Operationalizing One Health Interventions in Tanzania

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: College of Medical, Veterinary &Life Sci

Abstract

Endemic livestock zoonoses are important causes of human febrile illness and livestock productivity losses. Despite having major societal impacts in low- and middle-income countries, this group of diseases remains widely neglected. Although many of these infections can be treated, a lack of access to robust diagnostic tests means that many cases remain undiagnosed, which also limits access to effective treatment. Furthermore, prevention and control measures are often challenging as these diseases span both human and animal populations. This proposal aims to address several existing barriers and constraints to the design and development of interventions to mitigate zoonotic disease impact, focussing on areas of interventions that have the potential for both immediate and longer-term impact.

Our project will focus on key areas of One Health intervention research to prevent and control zoonotic diseases in poor livestock-keeping communities in Tanzania: (i) interventions delivered through the medical sector to improve clinical management of cases of human zoonotic diseases; (ii) community-led approaches to develop potential behavioural and livestock management interventions; and (iii) interventions to control infection in animal populations that could be implemented by veterinary service providers. The project builds directly from earlier ZELS research in Tanzania that have demonstrated clear potential for application and impact. Our research will focus in pastoral livestock-keeping communities, which have the greatest risk of zoonotic infections and where the greatest social and economic impact of zoonoses interventions is likely to be. Previous research has also demonstrated that rates of disease are higher for small ruminants (goats and sheep) than cattle. Therefore, for animal interventions, we will concentrate on establishing capacity for interventions targeted at small ruminants and associated transmission pathways.

The work will involve linked research activities to develop disease-specific interventions against brucellosis and Q fever (caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii), alongside community-led strategies that have potential to reduce impacts across multiple pathogens. Medical-sector interventions will address the common problem of mis-diagnosis of zoonotic causes of febrile illness. Research will involve verification of existing human brucellosis diagnostic tests as a first step towards roll out across Tanzania and a healthcare utilisation survey to generate robust estimates of healthcare availability in pastoral areas. These research activities are explicitly designed to support the development of the National Strategy for Brucellosis Control in Tanzania. Community-based activities will involve novel participatory action research that engages community co-researchers alongside academic researchers to develop and implement behavioural interventions to reduce infectious disease risks. Animal interventions will focus on a C. burnetii vaccine trial to investigate safety and effectiveness at reducing shedding in local-breed goats in endemic settings. This study will generate baseline longitudinal on shedding and infection patterns that will inform development of transmission models and will be integrated with economic models to evaluate a range of potential intervention strategies.

In addition to developing pathogen-specific interventions, our research activities will contribute to strengthening interdisciplinary capacity for One Health interventions that can be applied to a wider range of zoonoses. Our partnership with the Tanzanian One Health Coordination Desk (OHCD) in the Prime Minister's Office will ensure that the findings from this research will directly inform the Tanzanian One Health Strategic Plan through a series of stakeholder workshops to support knowledge exchange and effective communication with policymakers.

Technical Summary

This project will address key areas of One Health intervention research to prevent and control zoonotic diseases in poor livestock-keeping communities in Tanzania, focusing on: (i) interventions delivered through the medical sector to improve diagnostic testing and clinical management of human zoonotic diseases; (ii) community-led approaches to develop behavioural and livestock management interventions; and (iii) animal interventions implemented by veterinary service providers.

The project builds directly from earlier ZELS research that demonstrate clear potential for application and impact, focussing on pastoral systems where zoonotic disease impact is greatest. The work will involve linked activities to develop disease-specific interventions against brucellosis and Q fever, alongside community-led strategies that have potential to reduce impacts across multiple pathogens. The research will also strengthen interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral capacity for One Health interventions that can be applied to a wider range of zoonoses.

