Towards control of Infectious bronchitis virus; understanding cross-protection and the genetic plasticity of IBV

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

Vaccination against numerous endemic pathogens is an essential component of the poultry industry. Without these vaccines chickens would succumb to infection at an early age, reducing the productivity of the industry well below sustainable levels. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an endemic virus that causes severe disease outbreaks in chickens worldwide; it affects the global production of meat-type birds, due to problems in weight gain and quality, and egg production through decreasing the numbers and quality of eggs produced. Effective and economically viable vaccines against IBV are available, but multiple combinations of available vaccines are needed because the level of cross-protection against different IBV strains is insufficient. Poor cross-protection is the result of variation in a major surface protein of the virus (the spike (S) protein). New variant strains of IBV with differences in the S protein appear regularly in the field and, through analysis based on the sequence of the S protein, it is impossible to predict which vaccines will induce protection against the newly emerged viruses. Only elaborate and expensive testing in chickens elucidates which vaccine combination is needed to protect against a new strain of IBV.

This proposal will address the seemingly unpredictable nature of the virus. The availability of a unique reverse genetics system for IBV has the potential to lead to the development of a new generation of live vaccines. In this proposal we will generate recombinant viruses that are identical, except for the immunodominant S1 subunit, of the economically most important IBV strains (M41, 4/91 and QX). Vaccination-challenge experiments with the same and with different viruses will identify if there are different degrees of protection. The causes of insufficient and unpredictable levels of cross-protection are the main focus of this study. Ultimately we will determine the key regions or epitopes on the S1 subunit of the economically most important IBV strains that are responsible for inducing protective immune responses. We will use novel "epitope fingerprinting" technology to determine the key regions (epitopes) that are recognised by the antibodies induced after vaccination. Identification of key regions following vaccination with a single IBV strain or multiple strains will allow us to determine which epitopes are needed by a vaccine to induce protection. When new virus strains emerge we will then be able to predict which vaccines will be required to induce effective protection against the new virus strain.

Moreover, we will further develop our understanding of how pressure from the bird's immune responses on the virus might drive the virus to change or mutate. This will involve the passage of an IBV strain in eggs, in the same way as vaccines are produced. However, the replication of the virus will be put under immune pressure by the addition of antibodies specific for this virus. This will essentially mimic the immune pressure applied to the replicating virus, as occurs naturally after vaccination but without testing this in birds. Using contemporary deep sequencing technology we will identify the molecular changes that occur as a result of immune pressure and the process by which the virus is able to evade the applied vaccine, potentially evolving into a new variant. By understanding and manipulating the processes that govern virus adaptation after vaccination, we aim to identify ways of reducing the danger of vaccine strains changing and causing damaging disease outbreaks.
Results from this proposal will provide (1) crucial information on why vaccines used to control an important avian endemic pathogen IBV fail to induce cross-protection, (2) information for the efficient use of existing vaccines and (3) the development of more efficient vaccines, thus ensuring that poultry farming remains not only a secure food source but also increases the economic competitiveness of the UK.

Technical Summary

The overall aim of this project is to address the unresolved question "which epitopes can induce cross-protection between infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains and are these epitopes prone to mutate under immune pressure?"
We will generate isogenic recombinant viruses (rIBV) expressing the immunodominant part, S1, of the S protein of the economically important IBV strains, M41, 4/91 and QX. Using in vivo vaccination-challenge experiments we will assess (i) whether homologous S1 can induce full protection, (ii) whether vaccination with heterologous S1 can induce cross-protection and (iii) if maternally derived antibodies affect the induction of protective immune responses. As the rIBVs are isogenic, any immune responses against other IBV proteins will be similar between birds. Birds will be sampled during the course of the infections to analyse the tropism of rIBV and local cellular infiltrates by immunohistology. These studies will provide a unique set of S1-specific antibodies that are induced against the different S1 sequences. These sera will be used to define the immunogenic epitopes on S1 of the 3 viruses. The epitopes will be assessed by CLIPS technology, using peptides that are fixed into defined three-dimensional structures resulting in functional mimics of complex binding sites. The epitope mapping data will determine whether the epitopes are closely located, overlapping within the S1 sequences or if they are independent and specific to the serotypes. Knowledge about the protective epitopes will be used to investigate the predictive value of S1 sequences of other IBV serotypes for protection. Finally we will test the genetic plasticity of rIBV and determine the pattern and frequency of viral polymorphisms during egg passage under immune pressure with polyclonal chicken sera and monoclonal antibodies specific for defined epitopes on S1. Newly emerged viruses will be deep sequenced and we will determine if antigenic shifts result in a shift in serotype.

