Pathway to Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Elimination - methods for complex ecosystems

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Veterinary College
Department Name: Pathology and Pathogen Biology

Abstract

The emergence of the viral disease, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) across Asia and Africa, affecting some of the poorest and most challenged human communities on earth, demands urgent action to mitigate its immediate and ongoing insidious impacts on domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is a very severe disease of sheep and goats that is very common in East Africa causing high mortality of up to 100%, and loss of milk and meat. It threatens the food security and livelihoods of pastoralists and small-holder farmers. It also threatens wildlife resources, as die-off of rare and endangered wild caprines in Asia has shown. Over the past few years there has been much discussion at international and national levels about the control and possible eradication of PPR, and in early 2015 a global PPR eradication programme was launched.
Since the emergence of PPR in Kenya and Tanzania in 2006-2008, there have been several vaccination campaigns to limit its impact on livestock keepers but outbreaks continue to occur, and lack of effective surveillance means that it is unclear how and where the virus is persisting. Vaccination is usually applied in response to outbreaks if funds are available, which helps to reduce livestock keepers' immediate losses due to the disease, but low levels of vaccination coverage could be contributing to virus persistence. A more pragmatic but research-driven approach is needed to halt PPR virus persistence and spread in East Africa, as well as in infected and at-risk areas of Africa, Asia and Europe.
The project aims to study the wildlife and livestock populations in the Greater Serengeti ecosystem, how they interact with each other, and how the interaction of multiple susceptible species might contribute to persistence of PPR infection making disease control more challenging in a multi-host compared to a single host system.
Based on our previous studies we know that some common wildlife species can be infected with PPR virus, such as buffalo, wildebeest, gazelles and others. We do not know whether they are becoming infected by contact with sheep and goats, or whether the virus is circulating independently among wildlife.
The project will map the livestock and wildlife populations, their numbers, how they move and the type of contact between wildlife and livestock. It will measure the level of PPR infection in the wildlife by conducting a blood-sampling survey to test for PPR antibodies. It will measure the frequency of disease outbreaks in sheep and goat flocks as reported by farmers and through interviews with farmers and flock visits, in sites with different levels and patterns of livestock-wildlife contact. Putting all this information together, we will be able to plan the best way to carry out PPR vaccination in the sheep and goat population to eliminate infection in a short period of time, and the best way to carry out surveillance in both small stock and wildlife to monitor PPR infection and disease.
The project will be carried out by researchers from the Royal Veterinary College, University College London and CIRAD, France, working together with Kenyan and Tanzanian veterinary services, researchers and wildlife authorities and local institutions, and the local livestock keeping communities.
The valuable information gained from this study will be the first step towards eliminating PPR from this ecosystem and the lessons learned will be applicable in other parts of Africa and Asia. In addition to the new knowledge gained, reducing the impact of diseases like PPR will allow farmers, particularly women, in these areas to be more productive, to improve their food security and livelihoods. This comes at a critical time of transition to other livelihoods, with simmering tensions around land use, agriculture and biodiversity conservation, and the increasing effects of climate change and drought. Better disease control will allow people to be more resilient during this socio-economic transition.

Technical Summary

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease of sheep and goats that is endemic in many countries of Africa and Asia, and is a major threat for pastoralist farmers, making a significant impact on food security, livelihoods and trade. PPR has recently been identified as a target for global eradication, but an important knowledge gap for the eradication effort is the role of wildlife in PPR epidemiology. The aim of this project is to improve understanding of the host-pathogen ecosystem of livestock, wildlife and PPR virus (PPRV) in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem of Kenya and Tanzania to facilitate the design of effective and efficient surveillance and vaccination strategies for the elimination of PPRV. It is the first phase of a proposed five-year project that has the overall objective to test the hypothesis that the elimination of PPRV infection from domestic small ruminants leads to the elimination of PPRV infection from in-contact wildlife populations. The specific objectives are, in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem; to define wildlife and small ruminant population spatial and temporal dynamics and their interface, to describe the spatial and temporal dynamics of PPR infection and disease in wildlife and domestic small ruminant populations, to develop surveillance and vaccination strategies for the elimination of PPRV from the ecosystem, and to strengthen coordination and build capacity to support cross-border disease surveillance and control policy and strategy. The project will develop a conceptual model of the ecosystem, integrate existing data and identify knowledge gaps to be addressed by qualitative and quantitative field studies in wildlife and livestock, including a serological survey to determine antibody prevalence in wildlife, strengthened disease reporting and investigation and active surveillance in livestock, and qualitative studies of small ruminant movements and trade, supported by laboratory diagnostics and molecular analysis.

