Enhanced cognition through dietary modulation of neuroinflammation in high risk APOE4 carriers

Lead Research Organisation: University of East Anglia
Department Name: Norwich Medical School

Abstract

Currently 800,000 individuals in the UK have dementia, with a predicted rise to one million sufferers by 2025. An estimated 77% of those in elderly care homes suffer from dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterised by a loss of memory, mood changes, and communication and reasoning difficulties, is the most common form. An individual's risk of AD is determined by both lifestyle (exercise, smoking, diet etc) and genetic factors. Variations in our genes (DNA), which carry the information necessary for the manufacture of all proteins in the body, can affect both the structure of the protein or the levels produced. This may subsequently change body metabolism and risk of diseases such as AD. Variation in the APOE gene results in three possible versions of the protein, namely E2, E3 or E4. We all have two copies of each gene and those of us who are APOE3/E4 (25% UK population) or APOE4/E4 (2% UK population) are at 3- and 15-fold increased risk of AD compared to those with the most common APOE3/E3 (60% UK population). Furthermore APOE4 carriers develop the disease at a much younger age.
In cell, mice and human studies, we and others have demonstrated that a large component of the increased risk associated with an APOE4 genotype is likely to be due to increased (neuro)inflammation and oxidative stress. In AD, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress reduce the function of brain cells (neurons), and in particular the end region (the synapsis) which pass on signals to adjacent neurons.
Certain dietary components such as DHA (a fish oil fatty acid) and flavanols (plant derived compounds found in cocoa, berries and tea), have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve cognition. Although there is considerable 'overlap' between the beneficial impact of these dietary components and the negative impact of the APOE4 genotype on brain function, surprisingly the ability of DHA and flavanols to reduce the risk of dementia in APOE4 carriers is unknown. Furthermore given that DHA and flavanols have some distinct effects on brain biology, we hypothesise that the effect of the two components fed simultaneously will have a greater impact than either fed separately.
In brief, we will carry out a feeding study in mice which express either the human version of the APOE3 or APOE4 gene. Adult APOE3 or APOE4 mice will be fed a control chow diet, a high fat diet (HFD, similar to a human diet), HFD+DHA, HFD+flavanols, or HFD+DHA and flavanols, for 16 weeks. Brain function in the animals will be assessed every 4 weeks using a radial arm water maze, which is commonly used for the assessment of different forms of memory. At the end of the feeding period, the animals will be sacrificed and the brain tissue analysed for a range of factors which modulate brain inflammation and oxidative status, along with the levels of DHA (and other fats), flavanols and a range of compounds they produce. In addition the brains of the animals will be stained with 'dyes' enabling the visualisation (using sophisticated microscopy techniques) of markers of neuronal and function, growth and repair.
From a scientific point of view the outlined work is predicted to significantly advance current understanding of the interactive impact of APOE genotype and dietary components on cognitive abilities and the underlying biological mechanisms. From a public health view-point we aim to identify targeted dietary strategies, which will promote healthy brain ageing, in particular in the large 'at-risk' APOE4 population subgroup. This would be associated with considerable benefit with respect to quality of life in the elderly, and reductions in the ever increasing NHS spent associated with dementia.

Technical Summary

The APOE4 genotype is the most significant common genetic risk factor for accelerated brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. We have demonstrated over the last 10 years using cell lines, targeted replacement rodents and in humans, that (neuro)inflammation and oxidative stress are likely to underlie the cognitive decline associated with the APOE4 allele (25% UK population). The anti-inflammatory properties of the fish oil fatty acids (EPA and DHA) have been relatively consistently described. Furthermore, in a series of recent publications in rodent models we report that plant derived flavanols improve memory in aged animals, reduce glial (inflammatory) cells activation, and alter inflammatory-dependent neuronal signalling and synaptic plasticity (an early defining feature of cognitive dysfunction) biomarkers.
Given the identified 'overlap' between the aetiological basis of APOE4-cognitive decline associations and the molecular and cellular targets of flavanols and DHA, we hypothesise that these dietary components will ameliorate the neuroinflammation, loss of synaptic plasticity and accelerated cognitive decline associated with the APOE4 allele.
APOE3 or APOE4 mice will be fed a control chow diet, high fat diet (HFD), HFD+DHA, HFD+flavanols, or HFD+DHA and flavanols, for 16 weeks. Spatial working and reference memory will be assessed every 4 weeks using the radial arm water maze methodology. Brain tissue will be isolated and quantified for a range of lipid-derived, NO-derived, and cytokine modulators of inflammation and oxidative status. The protein levels and phosphorylation status of key (often oxidative sensitive) signalling pathways involved in inflammation and synaptic plasticity will also be assessed. Furthermore DHA, flavonols and their metabolites will be quantified pre- and post-intervention to establish APOE genotype mediated differences in DHA and flavonols tissue uptake and metabolism.

