Validation of genome edited disease resistant pigs

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

Infectious disease is the biggest threat to animal protein food security in the 21st century. As production intensifies the livestock industry becomes more vulnerable to devastating disease outbreaks potentially affecting millions of animals. In this project, we target porcine viral diseases for which no effective vaccination or other mitigating strategy is available. We are using state-of-the-art genome editing technology in pigs to produce various alleles of an important immune modulator (RELA) which we hypothesise could improve the resistance/resilience of such pigs to three specific viruses - ASFV, SIV and PRRSV. This project will enable us to validate if any of these alleles confer improved viral resistance/resilience through disease challenge experiments.

Technical Summary

Infectious disease is the biggest threat to animal protein food security in the 21st century. As production intensifies the livestock industry becomes more vulnerable to devastating disease outbreaks potentially affecting millions of animals. In this project, we target porcine viral diseases for which no effective vaccination or other mitigating strategy is available.

Our previous research has identified genetic variation in RELA as potentially underlying the dramatic difference in host response to ASFV that is seen in pigs. RELA encodes the p65 component of the NFkB immune regulatory transcription factor. Using state-of-the-art genome editing technology we are producing various RELA alleles which we hypothesise could improve the resistance/resilience of such pigs to ASFV. Given the role of NFkB we further hypothesise that these RELA alleles may alter how pigs respond to other viruses, e.g. SIV and PRRSV. All three viruses were selected given the impact they pose to the pig breeding and the zoonotic nature of SIV.

Genome edited RELA pigs will be breed to produce test cohorts of animals that comprise non-edited, heterozygous for a given test alleles and homozygous for this allele. These cohorts will be genotyped prior to challenge with the viruses. This project will enable us to validate if any of these novel alleles confer improved viral resistance/resilience through disease challenge experiments.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?

The potential non-academic beneficiaries of this research include pig breeding companies, pig producers and ultimately the entire chain of users of pig products, including meat packers, processors, retailers and consumers. There are also potential benefits to the animal biotechnology sector.


How will they benefit from this research?

ASFV, PRRSV and influenza are a high profile disease of pigs. In addition influenza is perhaps the most important zoonotic disease of our time. Vaccines are either not available or limited to virus strains and cannot be applied to wild animal populations. Thus, the development of novel and/or more effective strategies to control these viruses are needed and will improve the sustainability of the pig industry and potentially reduce the cost of pig products.

In the pig breeding sector the research outputs will have the potential to inform future breeding programmes. The pig breeding industry has already incorporated selection for desirable disease resistance genes into breeding programmes. To date selection for disease resistance has been limited to diseases for which susceptibility is determined by a single major gene. Moreover, breeding for disease resistance is constrained by the nature of any genetic variation in susceptibility to infection. With increasing capabilities to genetically modify farmed animals there are opportunities to engineer resistance. It is now timely to explore the opportunities for engineering pigs for enhanced resilience infection. The interaction between host (pig) and pathogen (ASFV, PRRSV, influenza) are now better understood and new genome editing technologies facilitate the necessary engineering.

In the long term this work aims to contribute to the science-based evidence relating to the use of genetically engineered animals in the food chain. As such it will contribute to the debate and practices surrounding our food chain. Public acceptance of genetically modified animals remains uncertain, especially in Europe. However, the development of non-transgenic pigs engineered for enhanced disease resistance using genome editing technology, which introduces no exogenous DNA, has the potential to re-shape the debate. Moreover, beneficial impacts could be delivered to the pig industry within 3-5 years of project completion.

Publications

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Ciccarelli M (2020) Donor-derived spermatogenesis following stem cell transplantation in sterile NANOS2 knockout males. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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He Z (2015) Highly efficient targeted chromosome deletions using CRISPR/Cas9. in Biotechnology and bioengineering

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Hickey JM (2016) Promotion of alleles by genome editing in livestock breeding programmes. in Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie

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Hoyos-Flight M (2017) Genome Editing and the Future of Farming meeting report. in Transgenic research

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Johnsson M (2019) Removal of alleles by genome editing (RAGE) against deleterious load. in Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE

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LILLICO S (2020) Livestock breeding for the 21st century: the promise of the editing revolution in Frontiers of Agricultural Science and Engineering

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Peacock TP (2020) Swine ANP32A Supports Avian Influenza Virus Polymerase. in Journal of virology

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Pridans C (2016) A Csf1r-EGFP Transgene Provides a Novel Marker for Monocyte Subsets in Sheep. in Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

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Proudfoot C (2015) Genome edited sheep and cattle. in Transgenic research

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Proudfoot C (2019) Genome editing for disease resistance in pigs and chickens. in Animal frontiers : the review magazine of animal agriculture