Medical-sector interventions will address the problem of mis-diagnosis of zoonotic febrile illness. Research will involve laboratory verification of an existing human brucellosis diagnostic test as a first step towards roll-out across Tanzania, and a healthcare utilisation survey to identify appropriate points for improving healthcare access and delivery. Community-based activities will involve novel participatory action research to develop and implement interventions that engage community co-researchers alongside academic researchers. Animal-based studies will involve a C. burnetii vaccine trial to investigate safety and effectiveness at reducing shedding in local-breed goats. This study will also generate baseline longitudinal on shedding and infection patterns that will inform parameterisation of transmission models, which will be incorporated with economic models to evaluate a range of potential intervention strategies.

Planned Impact

This project will build on platforms and strengthen capacities that span healthcare systems to develop interventions for the prevention and control of multiple zoonoses in Tanzania. The outputs of this project will inform the ongoing development and implementation of control policy in Tanzania for brucellosis and Q fever and the capacity established has potential to translate to other zoonoses. Further, the proposed co-development of interventions that target animal or environmental sources of infection (e.g. through participatory action research) has the potential to address risk factors that are common to multiple zoonoses and livestock disease problems.

The primary beneficiaries of this project will be pastoral livestock-keeping communities in Tanzania, who among the poorest communities and whose lives and livelihoods are most threatened by livestock zoonoses. However, the project will have potential for broader impact across livestock-keeping communities East Africa which have previously been identified as zoonoses hotspots (1).

Our research indicates that prevention and control of livestock zoonotic diseases in pastoral communities will have substantial benefits for human health and livelihoods. Our research has shown impacts of zoonotic diseases relating to: (i) human health, with high levels of human infection and disease caused by zoonotic pathogens; (ii) livestock productivity, with zoonoses being both a cause and a consequence of livestock production losses; and (iii) household livelihoods, with livestock abortion losses being associated with reduced spending on education and increased expenditure on food and livestock management.

These disease impacts present an obstacle to achieving Sustainable Development Goals, including ending poverty (SDG1), ending hunger (SDG2), achieving good health and well-being (SDG3), and education access and performance (SDG4). In relation to SDG3 specifically, the project will make a direct contribution to meeting targets on Universal Health Coverage through improved diagnostic capacity and management of human febrile illness across Tanzania and will support Tanzania in meeting targets on neglected diseases and specific zoonotic diseases identified as priorities through the Global Health Security Agenda prioritization exercise (2). By addressing cross-cutting SDGs and multiple targets within the SDGs, the project has further potential to contribute to expanded systems of health that have been advocated for sustainable development (3).

The project has been designed specifically to generate the evidence needed to address key gaps in knowledge and to build One Health intervention capacity across multiple sectors.

This will benefit national government policy makers, including Ministries of Health, Livestock, Local and Regional Governments, international agencies (e.g. WHO, OIE, FAO) and NGOs involved in rural development, human health and livestock health and production. Several project objectives are designed to map to the National Strategy for Brucellosis in Tanzania, with direct policy relevance. The project will also strengthen capacity for interdisciplinary research and intervention science, which will have broader impacts (see also Academic Beneficiaries).


1. Grace D. et al. 2012. Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots. Report to DfID. ILRI.
2. CDC. 2018. One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization for Multisectoral Engagement in Tanzania. https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/pdfs/tanzania-report-508.pdf
3. Dye C. 2018. Science 359(6382): 1337

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description (A) Healthcare utilization survey

Data on healthcare seeking behaviour was collected from a survey involving 343 pastoral households within 20 sub-villages in northern Tanzania with data analyses still ongoing. Preliminary results show that the incidence of human brucellosis is around 500 cases per 100,000 people per year (with wide credible intervals: 125-1,806), much higher than has been reported elsewhere, and health care seeking behaviour is inversely associated with socioeconomic status. The survey was smaller than anticipated (due to COVID-19 disruptions), but despite the uncertainty in the estimates, even the lower bounds of the incidence estimates are higher than in other areas, and emphasise the need for prevention and control of brucellosis in these pastoral populations.