Planned Impact

In general the proposed work will broaden our understanding of the role of dietary components in healthy brain aging. The research addresses the BBSRC 2011-2015 and the Cross-Council research priority areas of 'Healthy and safe food', 'Research to inform public policy' and 'Aging research: lifelong health and well being' by:
-Conducting 'mechanistic research on the biology of ageing and its modulation by diet'
-'Identifying interventions to improve physical and mental well being later in life'
Dissemination will be carried out at a number of levels including; (1) Data presentation at scientific meetings and to industrial partners, (2) Publication of findings in high impact journals, such as the JBC, J Neurosci and AJCN, (3) Press releases, and (4) Inclusion in the material taught to our UG and PG Nutrition and Medical students.
The predicted beneficiaries of the research are likely to be:
(1) The academic community: see academic beneficiaries section
(2) Population at large: With rapidly ageing populations, and the exponential increase in AD risk with age (doubling every 5 years after the age of 60), a > 3-fold rise in the population prevalence of dementia is predicted by 2050. Currently there is a distinct lack of strategies to promote health brain ageing. An effective dietary approach (such as proposed in the current application) to aid cognition and delay the onset of disease, in particular in 'high-risk', early-onset APOE4 carriers, would contribute significantly to morbidity compression in the elderly and increase 'healthy life expectancy'.
(3) UK economy and National Health Service (NHS): Strategies associated with healthy brain ageing and a reduction in the population burden of dementia would undoubtedly be associated with large economic benefits to the NHS and UK economy at large. Individuals live with dementia for 2-20y, the vast majority of which is non-independent living. Approximately 77% of the >65y individuals living in residential care homes are demented (Dementia UK, 2007). It is estimated that the total annual cost of dementia to the UK economy is £17 billion (or £25k per person with advanced dementia). Predicted escalating costs are not sustainable.
(4) Public health policy makers: It is becoming likely that generic dietary recommendations will to a degree be replaced by more targeted advice based on an individual genetic make-up and other personal attributes. When genetic testing become more widely available, the APOE gene is likely to be included in a standard genetic test. The current research will provide considerable insight into what specific dietary guidelines should be given to the 'at-risk' APOE4 individuals who represent 25% of the UK population.
(5) Food and Nutraceutical/Pharmaceutical Industries: The general consumer, and in particular the elderly are motivated to purchase foods aimed at improving cognition. The data generated will provide the UK based and world-wide food industry with evidence to design and produce effective cognitive enhancing ingredients and products, which would lead to an improved market share. Although oily fish is currently the only significant source of dietary DHA, as part of the BBSRC Programme Grant (BB/I0153451, which began in April 2012), in collaboration with Prof Jonathan Napier and his group at BBSRC, Rothamsted, we are assessing the absorption and bio-efficacy of seed oil derived DHA produced by GM technology. A natural extension of this could be the production of high flavanols+DHA seed oils.

Note: It is recognised that the full realisation of impacts 2-4 will require some substantiation of the findings from our animal studies in human trials. The current work programme will provide the novel data needed to inform the design and focus of such follow on human RCTs.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The overall aim of the work programme was to investigate the independent and interactive impact of APOE genotype, diet flavanols and dietary DHA on cognition and neurophysiological processes and their system modulators in a rodent model. All 4 objective in the grant were met
The most significant achievements of the award
•Although APOE4 genotype was associated with defective cognitive performance, in contrast to our hypothesis this was not mitigated by flavanol of DHA supplementation
•The project has to date resulted in 6 peer review publications, including 2 original research papers and 4 review articles
•An additional publication from objective 4, focussed on brain and plasma DHA status according to APOE genotype in the habitual and post-supplementation state will be submitted for publication within the next three months
•Elements of objective 1 data will also be included in a publication, along with human data (n=197, CANN trial, NTC NCT02525198) to be submitted in 2020

The two main innovative findings were
1. We showed for the first time APOE influences the gut microbiome speciation and metabolism, short chain fatty acid and inflammatory markers which is likely to in part mediate APOE4-cognition processes (Tran TTT et al., 2019)
2. In a further 2019 publication we reported that an APOE4 genotype is associated with lower brain DHA and specialised pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), with the lower DHA most evident in female animals (Martinsen A et al., 2019). We speculate that compromised DHA status may contribute to the higher Alzheimer's disease risk in APOE4 females. However confirmation using human experimentation is needed
Exploitation Route The findings have directly informed two ongoing areas

