Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: Avian Influenza

Abstract

The global poultry industry has shown great promise for increased, cost-effective production of animal protein to meet food security challenges. Poultry production has contributed significantly to economic growth in transitioning the economies of developing nations; it has helped meet goals in poverty alleviation and reduction in rural unemployment, particularly amongst women. However, the emergence and spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, and the widespread endemic presence of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) subtypes in many countries has threatened the sustainability of the sector through incurring heavy losses in both commercial and backyard poultry production. The rapid genetic evolution and potential reassortment of HPAI and LPAI subtypes in birds remains a credible threat for pandemic emergence. Control of these viruses presents formidable challenges to public health and veterinary infrastructures. Intervention programs require accurate and timely detection of virus subtypes, and typically involve ring culling of at-risk flocks, movement and trade restrictions, and vaccination campaigns. In poor countries, large scale culling has become impractical for economic, ecological and ethical reasons, since the viruses are endemic over wide regions and in multiple diverse avian species. The effectiveness and suitability of currently available diagnostic tools and vaccines is limited by insufficient laboratory capacity, the inherent diversity of wild type circulating viruses, and inadequate vaccine delivery mechanisms.

The proposed research will exploit next generation biotechnological approaches to gain new knowledge and improve control strategies to minimize economic losses due to influenza within the poultry sector, and to mitigate the risk of pandemic emergence. We will examine the different epidemiology and ecology of influenza in Vietnam and Pakistan, in relationship to differing levels of industrialization of their poultry sectors, and to provide insight into the different pathways that impact on sustainable control of AIV. These studies will advance our understanding of how genetic and antigenic diversity influences the protective efficacy of vaccines and the sensitivity/specificity of diagnostic technologies. The precise determination of antigenic epitopes critical for induction of protective immunity in chickens and ducks will inform the design of more broadly effective vaccines. These broadly cross-reactive and protective AIV antigens will be integrated into proven viral vaccine vectors; we will engineer duck enteritis virus (DEV) and the herpesvirus of turkeys (HTV) to produce multivalent recombinant live vaccines capable of protecting ducks or chickens against AIV, as well as duck plague and Marek's disease, respectively. These next generation vaccines be delivered through mass vaccination strategies (in ovo) and will allow easy differentiation of infected from vaccinated birds (DIVA). We will develop novel rapid diagnostics to differentiate major AIV subtypes infecting poultry at the pen-side. These technologies have the potential to transform control strategies by empowering farmers to identify infected flocks at an early stage, and the dual protection against highly prevalent economically important diseases (duck plague and Marek's disease) will motivate uptake of the vaccine. Through our community-based study sites, we will explore farmer attitudes and perceptions regarding disease interventions, and assess the impact of novel technologies. The knowledge and improved tailored-made tools for control and management of AIV in Vietnam and Pakistan will reduce production losses and help prevent outbreaks with a high risk of zoonotic infections. In addition to direct benefits to farming communities, the improved control measures may offer substantial indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits to wider communities on both the national and global scale.

Technical Summary

The poultry industry in developing countries has made dramatic progress in improving production of animal protein at affordable prices to rapidly expanding populations. However, sustainability of poultry production is threatened by widespread morbidity and mortality due to avian influenza viruses. These viruses cause devastating economic losses and pose risks for zoonotic infections, particularly among poor farmers who work under conditions of low biosecurity. Viral spread can be reduced through mass slaughter and vaccination. However, large scale depopulation of flocks is impractical in developing countries due to its economic and social costs. The effectiveness of both diagnostics and vaccines have been compromised due to rapid evolution of these viruses, and in many regions, multiple divergent strains co-circulate, thereby requiring broadly cross-reactive vaccines and vigilant surveillance to inform vaccine strain matching. Similarly, diagnostics may lose their effectiveness as the viruses evolve.

The present proposal aims to bring together expertise in the UK, Vietnam and Pakistan to develop novel vaccines and diagnostics that are tailor-made to protect against AIVs currently circulating in Vietnam and Pakistan. This will be achieved through a multifaceted approach to select optimal, broadly cross-protective antigens, develop recombinant multivalent vaccines that protect against both AIV as well as other endemic production diseases (duck plague and Marek's disease), and complementary rapid pen-side diagnostics. Detailed assessments to evaluate how the novel vaccines and diagnostics benefit stakeholder populations will be conducted at different levels of the value chain. Field trials, case studies, community-based activities, and modeling efforts will improve our understanding of the socio-economic impacts of both AIV, and the optimal use of different control strategies to protect farmer livelihoods, public health, and food security.

