaders and local and international NGOs also attended, including GALVmed and Haki Kazi Catalyst. Researchers from Tanzanian and International institutions were also in attendance, including the University of Glasgow, Institute of Development Studies, Washington State University, University of Otago, Duke University, Scotland's Rural College, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Soikoine University of Africulture, University of Dar es Salaam and the International Livestock Research Institute. The first day was attended by 69 people and provided an overview of the work being carried out across Tanzania as part of the ZELS programme, including outputs from the SEEDZ, HAZEL and Brucella projects and the Life on the Edge project. The second day involved a participatory problem-solving session using Ketso? tools and focussed on interventions and policy implications of the research presented on the first day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description HAZEL presentation at SEEDZ close-out workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact HAZEL presentations by K Thomas, L Waldman and J Crump at end of project workshop in Arusha, Tanzania, for SEEDZ, on 4 September 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description HAZEL presentation at ZELS closing event in London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact HAZEL presentation by Prof. J. Sharp at ZELS closing event in London, 25 February 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description HAZEL seminar at Massey at School of Social Sciences 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar at School of Social Sciences, Massey University, New Zealand, by HAZEL co-investigators G. Prinsen and J. Benschop on collaboration across social and natural sciences
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description HAZEL-ASFAAP 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Preparations sparked interactions between collaborators and invitation of additional collaborators. Benschop, French, Prinsen, Crump presented "Food Safety and Economic Opportunity in Tanzania's Meat Value Chain"

Yet to be assessed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://afsaap.org.au/conference/conference-2014/
 
Description HAZEL-Boyd Orr 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions and discussions. As a result of discussion following this talk, a PhD studentship was successfully conceived and applied for: Lord Kelvin Adam Smith PhD Scholarship "Building (de)fences - empowering farmers to take action on disease control", co-supervised by Prof. Sally Wyke (Institute of Health and Wellbeing) and Dr. Lisa Boden (School of Veterinary Medicine), University of Glasgow.

This talk led to a new contact between biological and social scientists, who are now developing a project on social aspects of farmer behaviour as it relates to livestock health and disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description HAZEL-ZELS launch London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Discussion during the event and during subsequent follow-up meeting with smaller group of participants.

Better understanding of funders' and participants' aims and expectations with regards to communication, reporting, and project management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Integrative & Innovative Approaches: Why social sciences are central to zoonoses research workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This one-day workshop, to run ahead of the annual DFiD-RCUK-funder meeting annual meeting of the Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems research groups (ZELS) in Hanoi, Vietnam, in January 2018, will draw out some of the lesson's learned and best practices from integrating social sciences into zoonoses research. Drawing on experience from the ZELS research projects and elsewhere, the workshop will present state of the art research and explore challenges still facing both social sciences research in zoonoses, and the integration of these approaches to interdisciplinary projects. The workshop is intended to reach all ZELS scientists, both social and non-social scientists alike who will highlight their experiences in interdisciplinary research. The workshop will also present a range of useful approaches and practices to improve integrative research in the future. The one-day event should be of interest to all researchers interested in zoonoses and will not assume a social science background.

Expected workshop outcomes:
" Detailed presentation and discussion about the importance of social science and social science themes in interdisciplinary zoonoses research.
" Best practices based on ZELS project processes and outcomes to help further/inform interdisciplinary research in the future
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar participant - The One Health and Zoonosis lens: how can interdisciplinary development science meet global challenges? Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, 15 October. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The One Health and Zoonosis lens: how can interdisciplinary development science meet global challenges? Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, 15 October. I was an invited participant in this workshop alongside funders and partners from the Global South.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited to present a session on "The role of social science in zoonosis research" to an international workshop: Addressing the challenge of zoonotic disease with inter-disciplinary research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, 27-29th March. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I was invited to a meeting of predominantly biomedical researchers to explain the importance of including social science researchers, questions and methods in zoonoses research. The workshop was attended by an international audience, and aimed to establish a new research project. Discussion on the day indicated a positive response in terms of audience members realising the value of social science contributions to health research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description LLH Facebook Page 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The intended purpose of the facebook page is to highlight activity related to the Livestock, Livelihoods and Health programme and raise awareness of issues related to zoonotic disease. From Sept 2015 to Mar 2016, the number of "likes" has increased from 79 to 290.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
URL https://www.facebook.com/livestocklivelihoodsandhealth
 
Description LLH Twitter account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health Twitter feed feature updates on the research the programme is conducting in addition to highlighting information about zoonotic disease and one health research. The goal is to highlight the importance of zoonotic disease, and communicate research outcomes and challenges to stakeholders, colleagues, interested parties and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL https://twitter.com/zoonoses_TZ
 