•An investigation using UK Biobank data of the 'impact of HRT use and APOE genotype on cognitive performance in menopause - implications for dementia risk reduction treatments' (Hornberger, Minihane et al., 2019-onging (BIOBANK ID 52825)
•Currently in discussion with the Head of Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource, regarding investigation of the impact of APOE genotype and sex on brain DHA and SPM status in humans.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description Academy of Finland_Health Panel Member
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation (RPF)_reviewer of grant
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://www.research.org.cy/
 
Description RCUK_Cross Research Council Expert Panel on Mental Health Funding
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description ARUK_Prevention and Risk Reduction Fund
Amount £757,734 (GBP)
Funding ID ARUK-PRRF2017-006 
Organisation Alzheimer's Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Description BBSRC_ERA-NET
Amount £700,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P028233/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2020
 
Description Unilever-UEA PhD studetnship
Amount £78,500 (GBP)
Funding ID UEA_R203519 
Organisation Unilever 
Department Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen B.V.
Sector Private
Country Netherlands
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2019
 
Description Analaysis of LPC, PC DHA according to APOE genotype 
Organisation University of Toronto
Department Department of Nutritional Sciences
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Minihane et al., supply the rodent plasma samples pre and post n-3 fatty acid and flavonoid intervention
Collaborator Contribution Bazinet et al. provide non-commercially available analysis of PC-, LPC- and NEFA-DHA. The team provide the infrastructure and staffing to do the sample and data analysis. This provided significant added value to the analysis we stipulated as part of the grant
Impact work ongoing so no outputs to date
Start Year 2018
 
Description AppleTree 
Organisation University College London
Department Faculty of Medical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Partner on a research project in behaviour and aging We bring the nutrition and bioanalytical expertise
Collaborator Contribution Large multidisciplinary team with expertise in delivering population interventions and characterising, health, and in particular cognitive health, in older adults
Impact Successfully funded ESRC-NIHR Apple Tree project_£4.9 million
Start Year 2018
 
Description Brain Bioactive Lipid Profiling according to APOE, sex and age in Mice 
Organisation University of Western Australia
Department School of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Biology
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have supplied bio-banked mice brain (cortex and hippocampus) sample at 3 different ages, 2m, 9m and 18m, both male and female animals, and APOE3 and APOE4 genotype.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Trevor Mori and his team will conduct lipidomic analysis in order to investigate the impact of animal age, sex and APOE genotype on the brain resolving, protectin and neuroprostane profiles
Impact N/A, paper in preperation
Start Year 2016
 
Description Establishment of UK-Wide consortium_NuBrain 
Organisation Newcastle University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in nutrition and brain health and the thinking and design of the MedEx project
Collaborator Contribution Grant submission to UK NRP (MRC-NIHR) to extend MedEx beyond 2020 Expertise in cognitive assessment and physical activity
Impact Multi-disciplinary grant application to UK NRP......https://mrc.ukri.org/funding/browse/uk-nutrition-research-partnership-uk-nrp-collaborative-awards-outline-stage/uk-nutrition-research-partnership-uk-nrp-collaborative-awards-outline-stage/..... currently under consideration..... to establish the UK wide NuBrain consortium_UK Consortium for Optimal Nutrition for Healthy Brain Ageing
Start Year 2018
 
Description Fatty acid Profiling according to APOE, sex and age in mice 
Organisation University of Stirling
Department Institute of Aquaculture
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of brain (cortex and hippocampus) samples from 2m, 9m and 18m, male and female, APOE3 and APO3 animals
Collaborator Contribution Fatty acid profiling of the brain samples in the phospholipid and total lipid fractions
Impact Multi-disciplinary Nutrition biochemistry/cognition/bio-analysis using GC MS
Start Year 2016
 
Description Lipidmoic analysis of brain samples 
Organisation Metabolon Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of brain tissues pre- and post-intervention
Collaborator Contribution Commercial lipidomic analysis
Impact NA
Start Year 2017
 
Description MedWalk_Australian RCT 
Organisation Swinburne University of Technology
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I am overseas Chief Investigators for an Australian Government (National Health and Medical Research Council) funded grant invesitgating the combined impact of nutrition and exercise on cognition in older adults We use best practice from MedEx to inform the design and application of MedWalk and vica versa
Collaborator Contribution Strong team of collabroators for 6 Australaian Centres with indepth knowledge of the impact of a Mediterranean Diet on Cognition and dementia risk
Impact Sharing of best practrice and joint Symposium on Meditteraean Diet and health at the World Congress of Oil and fats in Sydney, Feb 2020 https://wcofsydney2020.com/pre-congress-workshops.php
Start Year 2019
 
Description Albert Latner Public Lecture: Fish oils and brain health: what dose does what in whom? 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Annual Albert Latner lecture in Clinical Biochemistry_Newcastle
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.ncl.ac.uk/events/noticeboard/item/fishoilsandbrainhealthwhatdosedoeswhatinwhom.html
 
Description BNF 50th Anniversary conference: Who is shaping the food choices of the future?, 14th November 2017, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Celebration of 5o years of successful collaborations between academia, educationists, policy makers etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.futureoffood.ox.ac.uk/events/who-shaping-food-choices-future-bnf-50th-anniversary-confere...
 