Planned Impact

Endemic prevalence of H5N1 and H9N2 in south and southeast Asia continues to threaten the sustainability of poultry production systems and the livelihoods in rural communities of developing and transitional economies such as Vietnam and Pakistan. Although new and improved technologies are most certainly required for better disease control in poultry, the development and deployment of technical solutions will require a multidisciplinary approach, and in-depth understanding of the socio-economic and behavioural factors that drive AIV disease emergence. Many AIV subtypes are 'silent' or of low pathogenicity in poultry yet have the potential to cause significant public health risks. Therefore the control of AIV can result in conflict between stakeholder communities, where risk mitigation must be balanced with preserving economic livelihoods. Our proposed research will provide integrated and innovative approaches to prevention and control of AIV, by advancing both basic and applied science, and building upon the following components: 1) direct linkages to national government infrastructures for poultry disease surveillance, to obtain timely access to contemporary data on virus circulation; 2) high calibre and cutting edge research on construction of chimeric multivalent vaccines, recombinant proteins, and novel Lateral Flow Device diagnostics; 3) establish strong links with in-country commercial partners to enhance vaccine manufacturing capacity, thereby addressing knowledge gaps and human resource needs in the private sector; and 4) engaging in participatory research activities with stakeholders (farmers, traders, market workers) in rural communities to better understand risk perception and behavioural drivers of technology uptake. Thus, the strategic objectives of this partnership are aligned with the long-term goals of many stakeholders with an interest in animal health, public health and food security such as Department for International Development (DFID), World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), World Health Organisation (WHO), partner institutions, and their national government agencies (BBSRC, MRC, DEFRA).
The research will harness expertise in the UK and Vietnam to improve the control of AIV for sustainable growth of the poultry industry and reduction of zoonotic infection risks. Due to the global nature of the poultry industry and free movement of poultry meat and egg products, improvement of AIV control in Vietnam and Pakistan will also have a major impact on reducing the threats from these viruses to the UK. The outcomes of this research will be communicated to stakeholders via multiple mechanisms. Adoption of the DFID Research Open and Enhanced Access Policy20 will ensure use of public databases and information sharing. Data and reagents will be shared promptly via peer-reviewed open access journals, through multilingual websites and presentations at conferences and workshops. Public engagement aspects of the project will be facilitated through community forums with farmers groups, and through local TV and radio coverage in Vietnam and Pakistan.
The PIs have experience collaborating with potential beneficiaries outside the immediate academic community, including governmental and non-governmental organizations and the corporate sector. Knowledge exchange and commercialisation activities will be managed through Business Development Officers who will lead on any detailed identification of and discussions with potential business partners. Socio-economic issues involved in uptake of veterinary vaccines and diagnostics will be evaluated by community-based participatory research activities in farming communities. We are committed to performing high calibre research and to training the next generation of scientists for multi-disciplinary research that addresses priority concerns of global health, infectious disease epidemiology, vaccinology and diagnostics.

Publications

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Tom Peacock (2014) Identifying Antigenic Regions of H9 Haemagglutinin of Avian Influenza. in 5th International ESWI conference in Riga, Latvia

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Tom Peacock (2014) Exploring the Antigenic Architecture of H9 Haemagglutinin of Avian Influenza in Society for General Microbiology in Liverpool

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Thuy DM (2016) Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. in Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases

 
Description In this project we developed methods and reagents for differential diagnosis of avian influenza viruses causing economic losses in poultry. Our produced reagents and assays will allow rapid and very sensitive detection of influenza virus presence in clinical samples. we also developed new vaccines using already used vaccine viruses vectors to deliver avian influenza virus protective antigens. The vaccine can be used to one-day-old chicks just after hatch or to the 18-day old embryo in eggs ( 3 day before hatch). The vaccine provided protection to vaccinated chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza and Mark's disease. we developed new clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system-based gene-editing technique. This on-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-CRISPR)/Cas9 methods allowed rapid and efficient generation of recombinant vectored vaccines against animal and human viral and bacterial diseases affecting animals and humans.