(B) Community participatory activities

Community sensitisation meetings were held in three of four chosen study sites as a starting point for co-developing community-based interventions to prevent zoonotic diseases. Findings from previous linked projects (BB/L018926/1) were discussed and the rationale and objectives of this project introduced. Key members of the community were identified for participation and plans for conducting participatory workshops on zoonoses were discussed with village leadership.

A participatory workshop with 32 mid-level (district and ward) health practitioners was held in Arusha in January 2020. The aim of the workshop was to collectively discuss ways in which health providers, researchers and NGOs can support communities to implement preventative measures for zoonoses. Development of four pathogen-specific 'zoonoses factsheets' has been undertaken as a direct outcome of this workshop. The factsheets were created at the request of mid-level health providers for more in-depth scientific information about endemic zoonoses.

In addition to the pathogen specific 'zoonoses factsheets' for health practitioners, a zoonoses leaflet has also been developed for dissemination to lay-audiences. Input has been sought from our established network of health practitioners on the suitability of these materials for livestock keepers. Additionally, the help of local Masai artists was enlisted for lyrical composition of an educational song raising awareness of zoonoses.
Development of educational materials is ongoing and has not yet been disseminated to livestock keepers.
Key findings across both strands were presented at an online meeting in March 2021, with 20 stakeholders in attendance. The meeting also included discussions regarding: big picture objectives of this project; the wider research landscape; priorities for the next six months and also ideas for next step projects
Exploitation Route (A) Healthcare utilization survey

Estimates of brucellosis incidence will provide policy makers and other stakeholders with information on the likely lower and upper bounds of human brucellosis incidence in pastoral communities of northern Tanzania. Similar analyses for other pathogens will also be feasible in future based on completion of additional diagnostic testing of samples from the study cohort of febrile patients. This will allow us to derive estimates of the population level incidence for a wider range of diseases and give policy makers a better idea of the burden of zoonotic disease in these livestock-dependent communities.

(B) Community participatory activities

After further refinement and discussions with key stakeholders, the educational materials developed may be used broadly in research communities for raising awareness on zoonoses, but will also be available to district health providers and non-governmental development organisations to disseminate more widely across northern Tanzania.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare

 
Description Effective implementation of behavioural health interventions is highly reliant on community engagement, trust and commitment, both among community members as well as between livestock-owners and human and animal health professionals. In this project we aimed to use participatory methods to provide information, facilitation and support for people in livestock-keeping communities to co-develop locally-appropriate interventions to reduce zoonotic disease risks. Our ongoing engagement with health practitioners has allowed us to establish and solidify our relationships with these actors, facilitating development of contextually appropriate prevention measures for zoonoses in pastoral communities. The participatory workshop held in January 2020 led to the creation of pathogen-specific factsheets which were a direct result of their self-identified needs for more information on zoonoses. These materials will allow health providers to engage more effectively and confidently with livestock keepers about endemic zoonoses and will equip them with the key information needed to support community interventions. The creation of these materials and ongoing communication with health practitioners is a direct result of our participatory approach to this project, and reflects our aims of planning interventions in a more collaborative and inclusive way.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description Development and delivery of training materials for One Health Rapid Response Teams in Tanzania
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Knowledge gained from epidemiological analyses of zoonotic pathogens and RVF outbreak investigation protocols were used in One Health training for human and animal health professionals across seven regions in Tanzania, involving 34 participants in the June 2020 course and 44 participants in the December 2020 course. Participants came from the One Health Coordination Desk, Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, President's Office, Regional Administration and Local Governments, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Sokoine University of Agriculture and USAID. Training covered epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigation in relation to transmission of six Priority Zoonotic Diseases involving Dr. E. Swai and Prof. R. Kazwala.
 