Description British Nutrition Foundation Webinar_Long chain n-3 PUFA, cardiovascular and cognitive health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Live nutrition webinar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nutrition.org.uk/component/rseventspro/event/44-a-plaice-for-fish-in-the-diet-free-lunch...
 
Description Conference Presentation_COGNITIVE BENEFITS OF MARINE n-3 FATTY ACIDS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation at Industry-Academic Conference in Lisbon
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.itqb.unl.pt/fbhc2018
 
Description EU COST_Positive meeting Thessaloniki Greece_ academia and industry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Three days of debates, presentations, and training (PhD student) events. Minihane one of the five member organising committee
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www6.inra.fr/cost-positive
 
Description Editoral Advisory Board_Nutrition Bulletin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On the editorial advisory board for the Nutrition Bulletin published by the British Nutrition Foundation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL https://www.nutrition.org.uk/publications/bulletin.html
 
Description Expert Panel Member for RCUK Panel on future mental health funding strategy, London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Expert panel to decide future direction on RCUK funding in Mental health
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Food Matters Live Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact International conference with 1000+ delegates which aims to translation nutrition and food research into food product innovation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.foodmatterslive.com/
 
Description Genes and nutrition, Nutrigenetics and Personalised Approaches to Dietary Advice 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation on nutrigenetics and health and how it relates to Public Health Policy and new product innovation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Life Sciences Scientific Advisor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I am a member of a scientific advisor group for ILSI Europe which is a tripartite organisation, between academics, industry and policy makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://ilsi.eu/about-us/
 
Description Maintaining health and wellbeing during lockdown_PODCAST 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A PODCAST delivered by Professor Anne Marie Minihane (UEA), Dr Valerie Gladwell (Essex) and Dr Glen Davison (Kent) discuss what we mean by wellbeing, how lockdown has impacted on it, and what we can do to keep healthy and well in the current situation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://easternarc.ac.uk/podcasts/episode-5-maintaining-health-and-wellbeing-during-lockdown/
 
Description Mobile me in Dementia Care 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Part of small working group aimed at improving patient care in carehomes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nestle Internation Conference_'Nourishing the world'_invitation only 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invitation only conference to provide forum for academia_industry to discuss issue surrounding climate change and food sustainability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://portal.klewel.com/watch/webcast/13th-nestle-international-nutrition-symposium-nourishing-the...
 
Description Nutrition and brain vitality 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podcast provided by Rhitrition. The purpose is increase public awareness and engagement with the nutrition-environment-health trilemma
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://rhitrition.com/
 
Description Nutrition and brain vitality_Mangreen Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Interactive discussion on Nutrition and brain health to a mixed audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Nutrition, brain vitality and dementia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Informal presentation at Eaton Summer Programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://christchurch-eaton.org.uk/content/pages/documents/1558287037.pdf
 
Description Presentation at Alzheimer'e Research UK Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact An ARUK public event designed to generate outreach and translation of ongoing research activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at industry focussed conference at to Universites, Sappora Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Series of presentation and visits to Japanese Universities and companies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://icnim.jpn.org/e/conference/25icnim.php
 
Description Primary school interactive session on healthy eating 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Afternoon of discussion and cooking health foods
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.littlemeltonprimaryschool.co.uk/science-week/
 
Description Public Lecture: Nutrition, Brain Vitality and Dementia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A UEA organised public lecture in Regent St Cinema London
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxqEeImQ_8Q
 
Description Stress ans over- (under) eating during lockdown_BBC interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview for the BBC to give advice on how stress can impact on our appetite and food intake, and easy to implement tips as to how to mitigate this
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/stories-52329529
 
Description Teaching at TUM, Munich 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Teaching as part of the 'Master of Science in Nutrition and Biomedicine • Technische Universität München •
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The Big Fat Debate, Nutrition Bulletin Article, Jan 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article for issue on dietary fat, aimed for education, and increased public awareness
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.nutrition.org.uk/bnf-publications/bulletin/1113-nbudietaryfats.html
 
Description UK Public Bioanalyst Course in Reading, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop at training even for Association of Public Analyst members
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description You are what you eat: Nutrition, cognition and dementia prevention 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact It was a general talk at the Launch of our new Sleep Research Facility in Norwich/UEA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.uea.ac.uk/about/-/dedicated-sleep-and-dementia-research-unit-launches-at-uea