The research characterized ecology and molecular epidemiology of H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses impacting poultry production and zoonotic transmission. The research outcome helped the poultry vaccine producers to more broadly protective vaccines against antigenically divergent H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza affecting poultry production.

Avian influenza viruses are a threat to global poultry production as well as human health through zoonotic infection and are therefore considered viruses with pandemic potential. Vaccination of poultry is a key element of disease control in endemic countries and human vaccination would be a major component of the response in a pandemic situation. Vaccine effectiveness is however persistently challenged by the emergence of antigenically variant viruses. Here we employed a combination of techniques to provide an enhanced understanding of the molecular determinants in the haemagglutinin (HA) proteins of H9 and H7 viruses that drive antigenic variability and vaccine failure. We propagated the viruses under virus-specific monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antisera. The mutant viruses escaped from immune pressure carry amino acid substitutions and showed altered antigenicity compared with the wild type H9N2 or H7N9 viruses. These results provide new molecular markers of antigenic change for H9N2 and H7N9 viruses that will help explain vaccine breakdown in the field. The results will guide surveillance efforts for arising antigenic variants as well as evidence-based vaccine seed selection and vaccine design.
Exploitation Route The work has been published and presented in scientific meetings. We and researchers around the world are using our findings and methods to improve control systems against influenza viruses.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL http://combating-avian-influenza.com/
 
Description ? The work has been published and presented in scientific meetings. We and researchers around the world are using our findings and methods to improve control systems against influenza viruses. The project outputs new vaccines we developed are directly contributing towards economic development in the animal production sector, creating new job opportunities, enhancing the sustainability of the sector and improve animal welfare, food safety and security, as well as safeguarding the economy, public health and the environment. ? We identified novel genotypes of H9N2 avian influenza viruses carrying evolutionary molecular changes that increase the zoonotic infection potential of these avian influenza viruses. The outcome of these studies led the identification of antigenic residues that contribute in evading vaccine immunity and increases virus zoonotic infection potential. The research outcome will help the poultry vaccine producers to select more broadly protective vaccines against antigenically divergent H9N2 avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production. Production of effective vaccines by industry using research data will reduce avian influenza virus prevalence in poultry also reduced zoonotic transmission to humans. Therefore, our research directly contributed in enhancing economic output, quality of life, health and animal welfare. These results provide new molecular markers of antigenic change for H9N2 and H7N9 viruses that will help explain vaccine breakdown in the field. These results will guide surveillance efforts for arising antigenic variants as well as evidence-based vaccine seed selection and vaccine design.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Creative Economy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE (iCASE)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE (iCASE) Studentship: Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells.
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description BBSRC International Partnering Awards
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2021
 
Description Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines
Amount £1,571,970 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L018853/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 01/2018
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID LKCS-2019- 665 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 10/2022
 
Description Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Food Security: improving approaches to prevent and control viral diseases of Livestock and Poultry
Amount £32,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Department British Council Researcher Links
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Institutional Links grants
Amount £269,123 (GBP)
Funding ID 261727271 
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2019
 
Description Japan Partnering Award
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2021
 
Description Newton Institutional Links grant
Amount £269,123 (GBP)
Funding ID 261727271 
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Description Pirbright Institute Agri-Food Technology Seed Fund: Production of prototype lateral flow device (LFD) for detection/ diagnosis of H7 avian influenza virus infection in birds and humans. Value £30,000.
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 11/2018
 
Description Reducing the Economic and Zoonotic Impact of Avian Influenza (REZIAI): delivering novel vaccines and diagnostics from laboratory to the field.
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S013792/1 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description Responsive mode: Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species
Amount £668,314 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N002571/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Description The Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £640,473 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Description ZELS-AS: Cost-effectiveness of poultry vaccination for the control of H9N2 avian influenza virus in Pakistan
Amount £1,500,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 1815378 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 10/2020
 
Description ZELS-AS: Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan.
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description iCASE studentship: Production and assessment of antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Title Detection of HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Description Assay for detection of recombinant HVT expressing HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This new method will help to detect recombinant HVT vaccine expressing HA antigen in infected cell. 
 
