Enhancing crop diversity and ecosystem services to promote biological control of fall armyworm in smallholder cropping systems

Lead Research Organisation: Keele University
Department Name: Faculty of Natural Sciences

Abstract

Smallholder farming communities in sub-Saharan Africa are particularly vulnerable to crop losses to pests because they generally cannot afford pesticides and as subsistence farmers, they depend directly on the crops for their food security. Fall armyworm has recently invaded and rapidly spread across large areas of Africa, where it has become a major threat to agriculture and sustainable food production. This invasion is a serious and growing threat to food security and livelihoods and already affects at least 400,000 ha causing estimated crop losses worth $3 billion a year.

Our project will employ a four-pronged attack on the fall armyworm, utilising the natural defence mechanisms of the crop and companion plants. Firstly, we will assess the natural resistance levels of the maize millet and sorghum crops available to the farmers to determine which varieties would be most robust against the fall armyworm. We will then attempt to drive pests away from the main crop using a repellent intercrop (push), whilst attracting them to alternative locations with trap plants (pull). This technique is known as a "Push-Pull" companion cropping system and is used currently, successfully, against stemborer pests. Finally, we will attempt to utilise the defence mechanism of other companion plants to bring in local predators of the crop pet. These 'early herbivore varieties' are able to detect insect eggs that have been laid on them and emit odours to attract the natural enemies of the pests to the area where the crop is being cultivated. This novel design of pest management based on the four strategies of resist, expel, trap and kill should provide a novel cropping system which can withstand attack by fall army worm and other major pests.

Design of such a system requires a detailed understanding of the predators and parasites that are the key natural enemies of the invasive fall armyworm in Kenya. Therefore, a major part of this project will be to understand the current pest and predator relationship where the crops are being grown. Once determined, we will be able to test how such companion cropping and early alert crops could mitigate crop losses to the fall army worm using crops that are readily available to the farmers in Kenya. Such a system could only be generated through close partnership with the local farmers. We will co-design solutions with them so that that we can be assured from the onset that the novel cropping system that is created is not just appropriate for their requirements but can be feasibly implemented with the resources available to them.

Technical Summary

Fall armyworm (FAW), S. frugiperda, biology and behaviour on different farmer-preferred crop varieties will be measured in bioassays to assess constitutive and induced resistance. Smallholder farmers in much of Africa practice mixed cropping. Thus, a Push-Pull system will be developed modelled along the polycropping nature of these farming systems, for which repellent intercrop (Push) and attractive trap crop (Pull) components are required. Candidate repellent intercrops will be tested for their ability to repel FAW moths, and will include a range of African food legumes; while candidate attractive trap crops will be tested for their ability to attract the moths. Field sampling will be conducted to determine the key natural enemies that attack FAW and insects reared in the laboratory so that parasitoids emerging can be recorded. Field sampling of potential reservoir hosts (wild plants) will be conducted to determine their role in pest epidemiology and the possible ecosystem service they may provide by acting as habitat for natural enemies of the pest. To assess indirect defence, volatiles collected from infested plants will be tested in an olfactometer to determine if key predators and parasitoids prefer them. Volatiles from intercrops will be tested for attraction of natural enemies. For plants that have reduced feeding and growth rates of FAW larvae, secondary metabolites will be extracted by solvent washing and the collected extracts analysed by HPLC. Volatiles will be collected from plants that significantly repel or attract insects, or where a difference in moth oviposition preference is observed. Headspace samples of volatiles will be analysed by GC-EAG and GC-MS to identify bioactive compounds. Field trials will be conducted with crops with improved resistance to FAW grown with appropriate companion crops to support biological control by natural enemies. Co-design workshops will be held with participating farmers and trials will be held on their farms.

Planned Impact

Who might benefit from this research?

This research will benefit smallholder farmers who require improved cropping systems that are resilient to attack from the invasive fall armyworm pest. The agricultural landscapes of SSA are dominated by family smallholder farms, where women provide the majority of agricultural labour but seldom own the land they farm. Women often lack some or all of the resources that are needed to grow enough food to ensure household food security - whether seeds, tools, fertilizers, knowledge or the power to make strategic decisions about the farm. In this region, grain is at the heart of the household economy, grown for both consumption and sale. But cereal production is constrained by insect pests, and the fall army worm invasion is a new threat. Getting enough to eat is a constant worry for too many households.

Society will benefit because the food system in developing countries is highly dependent on smallholder farmers who are typically responsible for over 85% of food production. Currently these food supply chains are highly vulnerable to crop losses to pests.


How might they benefit from this research?