Planned Impact

Viral diseases are a constant threat to the poultry industry through reduction in broiler production, decreases in egg production & quality, and effects on animal welfare. IBV causes an acute highly contagious and economically important respiratory disease causing economic losses to the global poultry industry. Beyond the academic scientific community, the proposed research may also realise tangible benefits of a social and economic nature. These will be of benefit to The RI and TPI, the BBSRC and its stakeholders. The outcomes of the research will be of interest to other groups such as the Poultry industry, vaccine producers, DEFRA, veterinarians, students and the general public. Engagement with these diverse groups will be achieved via meetings, articles in the trade press, tailored webpages and press releases to the media. Overall the proposed research will have the following impacts.

UK economy: A 2005 DEFRA-funded report estimated that IBV affects 22 million birds in the UK, incurring and overall cost of £23 million per annum. Improved efficiency of the industry through continued protection against endemic diseases such as IBV and the development of more efficient and safer vaccines, particularly against new and continually emerging variants of IBV, will have positive knock-on benefits both socially and for the UK economy. It has been estimated that every 10% reduction in IBV would be worth around £2.4 million to the UK Industry and £654 million globally. Infectious bronchitis was ranked by the commercial sector as the second most important disease of poultry in terms of the number of affected poultry between 2006 and 2009 and accounted for the largest segment (24.3%) of the poultry diseases market in 2012; this is expected to increase by 7.8% from 2013-2018.

BBSRC: Food security is a key research priority in the BBSRC Strategic Plan. Results from this project will provide crucial information as to why vaccines used to control an important avian endemic pathogen fail to induce cross-protection, on the use of existing vaccines and on the development of more efficient vaccines, ensuring that poultry farming remains not only a secure food source but also increases the economic competitiveness of the UK.

Poultry industry: IBV is a major challenge both to the UK and to the global poultry industry. In 2012 the UK poultry meat industry sales were £6.1 billion; £3.3 billion contributed to UK GDP, with every £1 billion generating another £1.3 billion in the rest of the UK economy and supporting 73,200 jobs. Improved efficiency of the industry, through improved protection against endemic diseases such as IBV and the development of more efficient vaccines, particularly against continually emerging variants, will have positive benefits both socially and for the UK economy. Unravelling the mechanisms of cross protection will allow us to predict the combinations of vaccines needed to protect against multiple strains in the field, improving animal welfare, reducing losses to the poultry industry and risks to food security.

Pharmaceutical companies: Both groups (RI and TPI) have established collaborations, including direct support, with several vaccine companies that have resulted in ongoing assessment of potential vaccine candidates and immunomodulatory products. The data generated during this project will allow us to predict which combinations of the currently available vaccines are needed in the field to protect against current and newly emerging IBV strains.

Academia and Training: Results with respect to mechanisms of cross-protection, epitope prediction and the effect of immune pressure on virus mutation will be of interest to a wide scientific community and will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. The project will provide training in immunology, epitope mapping, molecular virology and bioinformatics.
 
Description Vaccination of chickens with recombinant infectious bronchitis virus BeauR that expresses part of the major surface protein of other IBV strains has led to incomplete protection against homologous. Subsequent vaccination experiments with recombinant IBV BeauR that expresses the whole or parts of major surface protein of another IBV strain indicated that whole major surface protein will induce protection against challenge with a virulent IBV strain. Using a 3D peptide array we have analysed the sera of these vaccinated birds and discovered epitopes that are being recognised. Some epitopes are unique to a virus while others are common between different strains of viruses. We will further focus on these common epitopes in an attempt to develop vaccines that can induce protection against multiple virus strains.
A panel of epitopes were selected for follow-up work and the assessment of the proof-of-principle of ability to generate a rIBV construct displaying modified epitopes is ongoing.
Exploitation Route Following on from data generated during this grant and the development of networks with industrial partners, there was significant interest from both academic and industrial partners in continuing the research theme of identification of immunogenic epitopes to develop novel cross-protective vaccines against avian viruses.
- The research team has developed a new collaboration with The University of Oxford to identify epitopes which are highly conserved across avian influenza viruses.
- Submission of a BBSRC LINK grant with Boehringer Ingelheim to rationally design cross protective IBV vaccines (submitted January 2019).
- Two small scale grants have been successfully awarded to Prof. Lonneke Vervelde and Dr.Samantha Ellis: Flexible Talent Motility Award (£14138) and BBSRC-Impact Accelerator Award (£20,000) to generate proof-of-concept for the rational design of cross-protective Avian influenza vaccines.