Planned Impact

PPR is a disease of domestic sheep and goats and wild ruminants that is endemic across Asia and Africa, and in the past decade has expanded into southern and northern Africa, and central and eastern Asia. It causes high mortality in naïve populations (up to 100%), threatening food security, trade and biodiversity conservation, while in endemic areas there are frequent disease outbreaks that affect up to 50% of a flock causing high mortality, especially in young animals. Two thirds of sub-Saharan Africa are drylands where ruminant production is a central pillar of rural livelihoods and of particular importance to women, with small ruminants providing pathways out of poverty for pastoralists and agro-pastoralists. These are among the world's poorest people, commonly living on less than $1 per person per day. Their food security and future prospects are threatened by climate change and disease. Across sub-Saharan Africa there is a well-documented progressive species shift towards keeping small ruminants, linked to changes in climate, access to key resources and rising market demand. Controlling PPR can make a huge difference to the livelihoods of the poorest rural populations across sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. This project provides the foundation for demonstrating the elimination of PPR virus (PPRV) from a large complex multi-species wildlife-livestock ecosystem as pre-requisite for global eradication. It supports the first phase of a proposed five-year project by strengthening the necessary partnerships, improving understanding of the ecosystem, and developing surveillance and control methods and capacity. A key knowledge gap in global eradication centres on the role of wildlife in PPR epidemiology. If the proposed 5-year project is successful in eliminating PPRV from the ecosystem, it will demonstrate that wildlife is not a maintenance host for PPRV, and that elimination of PPRV from small ruminant populations will be sufficient to ensure eradication without intevention in wildlife populations. On the other hand, if the results show that wild animals are able to maintain PPRV infection, this will be crucial for initiating design of mitigation measures in these species. The role of wildlife in disease maintenance was a fundamental question during the rinderpest eradication programme: there was evidence that as incidence declined in cattle it also declined in wild animals in the Serengeti Ecosystem but with no systematic research the situation was uncertain even in the final stages of eradication. The results of this research will therefore provide evidence to support political will for eradication, increasing confidence of donors, Governments, communities and implementers in the global eradication process. This first phase will provide a case study of baseline data collection prior to embarking on PPR elimination; study design, qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, and data analysis. This will be relevant to extensive production systems in Africa and Asia, and will be disseminated through global PPR networks. It will provide useful information on other prevalent small ruminant diseases to support other disease control initiatives, and will strengthen communication between livestock keepers and veterinary authorities.
The project includes experienced skilled researchers in transboundary animal disease and virology (RVC, Pirbright, SUA), and draws on UCL anthropological expertise in local pastoralist systems. It will strengthen North researchers' collaboration with Africa and strengthen cross-border collaboration between veterinary services, wildlife and research organisations in Kenya and Tanzania, which will be extremely beneficial as PPR eradication efforts in Africa move forward. The PPR field test kit, developed by Pirbright Institute, will be used systematically as part of a surveillance system for real-time diagnosis which could accelerate elimination.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Endemic PPR in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem affecting livestock (sheep and goats), Complexity of livestock diseases and complications for diagnosis established and described. Wildlife results so far provide confirmation of PPR infection in buffalo, Grant's gazelle, impala and Thomson's gazelle. Using the standard ELISA (IDVET) for detecting PPR antibody in sheep and goats the results show a significant but low seroconversion in most areas amongst the buffalo and antelope tested. The figure is suggestive of spill over events during livestock outbreaks rather than wide virus circulation across the wildlife population but as the test is not validated further work will be done to be more precise and a full geospatial evaluation will follow and age structured analysis. Theileria parva were identified in buffalo population as expected but on a spatial pattern the lowest prevalence was in the more livestock interface areas which was interesting. One possible explanation could be tick treatment of livestock reducing the environmental tick challenge also to buffalo reducing infection loads. Epidemiological relationship at the interface still not fully elucidated but evidence for little local or no circulation of virus amongst wildlife population is now presented and will be published. We are still in the process of validation and starting confirmatory laboratory analysis and will interpret these in due course for publication and dissemination.
Exploitation Route We will take these preliminary findings to the OIE FAO meeting on wildlife and PPR, to be held in Rome in March 2019 as part of the ongoing activities towards control and eradication of PPR globally. This was done and has led to a working group on wildlife to provide OIE recommendations on PPR at the interface between wildlife and livestock (diagnosis surveillance methodologies, relevance to control etc, and with respect to Biodiversity Conservation and threats of PPR to biodiversity itself.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Other