Farmers will benefit from a range of options to reduce pest damage. These will be resistant crop varieties, crop varieties that attract natural enemies of pests, intercrops that repel pests and trap crops which attract them. All these will be combined in a Push-Pull mixed cropping system. Reduced losses to pest remove uncertainties relating to food security and income security.

As well as managing pests, our approach will include features already built into the Push-Pull companion cropping approach, namely:
- striga weed management through suppressive root exudates of intercrops
- provision of sources of forage for animals
- improvement of soil fertility with nitrogen fixing intercrops that also improve soil organic matter content
- climate smart features as the mixed cropping system is drought resilient

Health will be promoted because food and nutritional insecurity is the biggest risk factor for poor health in developing countries with approximately 50% of infant mortality caused by inadequate nutrition. Securing production will directly benefit subsistence farmers as well as reducing food costs in the food chain. The programme would reduce dependency on pesticides for crop protection thus reducing the health risks involved in pesticide application by hand with backpack sprayers. Social welfare will be promoted by giving smallholder farmers, particularly women, a wider range of options for pest management which will improve their welfare.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Smallholder farmers produce over 85% of food in sub-Saharan Africa but their crop production systems are threatened by the arrival of a devastating new invasive pest, Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm (estimated crop losses worth $3 billion a year). Our project is designed to improve resilience of their farming systems to pest attack.

Our science is used in a novel cropping system which can withstand attack by fall army worm and other major pests, by developing:
• Partially resistant maize crops
• Repellent intercrops that drive away the pest and deter egg laying (Push)
• Plants that release attractants for natural enemies (Pull)
• Conservation biocontrol

Research Progress:
o Profiling the volatiles (odour molecules) of the legume companion plants (i.e. Desmodium intortum and D. uncinatum) and fall armyworm eggs and larvae-induced maize plants.
o Performing electrophysiological recordings from fall armyworm antennae, using GC-EAG, to determine which volatiles insects are sensitive to.
o Identifying the bioactive volatiles from both Desmodium species and maize plants to fall armyworm and their larval parasitoids, using GC-MS.
o Bioassays showing how fall army worm moths and key parasitoid natural enemies respond to the volatiles. Wind tunnel data show that moths are repelled by companion plant volatiles. Olfactometer data with key parasitoid natural enemies show that they are attracted to the volatiles.

We have obtained evidence showing:
1. Desmodium intercrops emit volatiles that repel egg laying S. frugiperda moths, and identify the active compounds. This is the "push" component of the push-pull system.
2. the border crop, Brachiaria Mulato II, also functions as a "push" companion plant repelling moths.
3. two key larval parasitoids of fall armyworm, Cotesia icipe and Coccygidium luteum were attracted to the volatiles of all three companion plant species in olfactometer bioassay and that percentage parasitism of larvae collected from push-pull plots was nine times higher than those collected from monocrop maize plots. This provides a "pull" component.

Agricultural development impact:
We are in active dialogue with farmers through ICIPE outreach teams and workshops we have run. Feedback from farmers is very positive and they see push-pull companion cropping as the single most effective way of managing fall army worm.
Exploitation Route Our research project is benefiting smallholder farmers who require improved cropping systems that are resilient to attack from the invasive fall armyworm pest. In this region, grain is at the heart of the household economy, grown for both consumption and sale.

Farmers are benefiting from new options to reduce pest damage. These are combined in a Push-Pull mixed cropping system. Reduced losses to pest remove uncertainties relating to food security and income security.

As well as managing pests, our approach will includes features already built into the Push-Pull companion cropping approach, namely:
- striga weed management
- provision of forage for animals
- improvement of soil fertility
- climate smart features (drought resilience)

Health is being promoted because food and nutritional insecurity is the biggest risk factor for poor health in developing countries with approximately 50% of infant mortality caused by inadequate nutrition. Securing production will directly benefit subsistence farmers as well as reducing food costs in the food chain.

The programme is reducing dependency on pesticides for crop protection thus reducing the health risks involved in pesticide application by hand with backpack sprayers. Social welfare is being promoted by giving smallholder farmers, particularly women, a wider range of options for pest management which will improve their welfare.