Title ELISA and next generation sequencing of whole genome of influenza viruses at Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam (OUCRU) Hanoi, Vietnam. 
Description 1. Reagents (recombinant HA and NP proteins) and monoclonal antibodies were provide to OUCRU_ Vietnam for for establishment of serological and genomic assessment of diversity of influenza virus infections in Human and animals. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We this project help, The OUCRU-VN are established a permanent facility to undertake NGS analysis and serlogical analysis of avain influenza viruses. 
 
Title Procedures for production and analysis of potency and efficacy of avian influenza H5 and H9 vaccines in poultry 
Description 1. Provided training, methods and regents for production of recombinant herpesvirus Turkey (HVT) vector-based vaccines for field analysis. 2. Provided regents ( antigens and antibodies ( monoclonal and chicken a polyclonal antisera for establishment of assays for efficient diagnosis of avian influenza infections in poultry. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The assays methods and reagents were provided to other patterns of this project at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore, Pakistan. 
 
Title The application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system in the generation of bivalent duck enteritis virus vaccine against avian influenza virus 
Description We developed integrated non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)- clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system and Cre-Lox system for generating recombinant Duck enteritis virus (DEV)as vectored vaccines against the avian influenza virus (AIV). This is an efficient and rapid method for generation of a recombinant DEV-AIV vaccine. The vaccine provide protection of ducks from AIV and DEV and enable differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) approach. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Increased research collaboration and research funding from Industry 
URL http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/2/81
 
Description Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents. (2) Provision of training to PhD students and postdoctoral Scientist (3) Critical review of experimental data and manuscripts.
Impact (1) Joint funding: BBSRC Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative (2018-2021). Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Value: £497,995.93. UK Co-Is: Prof John McCauley (Crick Institute), Dr Richard Reeve (University of Glasgow). Collaborators from China: Dr Yipeng Sun, Prof Jinhua Liu and Dr Juan Pu (China Agricultural University), Prof Yongqing Li (Beijing Academy of Agriculture and forestry Sciences), Dr Wenfei Zhu (National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC).
Start Year 2007
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I develop a research project proposal in which we are investigating how evolutionary changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus modulate virus fitness and virulence in chickens. This PhD studentship project was funded by Commonwealth scholarship commission for 3 years.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating Partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College is a co-supervisor of the PhD student Thusitha Karunarathna. she provide necessary guidance to achieve prescribed objectives of this project.
Impact The project is at its initial stage.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Cost effectiveness of interventions for the control of avian Influenza virus infections in poultry in Pakistan. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Capacity building, provision of training, sharing research samples and methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Field data on prevalence of influenza viruses in poultry production systems .
Impact 1. Mapping of the broiler production industry and trade patterns in Pakistan presented by Hassaan bin Aslam (PhD student)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Cost effectiveness of interventions for the control of avian Influenza virus infections in poultry in Pakistan. 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Department Department of Microbiology
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Capacity building, provision of training, sharing research samples and methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Field data on prevalence of influenza viruses in poultry production systems .
Impact 1. Mapping of the broiler production industry and trade patterns in Pakistan presented by Hassaan bin Aslam (PhD student)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department School of Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation National Agricultural Research Centre
Country Pakistan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam (OUCRU)
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department Veterinary Basic Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The overarching aims of the proposed research are to improve controls against H5 subtype of avian influenza viruses infecting poultry by investigating underlying mechanisms that define how vaccines renders effectiveness and develop novel approaches enhancing the effectiveness of H5 avian influenza vaccines. We recently generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognise a variety of different clades of H5 viruses. Propagation of AIV in eggs or cultured cells together with mAbs drives virus to escape from mAbs neutralisation activity. These classical virus neutralization assays (VN) followed by HA gene sequence analysis allowed us to defined the role of amino acid substitutions that are associated with evasion of antibody neutralization through emergence of antigenic variants and failure of vaccine efficacy.
Collaborator Contribution provided intellectual input for achieving prescribed objectives of this work.
Impact Talk entitled "Molecular determinants for antigenicity and vaccine efficacy of avian influenza viruses" was presented at Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop " Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies against Emerging and re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens" at Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines, 4-7 February 2019.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We developed research programme to characterise diversity of antigenic epitopes induce protective immunity in chickens against H5 subtypes of avian influenza viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College provide advise to on cartography programme to visualize the antigenic similarity or difference among different strains of influenza viruses.
Impact The work under this collaborative determined the antigenic differences among different clades of H5 avian influenza viruses circulating in birds. This project is multi-disciplinary. our laboratory mainly work on virology and immunology part of the project and we seek help on computer modeling part from the collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Department Department of Microbiology
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The focus of the research is to achieve sustainable global intensification of poultry meat and egg production whilst reducing risks to human and animal health and welfare. We are undertaking research to investigate the diversity of avian influenza viruses prevalent in poultry and wild birds in south east Asia.
Collaborator Contribution Royal Veterinary College, London is leading this GCRF One Health Poultry Hub. The project will address the need to meet rising demand for poultry meat and eggs in developing countries, while minimising risk to international public health. Population growth is driving global demand for poultry, meat and egg production; this unfortunately creates conditions in which animal diseases can spread to humans ('zoonoses'). These include bacterial food poisoning and strains with avian influenza with epidemic or pandemic potential. The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub will adopt a 'One Health' approach to the issue of combatting animal-to-human diseases by bringing together a team of laboratory, clinical, veterinary and social scientists. This team will test and evaluate novel interventions. The need for safe poultry production is most urgent in South and South East Asia, so the RVC and its partners will then use their local networks in these regions to put its positive research to immediate use.
Impact Development of international interdisciplinary partnership of 55 investigators from 13 countries to address the emerging global challenges of food security and public health associated with intensification of poultry production.
Start Year 2018
 