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Tan W (2016) Gene targeting, genome editing: from Dolly to editors. in Transgenic research

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Whitelaw B (2019) We have entered the era of genome-edited farmed animals. in Emerging topics in life sciences

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Whitelaw CB (2016) The Genome Editing Revolution in Livestock Marches on. in Human mutation

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Whitelaw CB (2016) Engineering large animal models of human disease. in The Journal of pathology

 
Description we used genome editing technology to produce pigs resistant to viral disease.
Exploitation Route Driver for commercial development of genome editing in livestock
Sectors Agriculture

Food and Drink

 
Description Considerable global media interest in this project which aims to reduce the impact of virus disease in pigs. Driver for application of genome editing technology in livestock.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Societal

Economic

 
Description A strategic approach to identifying and combating porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus outbreaks and other porcine viral diseases
Amount £787,016 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R013187/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description General Scheme - Bruce Whitelaw - Editing RELA S531P
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Genus plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 12/2019
 
Description General Scheme - Christine Tait-Burkard - PRRSV study at Moredun to evaluate CD163 edited pigs
Amount £48,812 (GBP)
Organisation Genus plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Description Research Grant - Christine Tait-Burkard - Nanobodies as antiviral PRRSV agents
Amount £59,802 (GBP)
Organisation Eco Animal Health Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Responsive Mode - Christine Tait-Burkard - Understanding the CD163 - PRRS virus interaction to improve genetic engineering for resistance
Amount £674,353 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R004463/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2020
 
Description Pig breeding with Genus 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed and demonstrated gene editing in pig zygotes.
Collaborator Contribution Supply of animal resources and funds.
Impact Several publications, presentations at scientific meetings, media opportunities and joint research grants.
Start Year 2010
 
Title DOMAIN 5 OF CD163 FOR USE IN ANTIVIRAL COMPOSITIONS AGAINST PRRS, AND TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 
Description The present invention relates to methods and compositions useful for the prevention and/or treatment of PRRS in animals, typically domestic pigs. The invention relates to proteins which comprise fragments of CD163, nucleic acid constructs encoding such proteins, and methods of modifying expression or activity of CD163 in vivo. 
IP Reference WO2015011483 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2015
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact scientific publications
 
Title GENETICALLY MODIFIED ANIMALS AND METHODS FOR MAKING THE SAME 
Description Compositions and methods for use of TALENs to make genetically modified livestock are set forth. The methods may include reporters for selecting cells or embryos that have been modified by TALENs for use as progenitor cells to make founder animals. 
IP Reference WO2012116274 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact scientific publications and research funding - media coverage
 
Title Gene edited pigs with altered RelA activity 
Description production of pigs with altered NFkB activity 
IP Reference EP1216564.3 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact scientific publications and research funds
 
Description "Curious Minds" lecture series for the Perthshire Society of Natural Science. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in the "Curious Minds" lecture series for the Perthshire Society of Natural Science. The Society runs this public lecture series in collaboration with Culture Perth and Kinross.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 9th International Sheep Veterinary Congress, Harrogate 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation for 300 scientists on the benefits of animal biotechnology to the sheep industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Academic Wine and Cheese Lecture, University of Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented to University students on GM technology and implications for research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Animal Biotechnology Workshop, Charlottesville 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Other audiences denotes scientists. Attended an international workshop on animal biotechnology regulations where plans for international harmonisation of regulations was proposed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Article in the Times: "Help on the Way for Squirrel Nutkin as Scientists gun for Grey's Anatomy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Entry in the Times Newspaper, with research contribution for the Roslin Institute.