The agricultural landscapes of Sub Saharan Africa are dominated by family smallholder farms, where women provide the majority of agricultural labour but seldom own the land they farm. Push-Pull companion cropping improves productivity without requiring much money and therefore is ideally suited to their needs. Further information is available here: http://www.push-pull.net/Push-Pull-and-Gender.pdf

According to icipe reports, a total of 29,615 farmers adopted the Push-Pull companion cropping system in 2019. It appears that adoption of Push-Pull is really taking off due to the benefits found in controlling the invasive pest, fall armyworm.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Healthcare,Security and Diplomacy

URL http://www.push-pull.net/Push-pull%20and%20fall%20armyworm%202019.pdf
 
Description Our research project is benefiting smallholder farmers who require improved cropping systems that are resilient to attack from the invasive fall armyworm pest. Interventions the project is developing have been found to reduce fall armyworm infestation.These are combined in a Push-Pull mixed cropping system. Reduced losses to pests remove uncertainties relating to food security and income security. In this region, grain is at the heart of the household economy, grown for both consumption and sale. Farmers are benefiting from new options to reduce pest damage, here are quotes from a few of them: "Push-Pull controls fall armyworm and increases yield" Sarah Odhiambo "I get better yield because of Push-Pull" Judith Akoth "Push-Pull farm always do better because they are not too much affected by striga (weed) and fall armyworm" Beatrice Onyango "Push-Pull has reduced the rate of fall-armyworms affliction hence increasing crop yield" Moses Ochieng Ochele As well as managing pests, our approach will includes features already built into the Push-Pull companion cropping approach, namely: - striga weed management - provision of forage for animals - improvement of soil fertility - climate smart features (drought resilience) Health is being promoted because food and nutritional insecurity is the biggest risk factor for poor health in developing countries with approximately 50% of infant mortality caused by inadequate nutrition. Securing production will directly benefit subsistence farmers as well as reducing food costs in the food chain. The programme is reducing dependency on pesticides for crop protection thus reducing the health risks involved in pesticide application by hand with backpack sprayers. Social welfare is being promoted by giving smallholder farmers, particularly women, a wider range of options for pest management which will improve their welfare. According to icipe reports, a total of 29,615 farmers adopted the Push-Pull companion cropping system in 2019. It appears that adoption of Push-Pull is really taking off due to the benefits found in controlling the invasive pest, fall armyworm.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Security and Diplomacy
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description COMMONS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE - Secured New Government inquiry into "the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity"
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Successfully securing this inquiry will have an impact in raising awareness and improving political will to use science and technology to address challenges to food security and biodiversity. Agriculture has been neglected since the last Green Revolution in the 1960s and 21st Century challenges need to be taken more seriously. The Commons STC is a high level committee overseeing delivery of science across all government departments. While the inquiry has not yet been launched, I am confident that it will make a difference to the areas highlighted above. Here is our University press release, which has more details: "Professor Toby Bruce has secured a full Government inquiry into the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity, following his successful pitch to the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee in January. Professor Bruce's pitch was one of just four chosen to be taken forward as a full Government inquiry. The committee has combined Professor Bruce's recommendations on food security and crop protection with a related topic on gene editing techniques from Nicola Patron of the Earlham Institute. A report published this week by the Science and Technology Committee said: "Professor Toby Bruce suggested that we should hold an inquiry into food security, the environment and crop protection. He suggested that an inquiry could look at the tools available to farmers to protect crops against pests, weeds and diseases, how these had changed over time, what changes were needed to ensure food security in the future and research investment in crop protection. We will incorporate this into an inquiry into the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity." Professor Bruce said: "I am delighted that 'My Science Inquiry' is being taken forward to a full inquiry and look forward to working with the Commons Science and Technology Committee. There is an urgent need for increased research and innovation to help improve food security and protect the environment. I hope that the forthcoming inquiry will be a catalyst for change and will help to address some serious limitations that currently impede our innovation system, particularly with respect to providing new options for protecting harvests from pests". During the presentation of his research, Professor Bruce said: "The choice we have at the moment is having to choose between food security and the environment, so we need to find a way forward in which we can safeguard our crops without environmental impact, partly through smarter regulation to bring more inventions into the market. There is a critical shortage of new treatments but there's also underinvestment in this area. It's a major challenge that we face this century, how do we feed the world without wrecking the environment in the process." The Commons Science and Technology Committee will launch their inquiry into the role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity within the next 12 months."
URL http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/science-and-technology-co...
 