Description The Pirbright "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Me and my team established collaboration in the "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded ($5.5 million) by the from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Focus of our partnership is to develop techniques and capacity to analyse immune cells (B cells) of cattle, poultry and pigs that produce virus neutralizing antibodies. This research will support rational development of next generation of vaccines and to explore antibody-based passive immunization approaches for treatment and prophylaxis of infectious viral diseases affecting livestock and humans. Our initial focus is to target major animal viral pathogens that cause severe losses within Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) animal production systems including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).
Collaborator Contribution This is a collaborative project and partners are providing help in provision of reagents and techniques for analysis of diversity of B cells repertoire that produce infleunza virus-specific antibodies, single cell sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. This project will further strengthen our on-going research collaborations with many research groups in academia as well as with animal health industry (Zoetis, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Merck, CEVA, Jovac, YeBio, ILRI, Galvmed, The Roslin Institute, HuMabs, AbCellera and Distributed Bio) to take the research outputs from laboratory to the field. The outputs of research will be improved vaccines and diagnostics enabling to reduce the impact of infectious diseases on farm animals, which offer substantial direct and indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits to the UK and rest of the world.
Impact Development of passive immunization approaches against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry (project incited in January 2020).
Start Year 2020
 
Description The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a Joint studentship project funded by The Pirbright Institute and The Roslin Institute. We identiifed molecular markers that are responsible for increase in virus pathogenicity and transmission.
Collaborator Contribution The Roslin Institute contributed both intellectually and by proving research training, samples and regents to achieve the prescribed objectives this project.
Impact 1. Oral Presentation Title: Identification of segment 3 sequence polymorphisms which alter shut off activity and pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in vivo. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard and Munir Iqbal. Global Alliance for Research Into Avian Diseases (GARAD). January 17th to 19th 2018. Fortuna Hotel, Lang Ha Street, Hanoi, VietNam 2. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. UK- China CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. August 31st - 1st September 2017. The Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. 3. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Microbiology Society Annual Conference. April 3rd-6th 2017. Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC), Edinburgh, UK. 4. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Focused Meeting 2016: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses. September 27th-29th 2016. Charles Darwin House, London, UK. 5. Oral Presentation title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. UK -Taiwan BBSRC Partnering Award workshop: Improving Control of influenza viruses. 26th-27th April 2016. Taipei, Taiwan. 6. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2016; virus Workshop: Negative strand RNA Viruses. 21st-24th March 2016. Arena and Convention Centre, Liverpool, UK. 7. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. 7th Orthomyxovirus research conference. 16th-18th September 2015. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 8. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Edinburgh Infectious Diseases Annual Symposium. 20th May 2015. Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, UK.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Department College of Veterinary Medicine
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC)
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Agricultural Research Centre
Department Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute
Country Egypt 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department MSk Lab
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Suez Canal University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Department International Research Center for Infectious Diseases
Country Japan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Zagazig University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Talk Presented at 2nd International Congress of Veterinary Microbiology, 16th -19th October 2018. Sherwood Breezes Resort-Lara, Antalya, Turkey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed improving prevention and control of viral diseases of poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Challenges for Poultry Industry". Organised by Fakieh Poultry at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2nd -3rd December 2018, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders". Title: Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop discussed the economic impacts and prevention strategies against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production and zoonotic infections.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 1. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics for avian influenza viruses. South West Chicken Association. 28th Annual Trade Fair and Conference, 19 April 2016. Bristol, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact gave the overview of scientific advances for the control of avian influenza infection and spread in poultry to farmers and representative from poultry production chain.over 200 peoples attanded South West Chicken Association. 28th Annual Trade Fair and Conference, 19 April 2016. Bristol, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.farminguk.com/agricultural-shows-and-events/South-West-Chicken-Association-Conference-Tr...
 