 
Description New sampling protocols and research design for exploring epidemiological parameters for epidemic disease using statistically robust methods and randomisation in wildlife used for the first time in East Africa. Methods of capture and sampling of wildlife improved in Tanzania Evaluation of endemic PPR in livestock population adjacent to wildlife, characterisation of the disease in a Maasai pastoral system as well as understanding of the livestock management, trade and disease relevant activities and interventions. Improving knowledge of local and central Government agents for disease and disease control in animals. Identified the need to improve diagnostic protocols for PPR antibody detection, need to validate currently used and available novel methods of detection for untypical host species for PPR. Increase awareness amongst veterinary national authorities on the role (or not) of PPR in the persistence of the disease in the environment and risks of the disease to wildlife itself in different circumstances such as in captivity, in disturbed environments, and with certain species and geographies. Improve strategies and policies on PPR control and Global eradication. Inform research needs with PPR and wildlife
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Other
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Development and Evaluation of PPR DIVA vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease, severely affects small ruminants in almost 70 countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It causes USD 1.5 to 2 billion in losses each year in regions that are home to over 80% of the world's sheep and goats and to more than 330 million of the world's poorest people, many of whom depend on them for their livelihoods. The estimated current expenditure on PPR vaccination ranges between USD 270 and 380 million. The annual impact of PPR alone may be valued at between USD 1.45 and 2.1 billion per year. Approximately a third of the global financial burden of PPR is borne by Africa, with a further quarter borne by South Asia. This burden will be removed with the successful eradication of PPR. The undiscounted costs for a fifteen-year Global control Strategy of FAO and OIE are between USD 7.6 and 9.1 billion, with the first five years costing between USD 2.5 and 3.1 billion. (http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4460e.pdf). PPR is currently controlled by vaccination using mainly two live attenuated PPRV vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96). However, the current vaccines and serological tests are unable to enable Differentiation between naturally Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). This factor precludes meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn reducing the efficiency of control programmes. Therefore, it is almost impossible to assess the quality and efficacy of existing PPR vaccines without knowing whether positive animals are vaccinated or naturally infected. Unlike rinderpest, where cattle and buffalo were primary hosts, in PPR, new crops (about 30-40%) of lambs and kids are produced every year and are the most susceptible population to bring back new PPR outbreaks6&7. Therefore, it is likely that the cycle of vaccinations and PPR outbreaks will continue until and unless we reach the stage of 80-90% herd immunity. Therefore, development of a marker vaccine and associated DIVA diagnostics will enable the assessment of vaccine efficacy which is essential for any successful vaccination campaign. https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-peste-des-petits-ruminant The availability of a recombinant PPRV vaccine with a proven functionality is a prerequisite for the development of novel vaccines that may enable the development of DIVA tools for PPRV diagnostics. In the DBT-BBSRC FADH BB/L004801/1 grant we have rescued Sungri 96 and Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strains. Both the vaccine strains were rescued from respective synthetic c-DNA clones with mutations in the variable part of C terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) gene similar to Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) to enable negative marker DIVA vaccines. These two DIVA vaccines along with parental vaccines have been recently tested in a pilot studies in goats. Both the DIVA and parent vaccines provided safety, stability and protection for vaccinated goats whereas the control animals were clinically infected. Patent applications have been made to protect these DIVA vaccines. Agreements are being done with vaccine industries for the licensing and commercialisation.
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2018/09/pirbright-collaboration-provides-tools-peste-des-...
 