Following on from publication of our research presented in Ellis et al., 2018, there was significant media coverage of the work undertaken in this project, with reports covered by Farming UK, Agriland, Stackyard, Global Meat News, Technology Networks, Farming Sector, Veterinary Times and Poultry World. Collectively, this highlights the strong interest of the poultry industry in the development of vaccines with ability to cross-protect against IBV strains.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/food-security/2015/150327-pr-over-6m-funding-awarded-to-protect-british-livestock/
 
Description The findings from this award have led to interest from pharmaceutical industry. We are discussing possibilities for follow up research in which the industry will participate. This will allow the early career scientist on the project to gain transferable skills and interact with industry. The following year the early career scientist received an Imapct accelerator grant to visit our industrial partner and present the data. The industrial partner has approved a proposal for direct collaborative funding for 2 years.We are awaiting for teh contracts to be signed.
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description BBSRC FTMA
Amount £14,138 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R506564/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 03/2019
 
Description Sub-award from BBSRC Flexible Talent Mobility Award (BB/R506564/1). Professor Lonneke Vervelde & Dr Sam Ellis. 'Identification of protective epitopes for control of avian influenza virus'.
Amount £14,138 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R506564/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Sub-award from BBSRC Flexible Talent Motility Award. Dr Samantha Sives. Engagement with industrial collaborators Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health
Amount £8,692 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R46226/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 02/2020
 
Description bbsrc IAA
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Funding ID bb/k003801 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 06/2019
 
Description Boehringel Ingelheim Animal Health 
Organisation Boehringer Ingelheim
Department Animal Health
Country Germany 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Based on the results generate din this NNSRC grant BI showed interest to continu the research through a BBSRC LINK. The grant was submitted but not awarded. We ar enow negociating a directly funded collabboartive contract to continue the research.
Collaborator Contribution Funding
Impact submitted BBSRC LINK proposal
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaborators on grant BB/M012069 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Performed joined animal experiment related to the grant objective 1.
Collaborator Contribution Performed joined animal experiment related to the grant objective 1.
Impact No output yet, project started recently.
Start Year 2015
 
Description GD animal health Deventer, collaborators on grant BB/M01206911 
Organisation GD Animal Health
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution GD Animal Health has performed VN assays for our project
Collaborator Contribution provided us with antisera, protocols and virus
Impact imroved performance of
Start Year 2015
 
Description Oxford University, Evolutionary ecology of infectious diseases 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on broad spectrum vaccines in which we provide the veterinary input (materials). Postdoc in my group obtain BBSRC impact accelerator award.
Collaborator Contribution Collaboration on broad spectrum vaccines in which they provide bio-informatics pipeline and screening technology.
Impact BBSRC IAA
Start Year 2017
 
Description Animal Genetics 100 roadshow - Haddington Agricultural Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Researchers from Roslin Institute attended agricultural events throughout Scotland to celebrate 100 years of animal genetics research in Edinburgh. This programme was designed to introduce audiences to the key concepts of animal genetics using interactive activities suitable for all ages, alongside a showcase of research projects. We took feedback from visitors, ranging from school-age children to agricultural professionals to find out what the livestock industry needs from research and public perceptions about current research in animal genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Attend Animal Research Cub dissemination meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Two Animal Research Club dissemination meetings in 2016; about 50 attendees
Update the Club members (and stakeholders), other ARC grant holders, BBSRC and KTN
Oral presentation by the research fellow on the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/innovation/sharing-challenges/arc/
 
Description Attendance at Animal Health Research Club dissemination event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The research team attended the Animal Health Research Club dissemination meeting in 2017. The post doc gave an oral presentation to provide an update on the progress of the project to members of the Club, including other ARC grant holders, industry representatives (stakeholders), BBSRC and KTN representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/innovation/sharing-challenges/arc/
 