Description 2. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics for avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Poultry Disease Group, National Farmers' Union Government & Parliamentary Affairs Office, Kings, London, Meeting #72, 10th June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry Industry representatives from two major animal vaccines producers showed keen intrest in the project research outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2. Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders" at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research Project outcomes These include presenting research data for vaccine seed strains with emergent field avian influenza variants; The zoonotic risk posed by emerging avian influenza viruses circulating in the wild birds and poultry. Impact of virus evolution on vaccine efficacy and persistence in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 4. H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of northern Vietnam: prevalence, diversity, pathogenicity. Options for the Control of Infuenza IX. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-28 August 2016. 5. Defining the antigenic sites of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. Options for the Control of In uenza IX. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-28 August 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Influenza conference on options for the control of influenza infections in animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://2016.isirv.org
 
Description BBSRC Partnering Seminar, University of Liverpool, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk presented entitled " Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses". The research data shared with the colleagues working to reduce the impact of avian infectious diseases on poultry production. The discussion led to more collaboration and work together, acquiring reagents and protocols for further research and development activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Combating avian influenza by developing novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Combating avian influenza by developing novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. ZELS grant holders and Stakeholders meeting in Tanzania 24-25 January 2017.

Progress report on BBSRC funded ZELS project on improvement of vaccines and diagnostics for avian influenza viruses to international experts working on the control of infectious diseases of livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. Presented at as PI of the ZELS project at ZELS grant holders and Stakeholders meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam 23th-24th January 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement and dissemination of research outcome to representatives of research funding bodies such as Department for International Development (DFID), Medical Research Council (MRC) and the researchers working on different research projects funded by BBSRC under Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Deimante Lukosaityte: Microbiology Society conference 2019. Poster presentation: Chicken protection against H9N2 virus by passive immunization 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques for development of next generation of vaccines against viral diseases affecting animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Determinants of antigenicity of H9 Avian Influenza Viruses. UK-China Swine and Poultry Workshop.17-18 June 2019, The Pirbright Institute, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus under immune pressure. Presented at 10th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, 15th - 18th April 2018, The Grand Hotel, Brighton, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of the workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. In addition, the activity hopes provide information about the emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar entitled "Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics" was presented as invited speaker to Postgraduate students and staff at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19 October 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. Seminar as inviated speaker at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19 October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk delivered on the topic "improvement of vaccines and diagnostic for poultry at The pirbright Institute UK, as an invited speaker at Royal Veterinary College (RVC) London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Focus of the conference was to improve control against infectious diseases affecting poultry and livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outcomes to prevent and control of infectious diseases of animals and humans.
- Avian influenza virus evolution and efficacy.
-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Identification of antigenic epitopes to broaden and enhance the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines. Presented at 6th Animal Vaccines and immune Adjuvant Technologies Salon & Advanced seminar, Shandong-Binzhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy, China, 18-20 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Immuno-pathobiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses: looking at how the viruses evolve and persist in poultry. Presented at "Techniques for Healthy Farming and Diseases Prevention & Control of Livestock and Poultry. Beijing, August 13th-15th, 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outputs. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Improving vaccines and diagnostics for Avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at the International Poultry Expo "Poultry Science Conference", Lahore, Pakistan, 13-15 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford (Angita Shrestha): 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact GENERAL SCIENCE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases conference health in Hanoi 17-19 January 2018. Purpose of the conference was to establish global partnerships and links between academic researchers and the poultry industry to improve joined up work in regards to preventing, controlling and
combating avian diseases. The conferences provided a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas around the single theme of exploiting available opportunities to deal with emerging and existing infectious avian diseases in poultry production systems and to safeguard food supplies and human health.
Conference speakers discuused basic, applied and commercial aspects of research on avian diseases including:
• Evolution and Epidemiology of Avian Pathogens
• Host-Pathogen Interactions - Virulence and Pathogenicity
• Pathogen Mechanisms of Immune Evasion
• Next Generation Disease Control Strategies
• Vaccines
• Immunity
• Diagnostics
• Zoonoses and Socio-economic impacts of avian diseases
• Global Research Opportunities and Threats
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theeventsportal.com/GARAD-2018/3/Home
 