Description Mongolia FAO PPR strategy meeting
Geographic Reach Asia 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact Provided evidence and advice on PPR outbreak in Mongolia and region in 2016 with focus on the wildlife spill over from livestock and failure of vaccination campaigns to halt this. Encouraged more cross disciplinary engagement between veterinary, wildlife and environment sectors as susceptibilities may relate to poor partitioning of land forage resources and mismanagement of shared resources. Multidisciplinary Government Task Force addressed organised under FAO and after CMC AH mission in early 2017 to outbreak zones.
 
Description PPR DIVA Vaccine development . FAO/OIE in the meeting proceedings in December, 2018 recorded the future use of DIVA vaccine in the ongoing PPR eradication programme. This will be useful at least at the end phase of eradication to differentiate between vaccination and infection.As such few industries have contacted us to have the DIVA vaccine strains for commercialisation. Also some of the endemic countries are keen to have the strain for testing the DIVA vaccines in endemic settings.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description PPR GREN meeting Nairobi Sep 2019
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Peste des Petits Ruminants Global Eradication Programme "Epidemiological assessment and vaccination management in the Lake Chad epi-zone" Workshop Yaoundé, Cameroon, 09 - 11 December 2019
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Support development of regional PPR eradication policy for the Great Chad Lake Basin countries in Africa
 
Description Peste des petits ruminants virus global research network FAO OIE IAEA - meeting Rome 2019
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Contributed to the United Nations FAO/OIE Guidelines for the Control and Prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Wildlife Populations which will help in the process of the PPR global research network and the PPR global eradication programme
 
Description Peste des petits ruminants virus global research network FAO OIE IAEA - meeting Vienna 2018
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Increase awareness and research needs for PPR from a wildlife perspective. Importance to biodiversity conservation and eradication of PPR
 
Description Preparation of OIE FAO meeting on PPR and Wildlife Rome March 2019
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Changing perceptions on the epidemiology of PPR in wildlife and relevance to control of the disease globally and its significance to biodiversity conservation
 
Description RER5023-EVT1805286 Regional Training Course on the Use of Nuclear Derived Techniques in the Diagnosis of "Peste des Petits Ruminants" (PPR) in Sheep and Goats
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Provided and delivered training and material to the IAEA FAO OIE joint division for dissemination to veterinary services laboratory staff internationally focused on wildlife and PPR
 
Description RER5023-EVT1805286 Regional Training Course on the Use of Nuclear Derived Techniques in the Diagnosis of "Peste des Petits Ruminants" (PPR) in Sheep and Goats (wildlife)
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Better understanding of PPR wildlife epidemiology for control and eradication policies
 
Description Development of multispecies validated serology protocols for complex ecosystems, focused on East Africa, in support of Global PPR eradication
Amount £697,673 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T015381/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 03/2021
 
Description GCRF Foundation Award
Amount £564,621 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P023002/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 05/2019
 
Description Morris Animal Foundation
Amount $50,000 (USD)
Funding ID D17ZO-701 
Organisation Morris Animal Foundation 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 02/2017 
End 02/2020
 
Description Pathway to Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Elimination - methods for complex ecosystems
Amount £457,199 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P023002/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Title Detection of DNA/RNA for peste des petits ruminants virus from faeces 
Description Detection of virus from blood, tissues, ocular oral and nasal swabs is well described for PPR but faecal detection methods were not determined until now. Publication in press SREP-18-42764 Optimization and evaluation of a non-invasive tool for Peste des Petits Ruminants surveillance and control 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is early days but it might become a preferred more economical method for virus detection and confirmation in wildlife and extensively managed livestock. 
 