Grey squirrels could be wiped out in the UK by 2050 under plans to protect trees and the red squirrel population by editing the genes of the invasive species to stop the production of females.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description BBC Country File interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact TV interview on genetically engineered pigs on mainstream BBC Country File programme
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC Radio 4 Interview 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed by BBC radio on topic of genetic engineering of animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BBSRC Conclave, New Delhi 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Other audiences denotes scientists. UK scientific delegation to India to identify roadmap for "smart farms"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description CP Life Sciences, Scottish Parliament 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Attended Parliament event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Centre for Tropical Livestock and Genetic Health Visit, Gates Foundation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Invited to Bill Gates visit to Easter Bush Campus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chair of Session 3A: Large Animal Transgenesis, TT2020 Conference, Israel 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Chair of the above online conference which sparked questions and discussion. Chance also to join in other sessions online. Most of the audience were fellow scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Collaborators' meeting, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Indian partnerships in industry and science meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Continuing Professional Development Talk on Animal Genetics, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Continuing Professional Development Talk on Animal Genetics, Glasgow to scientists and post graduate students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Costing the Earth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC radio interview on genetically engineered livestock for BBC Radio 4 Costing the Earcth
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Cutting edge Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk on genome edited livestock at international science festival
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description DBT Indian visit to Roslin 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delegated visit to discuss joint development of research programmes in livestock sector for enhancing health and productivity of farm animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description DBT workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Indian Department of Biotechnology workshop on GM Livestock in Bangalore
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Department of International Development Scientific Meeting, Nairobi 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact International event involving 100 stakeholders of the DFID and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to take forward the Centre for Tropical Livestock and Genetic Health initiative
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EuroScience Open Forum Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Genome editing involves altering some of the individual letters that make up an organism's genetic code at precise points. The technology can be used to introduce beneficial characteristics into plants and animals, such as resistance to a specific disease or improved adaptation to different environments. The changes introduced are the same as those that could occur spontaneously in nature. In this session, we will showcase how genome editing is being researched in institutions across Europe for treatment or prevention of animal diseases. The goal of the research presented here is to improve the health and welfare of farmed animals around the world, and to improve the security of food supplies in low and middle-income countries. We will start by introducing the technology and how it works, and explore how it is being used to manage a range of diseases in salmon, pigs, and cattle. A representative from a company specialised in providing genetic solutions to the farm industry will speak about how the sector is looking at the problem. Presentations will be followed by a panel discussion and Q&A session in which the audience will be asked to consider the perspective of different groups (e.g. farmers, consumers, policy makers, researchers, low and middle income countries) and will have the opportunity to put questions to the speakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Food Evolution Film 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in academic film on food biotechnology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Garth Vet Group, National Association, Yorkshire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk given to scientists, vets and others at the Garth Vet Group, Yorkshire on animal biotechnology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Gene Editing in Livestock, Washington DC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Attendance and participation in the above event talk on Genome Editing Livestock
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Hendrix Genetcic workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Closed industry workshop on application of genetic engineering technology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hendrix Genetics Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited participant at a closed industry meeting with Hendrix Genetics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International Society for Animal Genetics Conference, Lleida, Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Other audiences denotes scientists. Scientific symposium of 400 academic and students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Sympoisum on Animal Geneticw, Dublin 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Other audiences denotes scientists. Presented at scientific symposium to 400 students and students.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Interview with CB Films Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion on how soon could we expect GM on our supermarket shelves if the government were happy to proceed with legislation now.


Discussion on resistant pigs at Roslin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description MSc Lecture on Genome Modification of Livestock 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact MSc lecture fo 100 students on Genome Modificatio of Livestock
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description National Academy of Science Colloquium Workshop, LA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact National Academy of Scinces Colloquium Life 2.0, The Promise and Challenge of a CRISPR Path to a Sustainable Plant, Attended conference and gave talk on genome editing which I agreed could be made public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Nuffield Council Meeting on Bioethics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of the Nuffield Council of Bioethics. Acting in an advisory capacity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Nuffield Council bioethics workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop exploring bioethics of genome editing technology and applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Our Changing World Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact University of Edinburgh showcase lecture on genome editing animals for food security
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Plant and Animal Genomics Workshop, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop Lead in the above workshop/conference, leading on Animal Genetics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Progressional Education Trust Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to give a presentation and take part in a debate to the public on genetic engineering. PET advances public understanding of science, law and ethics in the fields of human genetics, assisted reproduction, embryology and stem cell research. Its vision is to improve the choices for people affected by infertility or genetic conditions. Its mission is to educate and debate the responsible application of reproductive and genetic science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description RSB Teachers Annual Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk on genome editing to teachers conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Royal Dick School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Insitute Away Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Colleagues strategic away day to take forward and enhance the working of the Campus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Royal Society Genome Editing Public Consultation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in Royal Society consultation of genome editing technology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SUSS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk on impact of genome editing technology on society at annual Scottish universities science school.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scientific Conference, Utrecht 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Scientific event to identify with other scientists a road map for animal biotechnology in Europe
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Food Chain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC World Service radio interview on genetically engineered livestock for The Food Chain
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Transgenic Animal Research Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Attendance at above conference as an invited speaker on Genome Modification of Livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Transgenic Animal Research Conference, Tahoe, US 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Other audiences denotes scientist. Presented at scientific symposium for 100 students and scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description U3A Talk - Rewriting Livestock, Biggar Library 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk to general public on genome editing of livestock
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description University Delegation to Bangalore India 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact University delegation to visit scientists in India to establish collaborative activities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Edinburgh filming 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with University on the legacy of Dolly the Sheep
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description University of Kent, invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker on animal biotechnology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description named biotechnology speaker on US Ste |Department Economic Bureau Outreach Fund 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact International workshop top engage stakeholders in genetic engineering technology and applications
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015