Description Lorin Adams (Gordon's School Careers Fair) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Describe the research that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Mapping antigenic determinants of H9N2 avian influenza viruses and improving vaccines and diagnostics" presented at Foreign Talent Lecture: New strategies and new techniques for the prevention and control of major avian diseases. Shandong Binzhou Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine Academy, Binzhou, China. 6th August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The focus of the meeting was to improve the control systems against poultry diseases including development of improved vaccines and diagnostics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Molecular Determinants for Antigenicity and Vaccine Efficacy of H9 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses. Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop: Novel vaccines and diagnostics technologies against Emerging and re-emerging veterinary Pathogens. 4-7 February 2019 at Rizal Pak Hotel, Manila, Philippines. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular determinants modulating avian influenza H7N9 virus antigenicity. Presented at The Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2019, 8-11 April ICC Belfast, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses. Presented as invited speaker at BBSRC UK-India Partnering Award seminar: University of Liverpool. 2 May 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Munir Iqbal: Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Describe the research that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop on "Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies Against Emerging and Re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens, Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines 4-7 February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of this workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. The workshop provided information on emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description Overview of Diagnostic and Pathology capability on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Overview of Diagnostic and Pathology capability on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom was provided to Academics and Poultry Industry representatives from South East Asia (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and UK, at International poultry Stakeholders work on poultry biosecurity in Srilanka 26th Feburary -3rd March 2017.

Both limitations on diagnosis of poultry diseases, improvements need for batter control of epecially Avian Influenza and Newcastle disease were discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Overview of ongoing research on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom at International poultry Stakeholders workshop on poultry biosecurity. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Overview of ongoing research on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom at International poultry Stakeholders workshop on poultry biosecurity in Sri Lanka from 26th Feburary to 3rd March 2017.

Overview on advances in R&D activities of UK research organisations (such as The Pirbright Institute, RVC, Roslin Institute) in regard to improvement of control systems against infectious diseases affecting livestock and poultry health and production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Pengxiang Chang: Talk presentation:The application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in the generation of viral vectored avian influenza vaccines at Microbiology Society conference, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of vaccines to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/event/annual-conference/annual-conference.html
 
Description Pengxiang Chang:Influenza update meeting. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 in the development of vaccines against avian influenza virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques to improve and produce new effective vaccines against viral diseases of animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting hosted by Al Dousari Veterinary Services and Agriculture Co (Qatar ) in Qatar, 15 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The focus of talk was best practices for prevention and control of Avian influenza disease outbreaks in poultry