Title ELISA Validation 
Description Provided data to progress validation of ELISA tests applied on PPR in a range of species. 
Type Of Material Antibody 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Serology from wildlife is providing sufficient longitudinal data to question validity of applied ELISA tests developed for small ruminants. This is critical to eradication of PPR and its evaluation during the documentation on elimination. 
 
Title Use of reverse genetics to develop PPR DIVA vaccines 
Description Reverse genetics technique has been established for PPR virus in our laboratory. As PPR vaccine is a live attenuated virus, it is not possible to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) in existing antibody assays. However using reverse genetics technique we have manipulated/mutated residues in the full-length cDNA of virus and rescued the live attenuated vaccine strain which worked as a DIVA vaccine. Using this technique a GFP ( Green fluorescent protein) has been introduced into the virulent PPR virus that helped to follow the virus in the infected goats. Similarly using this technique we have modified the existing live attenuated viruses ( Nigeria 75/1) and Sungri 96/1) in to recombinant marker vaccines that enables to differentiate between infection and vaccination ( DIVA). So we have demonstrated that reverse genetics tool can be used to study the pathogenesis and to develop the marker vaccines. This technique can be adapted for other negative strand viruses to design the DIVA vaccines. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact PPR DIVA vaccine developed that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. This will be helpful to know the efficacy of vaccine by knowing the presence antibodies in animal is due to vaccination or infection. This will reduce the eradication time and will facilitate to declare freedom of diseases as soon as Possible without long waiting period. 
 
Title GCRF PPR database Serengeti Ecosystem 
Description Sampling of wildlife in the Serengeti Ecosystem to establish true prevalence in two species of wildlife and related epidemiological understanding of PPR infection in wildlife and livestock in the region. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Too early to say...needs full analysis and interpretation and publication 
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution 1. Conducted challenge experiments in goats to study pathogenicity. 2. Developed NGS technology to sequence PPR whole genome.
Collaborator Contribution FLI has conducted transmission study between different species ( Goats, pig, camel). For the first time they showed that pigs are clinically infected by PPR virus.
Impact Joint Publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description DVS Kenya 
Organisation Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Support to fulfilling national strategy on PPR elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistical support for field work and epidemiological data access from National surveillance.
Impact Project is starting implementation too early
Start Year 2017
 
Description DVS Tanzania 
Organisation Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Support to National strategy for control and elimination of PPR
Collaborator Contribution Logistical and access to data on PPR in country epidemiological support
Impact starting implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCRF PPR 
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Support to training of wildlife and livestock teams in PPR surveillance and research methods and support to fulfilling National strategies implementation in PPR control and elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistics and staffing intellectual contributions to design
Impact Start of implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCRF PPR 
Organisation Kenya Wildlife Service
Country Kenya 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Support to training of wildlife and livestock teams in PPR surveillance and research methods and support to fulfilling National strategies implementation in PPR control and elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistics and staffing intellectual contributions to design
Impact Start of implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCRF PPR 
Organisation Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries
Country Kenya 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Support to training of wildlife and livestock teams in PPR surveillance and research methods and support to fulfilling National strategies implementation in PPR control and elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistics and staffing intellectual contributions to design
Impact Start of implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCRF PPR 
Organisation Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Support to training of wildlife and livestock teams in PPR surveillance and research methods and support to fulfilling National strategies implementation in PPR control and elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistics and staffing intellectual contributions to design
Impact Start of implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCRF PPR 
Organisation Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Support to training of wildlife and livestock teams in PPR surveillance and research methods and support to fulfilling National strategies implementation in PPR control and elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistics and staffing intellectual contributions to design
Impact Start of implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description GCRF PPR 
Organisation Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Support to training of wildlife and livestock teams in PPR surveillance and research methods and support to fulfilling National strategies implementation in PPR control and elimination
Collaborator Contribution Logistics and staffing intellectual contributions to design
Impact Start of implementation phase
Start Year 2017
 