Description LLH Website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Livestock, Livelihoods and Health (LLH) programme, comprising the three Glasgow-based ZELS projects, launched in August 2015 to provide information on the projects and a home to the team's blog.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://www.livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org
 
Description NZPSA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Gerard Prinsen presented "When Cows go to Town". This presentation is available online at http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/research/meat-risks/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/research/meat-risks/
 
Description NZVA Epidemiology presentation Benschop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact HAZEL team members J. Benschop presented 'Combining Social and Natural Sciences to understand zoonoses in Tanzania's Meat Supply Chain' at the NZ Veterinary Association Epidemiology Branch Meeting, 20-21 June 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description One Health and Geography (JS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Overview of One Health research in Tanzania as introduction to geography school teachers to the One Health approach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Conducted December 2014 in Arusha, Tanzania. Led by Naomi Marks and Linda Waldman. Included representatives of The Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC); SNV Netherlands Development Organisation; Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (TTRI); Ministry of Health and Social Welfare; GALVmed; Arusha town council; Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development. The workshop identified key stakeholders relevant to zoonotic disease and highlighted engagement opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Policy discussion with representative from FAO-Tanzania 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Discussion with food safety policy expert from FAO-Tanzania, seconded from the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, on prelimary results from HAZEL project, following on from TVA presentation in 2016. This resulted in agreement on follow-up, whereby the initial suggestion to propose an intervention was put on hold due to lack of evidence and genomic data was requested to clarify the role of microbiological contamination of meat as a potential source of foodborne infection in people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Prof. Sarah Cleaveland OBE | Extended Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Scotland Interview with Prof Sarah Cleaveland, "Prof. Sarah Cleaveland OBE | Extended Interview": http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0400673
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0400673
 
Description Royal Highland Show - June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Representatives from the Glasgow ZELS projects attended the Royal Highland Show at the request of DFID to engage with the public at the UK Government in Scotland marquee regarding DFID-funded, including the ZELS project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SEFARI AMR presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited presentation "Introducing AMR" by grant holder Prof. R Zadoks at Scottish Government supported SEFARI event "Antimicrobials and Food production:
Should we be worried?" held on 25 September 2018 in Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TZ Meat Chain Stakeholder Meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact PI Zadoks, Co-Is Sharp and Prinsen met with key stakeholders including representatives from Arusha city abattoir, Moshi Chamber of Commerce, SNV, Meat Traders Association, and Arusha City Council, to initiate the supply chain analysis in March 2015. Additional meetings were held via skype with representatives of the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact SEEDZ team members Rudovick Kazwala, Blandina Mmbaga. Julius Keyyu and Emmanuel Swai attended a retreat to operationalize the Tanzania One Health Strategic Plan 2015-2020. Attendees (35) included representatives from the Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA, TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC, FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R- country and regional offices. Feedback from LLH attendees contributed to incorporation of anti-microbial resistance, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions. LLH team member Gabriel Shirima presented the LLH research programme and the work was well-received by the attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://livestocklivelihoodsandhealth.org/blog/one-health-plan/
 
Description Tanzania Veterinary Association Meeting 2017 - RZ 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The HAZEL project was presented at the Tanzania Veterinary Association meeting to mixed audience of policy makers, scientists, veterinary professionals and students to inform them of ongoing activities and raise awareness of the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tanzania Veterinary Association meeting 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The HAZEL project was presented at the Tanzania Veterinary Association meeting to mixed audience of policy makers, scientists, veterinary professionals and students to inform them of ongoing activities and raise awareness of the project. This sparked discussion and questions from the audience and intensified engagement of policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The One Health and Zoonosis Lens: how can interdisciplinary development science meet global challenges 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting at the Institute of Development Studies, Brighton to discuss the role of social sciences in One Health work - Sharp and Waldman as invited participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2018
 
Description University visit (Massey University) - Presentation on Balancing facts and perceptions in AMR research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to Massey University staff and students, organized by co-investigator on HAZEL project, to present results from AMR projects in Tanzania and the UK and to explore opportunities for collaboration with subsequent contact with FAO-RAP and Fleming Fund around future AMR-related activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description ZELS Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The aim of the meeting was to disseminate the achievements and outcomes of the ZELS programme. The ZELS Molecular epidemiology of brucellosis in northern Tanzania and Hazards Associated with Zoonotic enteric pathogens in Emerging Livetock meat pathways (HAZEL) were presented by Jo Halliday and Jo Sharp respectively.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description ZELS Grantholders Meeting 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The SEEDZ project co-hosted the annual grantholders' meeting and utilized funds from an Imapct Accelerator Award to include representatives from Tanzania's Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries and the Tanzania Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017