Description Avian Immunology Research Group Meeting 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Oral presentation given by the post-doctoral member of the project team at the Avian Immunology Research Group meeting in Oxford. Audience included industry members post-graduate students, principle-investigators, junior and senior scientists. The principle investigator was one of the organisers of the meeting and participation in this meeting led to great publicity for the avian immunology research funded by the RCUK. As the audience consisted of academic and industry members with a broad nature of research this was a fantastic opportunity for the post-doctoral researcher to establish new collaborative networks and broaden their horizon for both further career development and research projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description EU COST Action FA1270 meeting Vienna 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited presentation for the COST FA1270 Action, presentation given by the post doc on the project.
Audience consisted of stduents, industry and other stakeholders and PIs.
Due to the broad nature of the group members this was an excellent opportunity to network and broaden the horizon of the post doc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://cost-controllingaviancoronaviruses.org/
 
Description Easter Bush Campus Open Day 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The post doc on the project was an active participant in multiple stands at the Easter Bush Campus Open Day (this annual event is part of the Midlothian Science Festival) which allows general members of the public access to our campus buildings. There were a wide range of fun activities suitable for all the family, all designed to open up our research to the public and also led to lots of conversations and discussions with visitors of all ages. Over the course of the day, it was estimated that there were approximately 500 visitors to the campus, with positive feedback directly reported from the visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/easter-bush-campus-open-day
 
Description Easter Bush Campus Open Day 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The post doc on the project was an active participant in multiple stands at the Easter Bush Campus Open Day (this annual event is part of the Midlothian Science Festival) which allows general members of the public access to our campus buildings. There were a wide range of fun activities suitable for all the family, all designed to open up our research to the public and also led to lots of conversations and discussions with visitors of all ages. Over the course of the day, it was estimated that there were approximately 700 visitors to the campus, with positive feedback directly reported from the visitors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Easter Bush Science Outreach Centre Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 16 advanced higher biology students attended the Easter Bush Science Outreach Centre for a full-day workshop entitled "ELISA Masterclass: Flu Fighters". This was a practical workshop in which the students were provided with a hands-on experience using a common laboratory technique and allowed them to generate their own data to process. The workshop sparked numerous discussions regarding the implications of scientific data in the real work. There were specific sessions designed to allow the students to ask the scientists questions relating to careers in science, showing the students a variety of options available when studying and working in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Edinburgh Immunology Group Summer Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The post doc on the project presented a poster on the outcomes from the grant at a regional annual meeting of leading and expert scientists, whose work focuses on immunology (both fundamental and applied), from academic institutions based in Edinburgh. It was an excellent opportunity for the post doc to discuss our exciting findings with a relevant collection of peers and lead to interesting discussions with peers about the work and future avenues that could be followed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Edinburgh Infectious Diseases Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The post doc on the project presented a poster on the outcomes from the grant at a regional annual meeting of leading and expert scientists working directly within the "Infectious Diseases" research field from academic institutions based in Edinburgh. It was an excellent opportunity for the post doc to discuss our exciting findings with a relevant collection of peers and lead to interesting discussions with peers about the work and future avenues that could be followed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/edinburgh-infectious-diseases/
 
Description European Veterinary Vaccinology workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation at conference which sparked discussions with other researchers for potential future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Explorathon 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact During this workshop the participants extracted their own DNA from their cheek cells, bottled it and took it home in a glass pendant. This workshop was designed to be a great introduction to DNA and hands-on science. There was a session where the participants could have an informal chat with the post-doc about what it is like to be a scientist. There was a wide range of participants as it was suitable for all the family and all participants were +10 years old. It was designed to spark interest in science in the participants and allow the general public to meet scientists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/easter-bush-campus/science-outreach-centre/events/explorathon-2018-ebsoc
 
Description Focused meeting on Avian Viruses: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation given at Microbiology Society Focused Meeting on Avian Viruses: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis, from which the presentation was awarded the Journal of General Virology poster prize. Attendance at this event allowed discussion with other researchers working in the field of avian viruses and led to the development of ideas for future research avenues. The poster prize award was advertised on social media by both Microbiology Society and Roslin Institute with a brief summary of the research which allowed a wider audience to engage with the research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Immunology conference (Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Oral presentation at the avian immunology research group meeting in Germany, Sept 2016.
Audience included industry members post graduate students, junior and senior scientists.
UK was voted to be the organisers of the next meeting in 2018 in Oxford and I will be part of the organising team. This will lead to great publicity for the funded avian immunology research funded by the RCUK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.airg2016.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de/airg_2018/index.html
 