Description Livestock Wildlife Interface and Diseases in Queen Elizabeth National Park Uganda 
Organisation Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB)
Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Support to the research activities of UAB in QENP during the IUEPPR project Sharing results for the activities of the community support NGO Daktari active in the livestock farmer community
Collaborator Contribution Providing information on livestock in the Uganda region of study for IUEPPR Providing sera from livestock at no cost for inclusion in the research work under IUEPPR Monitoring for PPR in livestock during field missions and reporting to IUEPPR project
Impact Evidence of PPR virus circulation in livestock around study area for wildlife.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Pirbright Institute 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing material of interest to PI investigations on viral diseases from Central Asia
Collaborator Contribution NGS on samples from Kazakhstan saiga mortalities to confirm viral absence or presence
Impact Confirmed absence of virus of potential concern to the massive die off of saiga antelope in Kazakhstan.
Start Year 2015
 
Description RVC-Pirbright _Biogene partnership 
Organisation BioGene
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initiating an private public partnership on differential diagnosis methodologies around PPRv
Collaborator Contribution Providing the private capacity to develop potential diagnostic platform for PPR v and differentials.
Impact Satya and the company Biogene (BG Research Ltd) RVC submission to Innovate UK. The specific competition is Agritech catalyst early stage feasibility round 5, funding source the Technology Strategy Board, and title of project Pen side differential diagnosis of PPRV, FMDV and BTV from blood and swab samples
Start Year 2016
 