Vaccines and diagnostics for the control of avian influenza in poultry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting hosted by Almarai, 15 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement with Almarai Poultry. The focus of the meeting with Almarai Poultry disease control team was to share knowledge on improved vaccination and diagnostic techniques against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting in Kuwait city 16 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prevention and control of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry.
Described new vaccination and diagnostic technologies that provide more robust cross-protective immunity in emerging antigenic divergent strains of avian influenza viruses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Protecting poultry from avian influenza through passive immunisation. Presented at Foreign Experts Seminar "New strategies and new tools for the prevention and control of major poultry diseases. Shandong-Binzhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy, China, 20-22 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Rebecca Daines: Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Described the research undertaken at the Pirbright Institute that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody protects chickens from avian influenza. Presented at Systems Immunology Workshop: Adaptive immune repertoires and beyond. 16th-17th January 2020. University of Surrey, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk entitled "Recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody protects chickens from avian influenza" was presented at the workshop exploring new technical advances for analysis and production of antibodies for prophylaxes and treatment of animal and humans diseases. Both academics and staff linked with animal and public health industry attended this workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Sushant Bhat:Pirbright Dragon Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Described the research undertaken at the Pirbright Institute that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The Pirbright Village Duck Fair held on 16 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Local Village Fair, interaction with local residence to expanse research aims and activities of The Pirbright Institute and benefits to UK and around the globe to prevent and control infectious diseases of animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The co-Circulation of Low and High-path-AIV in the same country with sub-optimal bio-security: Virus evolution and impact on vaccine efficacy. Presented at the 11th Scientific conference of Egyptian Veterinary Poultry Association, Conference "Towards a National strategy to control poultry industry problems in Egypt". 20-23 April 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The global Situation and pathobiology of Avian Influenza in different Avian Species. Presented at the 11th Scientific conference of Egyptian Veterinary Poultry Association, Conference "Towards a National strategy to control poultry industry problems in Egypt". 20-23 April 2019.. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description UK-China Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative project kick-off workshop" at China Agriculture University, Beijing, 26th-28th September 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Emerging new approaches were discussed for prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting swines and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Understanding Antigenic Diversity, Zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at "UK-China Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative project kick-off workshop" at China Agriculture University, Beijing, 26th-28th September 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting focus was to share research plans funded under "UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative". Research projects investigate pathogens, zoonotic pathogens or "commensals" associated with food safety issues affecting poultry and swine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://bbsrc.ukri.org/funding/filter/joint-swine-poultry-initiative/
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative: Interim Project Workshop 13th-15th January 2020 Hilton Hotel, Bracknell, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Outcomes of the research project entitled "Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry" were presented to colleagues working on prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting animals and humans. the work led to incite further research collaborations with different groups from UK, China, Thailand and Philippine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Understanding avian influenza virus evolution and development of next generation vaccines. Presented at 459th Scientific Meeting of The Veterinary Research Club at The Farmers Club, 3 Whitehall Court London Friday 14th February 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk presented entitled"Understanding avian influenza virus evolution and development of next generation vaccines". The discussion with senior staff from DEFRA and UKRI- BBSRC, researchers and veterinary professional like with control and prevention of animal diseases in United kingdom
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Understanding avian influenza virus evolution, antigenic diversity and vaccine failure. Presented at the 2019 Symposium on techniques for healthy breading and disease prevention & control of livestock and poultry, Golden Harbor Hotel, Beijing, 21-23 August 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk and discussion on the control of infectious animal diseases including avian influenza.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Visit to Cairo Poultry Company (CPC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion and talk on prevention and control of poultry diseases (avian influenza and Newcastle Disease) and molecular factors affecting vaccine efficacy. The discussion and talk to present data, describing factors the directly influence protective efficacy of in use vaccines, and how they evaluate/ test vaccine failure.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Visit to Dakahlia Poultry Egypt 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion and talk presented at Dakahlia Poultry Egypt head office to workers involved in poultry production. The talk amis were to provide update on the impact of evolutionary genetic changes in the avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses on the efficacy of vaccines and diagnostics. The molecular changes in virus genetic makeup allow virus to escape from vaccine induced immunity results vaccine and diagnostics failure. Consequently the avian influenza viruses continue to circulates in vaccinated flocks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Zoonotic Pathogens and Biorisk Management. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk was presented at workshop "Zoonotic Pathogens and Biorisk Management" at University of Veterianry and Animal Scieences Lahore, Pakistan and Institute of public health, Lahore 26-28 October 2016.

Both Medical and Veterinary professionals attended the workshop for CPD.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016