Description Novel delivery of phytochemicals for sustainable crop protection (BB/S018948/1)
Amount £302,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S018948/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 04/2021
 
Description Scaling up biocontrol innovations in Africa
Amount £49,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T024410/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Title olfactometeR 
Description Developed an R package for recording insect behaviour in olfactometer bioassay experiments. This tool is largely designed to replace outdated or expensive software packages. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is difficult to gauge notable impacts at this stage due to still being in beta testing. 
URL https://github.com/Dr-Joe-Roberts/olfactometeR
 
Description GCRF challenge cluster 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Future research collaboration
Collaborator Contribution Joint proposal successfully submitted for a GCRF Challenge Cluster with Steve Sait at Leeds and Ken Wilson at Lancaster on Scaling up biocontrol innovations in Africa.
Impact Please see further funding section
Start Year 2019
 
Description Harper Adams University 
Organisation Harper Adams University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of facilities and expertise
Collaborator Contribution Sharing of facilities and expertise
Impact We have applied for a new £5M collaborative research centre and have been invited to a stage two application that we are currently waiting for the decision on (Research England E3 initiative) We have an existing joint research project, BB/R021708/1, "Biological crop protection: a new 'slow down/speed up' strategy for aphid management"
Start Year 2017
 
Description ICIPE 
Organisation International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE)
Country Kenya 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of chemical samples, electrophysiological recordings from insect antennae, sharing of expertise.
Collaborator Contribution Insect bioassays and field trials, sharing of expertise.
Impact Ongoing scientific collaboration
Start Year 2006
 
Description International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) 
Organisation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture
Country Nigeria 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Sharing expertise and new treatments for use against insect pests
Collaborator Contribution Testing of novel material against insects in Tanzania and Nigeria
Impact Connected Virus GCRF pump-priming project
Start Year 2018
 
Description Association of Applied Biologists - Advances in Biocontrol and IPM meeting (Feb 2021) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The project was described in a talk about using research to provide new opportunities to manage pests. The event was held online due to covid restrictions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.aab.org.uk/conferences
 
Description Association of Applied Biologists: Advances in IPM conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised and chaired Association of Applied Biologists: Advances in IPM conference Organised and chaired
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Biopesticide Summit, Swansea, 2-3 July 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a keynote, invited talk: "The role of science and technology in addressing challenges to food security and biodiversity"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://biopesticidesummit.com
 
Description CONGRATULATIONS TO PROFESSOR TOBY BRUCE'S GROUP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Keele Website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.keele.ac.uk/lifesci/news/2018/november/congratulationstoprofessortobybrucesgroup/food-se...
 
Description Entomological Society of America (ESA) conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation at international entomology conference (delivered online for 2020). Each year approximately 3,500 entomologists and other scientists gather to exchange scientific information. A program of symposia, conferences, submitted papers, and continuing education seminars provides attendees the opportunity to hear and present research results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.entsoc.org/entomology2020
 
Description Fall armyworm information sharing session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact On 18 September, icipe held an information sharing on the management of the fall armyworm in Africa for ambassadors and representatives of African governments and beyond, national research systems, international organisations and members of the press.

Recommendations from the discussions included the need for:
Transboundary collaboration in the management of invasives, including the fall armyworm;
Sustainable, integrated pest management of the fall armyworm, targeting all stages of the pest;
Communities of practice towards developing such solutions and broader knowledge on the pest;
Partnerships to roll out strategies being developed through various initiatives, including those by icipe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.icipe.org/news/fall-armyworm-information-sharing-session
 
Description Farmer Training - on farm demonstration of how to use Push-Pull to manage Fall Armyworm 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training events with planting demonstrations were held in 2020 and a total of 6744 farmers were trained. Training was on how to use Push-Pull technology to control of Fall armyworm (FAW).

Details were as follows:

Jan 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the Push-pull technology and planting demonstrations in Siaya,Kitale,Migori,Bungoma, Kisii,Vihiga Kisumu and Homabay County, Kenya; 632 female, 404 male farmers (Total 1036)

Feb 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the technology and planting demonstration in Siaya, Kitale,Migori,Bungoma, Kisii,Vihiga Kisumu and Homabay County, Kenya; 675 female, 669 male farmers (Total 1644)

March 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the and planting demonstration in Siaya, Kitale, Migori, Bungoma, Kisii, and Homabay County, Kenya; 567 female, 421 male farmers (Total 988)

Apr 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the technology and planting demonstration in Siaya, Migori,Bungoma, and Homabay County, Kenya; 239 female, 180 male farmers (Total 419)

May 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the and planting demonstration in Siaya ,Migori,Bungoma, and Homabay County, Kenya; 158 female, 109 male farmers (Total 267)

June 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the and planting demonstration in Siaya,Migori,Homabay and Kisumu County, Kenya; 253 female, 162 male farmers (Total 415)

July2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the and planting demonstration in Migori and Kisumu County, Kenya; 131 female, 105 male farmers (Total 236)