Description UAB - RVC - Daktari collaboration on bovine TB and sustainable livestock systems 
Organisation Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB)
Department Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Information on TB from studies in wildlife and livestock in and around Queen Elizabeth National Park - helping implementation of veterinary support programme of UAB-Daktari NGO partnership. Opportunity for incorporating PPR studies into their portfolio of work from 2015. Obtained Partnership Grant
Collaborator Contribution Physical and Material support to our programme on Bovine TB in QENP. Physical Material and Data support to the BBSRC PPR research IUEPPR Support to development of proposals for H2020 funding on sustainable agriculture
Impact Improved knowledge of TB prevalence in wildlife and livestock in Western Uganda Akigera ecosystem. Data on PPR provided from livestock systems surrounding the QENP 2015, 2016, 2017 and further south during PPR outbreak in 2017. Provision of serum for serology on PPR.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Wildlife Conservation Society 
Organisation Wildlife Conservation Society
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Sharing of saiga material for histopathology review
Collaborator Contribution Review of histopathological material
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Better Training for Safer Food (BTSF) Initiative - Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Workshop, 6-8th June 2018 Sofia, Bulgaria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A three-day training course for government veterinarians from Greece and Bulgaria on epidemiology, surveillance and control of PPR. I made three presentations; PPRV infection and disease in wildlife, PPR outbreak investigation, and awareness and communication among stakeholders, and facilitated group exercises on dealing with a PPR outbreak. A few weeks after the workshop, some of the participants were involved in the first detection of PPR disease in Bulgaria and subsequent control and surveillance activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Contribution to tropical medicine courses University of Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Contribute to understanding on climate weather and disease to course on Trop Vet Medicine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Expert group meeting for PPR eradication at head quarters of WHO, Vienna, Austria, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In the FAO/PPR eradication meeting satya has presented work on PPR epidemiology and diagnosis. The talk was designed for the stakeholders and policy make to make aware on important points that are required for eradication of PPR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Initiation of a mass vaccination campain ( 2018) in TamilNadu, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists from The Pirbright Institute's Vaccine Differentiation group have recently returned from Chennai in India, where they conducted a mass peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination campaign and awareness programme. They joined scientists from four specialist organisations; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NIAB) and National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI).
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as goat plague, is highly contagious and infects small ruminants such as sheep and goats, causing up to 90% mortality. The disease is prevalent across large parts of Africa, the Middle East, India and China and is estimated to cost between US$1.4 billion and US$2.1 billion globally each year. In 2017, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) introduced a global eradication programme to reduce the devastating impact PPR has on the economy and food security of affected countries.
"Over 40 vets joined our vaccination campaign in the Tanir Kulum village of Tiruvallur District, TaminNadu (close to Chennai), where we administered vaccines to over 400 sheep and goats in a single day. We also ran an awareness camp where we provided farmers and vets alike with expert guidance on diagnosing clinical signs of PPR and what measures they could take to reduce its spread", said Professor Satya Parida from Pirbright, who led the collaborative effort with Dr Dhinakar Raj from TANUVAS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Invited talk at Agricultural Science congress at New Delhi, India, February-2019- Use of reverse genetics to study the early pathogenesis and to develop marker vaccines for PPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 1. In a DBT-BBSRC FADH grant, The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with four Indian partners (TANUVAS, IVRI, NIAB and NIVEDI) has developed a PPR vaccine, which will be the first to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), for which a patent application has been filed. Scientists have manipulated in the genome of PPR full length cDNA and rescued the DIVA vaccine virus using reverse genetic technique. Further this vaccine has been tested in goats providing full safety and potency upon virulent virus challenge. In contrast to current vaccine, this new DIVA vaccine can differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals, therefore will help in meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn increasing the efficiency of control programmes.
2. Little is known about the early events in the development of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus (PPRV) infection. The current dogma is that similar to RPV, PPRV replicates primarily in the epithelium of the respiratory tract before disseminating throughout the host. However, our investigations, using intranasal inoculation of PPRV containing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) to mimic natural infection, indicate this is not the case and that immune cells in the pharyngeal tonsil is the primary target. This is a ground breaking discovery which changes the PPR pathogenesis. This infectious GFP virus is made from a synthetic cDNA of field virus (PPRV/Mor-08) using reverse genetics technique under FADH grant.
The presentation sparked questions and discussions after the talk. Two PPR DIVA vaccines developed and the mechanism of PPR virus pathogenesis explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk on Epidemiology and vaccine development using reverse genetics techniques at Institute of Life science, Bhubaneswar India. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk on Epidemiology and vaccine development using reverse genetics techniques at Institute of Life science, Bhubaneswar India delivered on 5th of Feb, 2018. Students and scientists were encouraged to take forward the approach for human disease and some request obtained to visit our lab at the Pirbright, Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Mongolia PPR Regional Strategy Meeting FAO 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Technical advisor to cross sectoral meeting on regional control of PPR organised by FAO in Ulan Bator Mongolia in light of PPR epidemic in Mongolia and China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PPR GLOBAL RESEARCH AND EXPERTISE NETWORK (PPR-GREN). SECOND MEETING. NAIROBI (KENYA), 13 - 15 NOVEMBER 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PPR GREN meeting Epidemiology laboratory science social science economics of PPR control and elimination options