Description International Avian Respiratory Diseases Conference 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Two oral presentations were given to a relevant group of academic researchers and industry representatives from the research field. Following on from the presentations it lead to discussions with industry partners to establish a new collaboration with them and led to the development of a proposed research project. This research proposal was submitted for funding assessment to the Responsive Mode grant call in January 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited lecture at Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact PI Prof Vervelde gave an invited lecture at BI-AH in Hannover Germany. BI colleagues from other offices all over the EU and USA participated thorugh WebEx connection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited presentation at Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health (Germany) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr. Sives was invited to present results from the ARC project at Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health (Germany). This led to discussion with the industry experts regarding the scientific research conducted by the team at Roslin and the opportunities available for developing this research further in collaboration with Boehringer Ingelheim.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Invited seminar at Moredun Research Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The post doc on the project was invited to give a seminar on the project at Moredun Research Institute, which is one of the member institutes of the Easter Bush Research Consortium. The audience included post-graduate students, peers and experts within the wider field of veterinary science and were actively involved in discussions about the project. It was an excellent opportunity to network with experts in the field of veterinary science and allow us to establish future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual Meeting 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited oral presentation at the Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2017, given by the post doc on the project in a specific session of the conference. The audience consisted of students, industry, stakeholders, other research teams and principal-investigators. Due to the broad nature of the conference this was an excellent opportunity for the post doc to network with experts in the field allowing for the development of future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/event/annual-conference/annual-conference-2017.html
 
Description Press releases JV IBV vaccine 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Press release was written after our publication in Journal of Virology on novel IBV vaccines. The press release was picked up and published by multiple magazines in the veterinary and agriculture field including:
front page with photo; Vet Times - https://www.vettimes.co.uk/news/vaccine-shows-promise-against-chicken-disease/
Farming UK - https://www.farminguk.com/news/New-vaccine-could-help-fight-against-major-poultry-disease_50541.html
Agriland - https://www.agriland.co.uk/farming-news/vaccine-shows-promise-against-costly-poultry-disease/
Stackyard - http://www.stackyard.com/news/2018/10/vet/06_edinburgh_vaccine.html
Global Meat News - https://www.globalmeatnews.com/Article/2018/10/23/Chicken-disease-vaccine-progress
Technology Networks - https://www.technologynetworks.com/tn/news/vaccine-shows-promise-against-chicken-disease-310951
Farming Sector - https://www.farmingsector.co.uk/latest-news/livestock/new-vaccine-could-protect-poultry-from-serious-disease/
Medical Xpress- https://medicalxpress.com/news/2018-10-vaccine-widespread-chicken-disease.html
News Medical - https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181023/New-vaccine-strategy-shows-promise-to-protect-chickens-against-serious-respiratory-disease.aspx


Feed stuff - https://www.feedstuffs.com/nutrition-health/vaccine-shows-promise-against-ibv

Science Daily - https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/10/181023110540.htm

Genetic Literacy Project - https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2018/10/25/bronchitis-in-chickens-can-cut-egg-production-70-new-vaccine-may-stem-outbreaks/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Roslin Open day by Samatha Ellis 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Around 500 members of the public visited the Easter Bush Campus for our annual Open Day, part of the Midlothian Science Festival, to find out about our research, clinical and teaching work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/community-engagement/public-events/events-archive/campus-open-day
 
Description Volunteer at The Roslin Institute stand at The Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The post doc on the project was an active volunteer on The Roslin Institute/R(D)SVS stand at The Royal Highland Show 24th June 2017. The interactive exhibit was designed to engage public audiences with our research by promoting the importance/relevance of our work.There were fun science activities and displays about the work at the Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, all purposely designed to get school children interested and excited by science,raise awareness of out research in the general public. These activities allowed for focused discussions with them about our research. Record numbers of visitors attended the stand with over 4000 people visiting across the duration of the show. Visitors included members of the general public, children (aged 5 upwards), industry representatives and stakeholders working in the agricultural sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/thousands-visit-roslin-stand-at-rhs