Aug 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the technology and planting demonstration in Siaya,Migori,Bungoma, and Kisumu County, Kenya; 231 female, 176 male farmers (Total 407)

Sep 2020
Training farmers about Push-Pull technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the technology and planting demonstration in Siaya,Migori,Bungoma,Vihiga Kisumu and Homabay County, Kenya; 198 female, 162 male farmers (Total 360)

Training farmers on Push-Pull vegetable technology and the control of Fall armyworm (FAW) using the technology and planting demonstration in Migori, Kisii, Vihiga and Kisumu Counties, Kenya; 65 female, 32 male farmers (Total 97)

Dec 2020
Resilient smart Push Pull technology in controlling fall armyworm, stemborers and striga weed, Soil management and livestock integration and planting demonstration in Bungoma, Siaya, Bondo and Kuria Counties, Kenya; 334 female, 296 male farmers (Total 630)

Field day: Training farmers on Push-Pull vegetable technology and the control of fall armyworm (FAW) using the technology and planting demonstration in Kisii, Kitale and Homabay Counties, Kenya; 138 female, 107 male farmers (Total 245)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Farmer brochure: Push-pull to control fall armyworm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Brochure printed and made available online to provide information to farmers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://www.push-pull.net/Push-pull%20and%20fall%20armyworm%202019.pdf
 
Description Farmer workshop: "Crop protection challenges for smallholder farmers: developing and implementing solutions" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussions with farmers at a Workshop meeting held in Mbita, June 2019

With the help of a facilitator, who could translate into local languages, we held a discussion workshop with 17 smallholder farmers (10 female, 7 male). We discussed their farming challenges and the benefits of adopting Push-Pull companion planting for management of fall armyworm and other threats to agricultural production. We also discussed how these benefits could be upscaled.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Seminar at Newcastle University (3 April 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Seminar at Newcastle University
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Seminar at University of Warwick (2 May 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Seminar at University of Warwick (2 May 2019)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Lecture on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Delivered a lecture on integrated pest management and these projects were used as examples to demonstrate the cutting edge research being done in crop protection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020
 
Description Lecture to General Public 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave an hour long presentation on exploiting chemical ecology to produce healthy crops for the general public at a local museum's science communication event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description New engagement via phone App 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We have started sharing information about how to use push-pull companion cropping to prevent fall army worm on a phone App. This allows us to reach farmers and is complementary to other dissemination methods being used such as farmer field schools, booklets and leaflets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.wMaizeFAW_8534548&hl=en&gl=US
 
Description News Item in The Guardian 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News Article about pesticides and crop protection in The Guardian
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/14/miniature-robots-could-cut-pesticide-use-on-farm...
 
Description News Item: Scientists search for sustainable solutions to stop the fall armyworm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News Article in Africa News (a multilingual news media service, headquartered in Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.africanews.com/2018/09/05/scientists-search-for-sustainable-solutions-to-stop-the-fall-ar...
 
Description News item in Farmers Weekly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with Johann Tasker about appearance before Commons Science and Technology Committee in Parliament and subsequent article in Farmers Weekly
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.fwi.co.uk/arable/crop-management/politicians-face-critical-choice-on-food-security-warns...
 
Description News item: Experts warn against spread of fall armyworm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact News item in eNCA (
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.enca.com/news/experts-warn-against-spread-fall-armyworm
 
Description News item: Scientists search for sustainable solutions to stop the fall armyworm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reuters interview, filmed and broadcast online. Subsequently also used by other news providers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.reuters.com/video/watch/scientists-search-for-sustainable-soluti-idOV8V8QKWR
 
Description Reuters VIDEO: Scientists search for sustainable solutions to stop the fall armyworm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Reuters filmed interview and online broadcast
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.reuters.com/video/2018/08/29/scientists-search-for-sustainable-soluti?videoId=459280539&...
 
Description Shamba Shape Up, the leading TV programme for farmers in Kenya 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Our project has featured several times on Shamba Shape Up, the leading TV programme for farmers in Kenya. It has a reach of 5 million viewers across Africa and aims to educate and help viewers.

Please see links to video:
• Feature 1: https://vimeo.com/388205962
• Feature 2: https://vimeo.com/388206820
• Feature 3: https://vimeo.com/388208129
• Feature 4: https://vimeo.com/388209102
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://vimeo.com/388205962
 
Description UK Vector Borne Diseases conference, John Innes Centre, 4 Dec 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk at UK Vector Borne Diseases conference, John Innes Centre, 4 Dec 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description postgraduate short course on insect pest management 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A postgraduate short course on insect pest management (26 students at UFSCar, Brazil, May 2018)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018