Lecture contribution on wildlife
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description PPR Modelling workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Workshop at Royal Vet College of Modellers to work on SEIR models for PPR with respect to wildlife serology results in IUEPPR project and outbreak data on PPR from Mongolia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PPR eradication meeting organised by FAO and OIE at Rome and talk has been delived on Development of DIVA vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Satya Parida is working as an expert to PPR eradication and he is being invited for few of FAO/OIE meetings. The meetings discussed about roadmap, vaccine production capacity and eradication policy.
Satya also presented work on PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests developments and their evaluation in goats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PPR review lecture Utrecht FVM Tropical Medicine Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture on PPR and seminar to present results from the IUEPPR project and status of PPR in wildlife
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PPR vaccine producers meeting at MCI, Morocco organised by FAO/OIE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact PPR vaccine producers meeting at MCI, Morocco organised by FAO/OIE. Almost all PPR vaccine producers through out world joined this meeting. Satya Parida has presented a talk on vaccine development and transmission of PPR virus in North Africa. There was hues interest on the talk particularly the spread of PPR in North Africa and new vaccine development.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Peste des Petits Ruminants Global Eradication Programme "Epidemiological assessment and vaccination management in the Lake Chad epi-zone" Workshop Yaoundé, Cameroon, 09 - 11 December 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lake Chad Basin countries supporting strategy development for the control and eradication of PPR from the region. This is the first event of a series in Africa to motivate inform and deliberate on measures to be taken in elimination of this virus - contributed to the understanding of PPR in wildlife and what this means for livestock disease control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation to Peste des petits ruminants virus global research network PPR GREN UN - IAEA Austria 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on project outcomes (IUEPPR) and workshop contributions in developing research landscape for peste des petits ruminants virus
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Project close meeting at TANUVAS, Chennai July 2018- Delivering talk on outcome of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team held their final workshop at TANUVAS, which concluded a four year Farmed Animal Disease and Health (FADH) grant joint funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Indian Government's Department of Biotechnology (DBT). "This grant has enabled us to collaborate with four organisations across India, and ensured that our research can be applied in the field to aid the campaign for PPR global eradication", said Professor Parida.The project covered many areas of research which are essential for understanding PPR and creating tools to help control and prevent the disease. The team have now filed a patent application for their newly developed PPR vaccine, which is the first to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) - a quality that enables livestock owners to protect their animals whilst continuing to trade.
The team have also investigated how the PPR virus (PPRV) infects sheep and goats and how their immune systems respond. By inserting green fluorescent protein into virulent PPRV and administering the modified virus to goats, they demonstrated that PPRV primarily infects the tonsils, challenging the earlier belief that the virus first replicates in the respiratory tract epithelial cells. The collaborative project has also generated better diagnostic tests for use in the field and laboratory, and preliminary research has identified why some Indian breeds of goats and sheep are resistant to the disease, which could help scientists to create PPRV resistant breeds in the future.
Project partners, scientists from the University and 40 field veterinarians have joined the meeting. An awareness training has been conducted on PPR disease and eradication for these field veterinarians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Project inception meeting, Nairobi Kenya, 13th Sept 2017; attended by project partners, regional and national stakeholders 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 30 participants from project partners, national and field veterinary and wildlife services of Kenya and Tanzania, University of Nairobi, regional organisations; IGAD, FAO ECTAD, FAO Kenya, ILRI, and NGOs; VSF Germany, VSF Suisse, Vetaid Kenya, Vetwork East Africa. Provided overview of PPR eradication in the region, introduction and background to the project, discussed stakeholders, knowledge gaps and other activities in the study area. Led to ongoing discussions of collaboration and information-sharing with stakeholders in the region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Regional Training Course on the Use of Nuclear Derived Techniques in Diagnosis of the "Peste des Petits Ruminants" (PPR) in Sheep and Goats 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training veterinary and laboratory staff from participating countries at IAEA FAO OIE joint division in Austria - exposure to wildlife PPR and current research findings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Series of lectures to Utrecht Veterinary Faculty Masters degree in Trop Vet Medicine Sept 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Provided a lecture and seminar on PPR virus and its eradication and role of wildlife in the epidemiology. Impacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute Annual Meeting Arusha 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Present results to audience of researchers engaged in East African region - summary of state of knowledge of PPR in wildlife in East Africa from IUEPPR project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Working Group FAO/OIE Guidelines for the Control and Prevention of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in Wildlife Populations 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact PPR GEP GREN meeting on wildlife and PPR at Rome FAO headquarters
First meeting on "Controlling PPR at the livestock/wildlife interface"
FAO-HQ Rome, Italy, 27-29 March 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description lecture to a group of professional trainees from National Governments in Europe and Central Asia 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UN FAO IAEA Project RER5023: "Enhancing National Capabilities for Early and Rapid Detection of Priority Vector Borne Diseases of Animals (Including zoonoses) by Means of Molecular Diagnostic Tools"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019