Description Tanzania Animal Health Newsletter - Human brucellosis in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area: One Health insights for human and animal disease control
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Afrique One 
Organisation Afrique One
Country Global 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Staff time and expertise in developing research themes in intervention science, particularly foot and mouth disease and rabies
Collaborator Contribution Funding for developing research on policy analysis of foot and mouth disease
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration integrating social science expertise with veterinary epidemiology. Development of a MSc research project investigating market drivers of foot and mouth disease control policy in Tanzania.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration on leptospirosis 
Organisation Royal Tropical Institute, Netherlands KIT
Department WHO/FAO/OIE Leptospirosis Reference Centre
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute, Netherlands, WHO/FAO/OIE Leptospirosis Reference Centre. Support for establishment of leptospirosis diagnostics, training of laboratory staff, research scientists and PhD students, quality assurance, input into study design
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute 
Organisation Kilimanjaro Clinical Research Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have provided partial access costs, all staff training, and various pieces of equipment (incubators, spiral plater, pipettes, etc) to a new lab dedicated to Zoonotic Disease. This lab is a new facility resulting from the requirements of our research collaboration with KCRI and is staffed by project employees.
Collaborator Contribution The in-kind contribution noted is the additional bench fees associated with the cost of this lab's operation over the two years the lab has been in operation. Prof. Kibiki participated in the BBSRC-DfiD ZELS launch meeting in London, 10 November 2014, and in a project specific meeting in London, 11 November 2014. Prof Mmbaga participated in the ZELS Grantholders meeting in Cambridge in December 2015, project meetings in Moshi in 2016 and the ZELS Grantholders' meeting in Arusha in January 2017.
Impact Allan KJ, Biggs HM, Halliday JEB, Kazwala RR, Maro VP, Cleaveland SC, Crump JA. 2015. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(9): e0003899. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003899 Allan KJ, Halliday JEB, Cleaveland S. 2015. Renewing the momentum for leptospirosis research in Africa. Transaction of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 109 (10). Pp 605-606. DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trv072 Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4):S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Nelson Mandela African Institution for Science and Technology 
Organisation Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science and Technology
Department School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Established partnership for livestock disease and zoonoses research with active engagement on development of funding proposals and co-supervision of MSc and PhD students.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of laboratory facilities, including minus 80 freezer storage. Contributions to design, implementation and analysis of field research studies in Tanzania, including student supervision. Contributions to development of collaborative research proposals. Contributions to writing of research manuscripts.
Impact Collaboration which was initially established in relation to research on malignant catarrhal fever and has now been extended to foot-and-mouth disease research, rift valley fever, brucellosis and Q-fever, with the institution now a key partner in three BBSRC ZELS projects led by the University of Glasgow. Joint publication in Science on rabies control and elimination. Training of four Tanzanian MSc students, with successful completion of research projects. Successful collaboration for ZELS grant funding of zoonoses and emerging livestock systems (ZELS) projects Successful collaboration on Bill and Melinda Gates Grants funding for a doctoral training program on livestock health and production (16 PhD studentships) Successful collaboration on ZELS associated doctoral training centre Successful collaboration on AfriqueOne ASPIRE programme Joint publication submitted on Rift Valley Fever in the Serengeti Publications: Viana M, Shirima GM, John KS, Fitzpatrick J, Kazwala RR, Buza JB, Cleaveland S; Haydon DT, Halliday JEB. 2016. Integrating serological and genetic data to quantify cross-species transmission: brucellosis as a case study. Parasitology, available on CJO2016. doi:10.1017/S0031182016000044. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaboration with Tanzania Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries 
Organisation Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Time contributed to Ministry policy development, input into collaborative research activities.
Collaborator Contribution Partners contribute intellectually to research proposal development through annual in-person meetings and monthly skype calls. Dr Emmanuel Swai contributes to Ministry policy development and research activities on behalf of the project.
Impact Meeting for Tanzania's National One Health Strategic Plan - Aug 2016 - Emmanuel Swai, Blandina Mmbaga, Rudovick Kazwala and Gabriel Shirima attended. The objective of the 2-day workshop focussed on advocacy and awareness creation for the One Health strategic plan and reflecting on the One Health work plan over the coming 3 months. Attendees (35) included representatives from the Disaster Management Department of the Prime Minister's Office, Ministry of Health, Gender, Children and Elders, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Ardhi Institute, TAWIRI, SUA, TVLA, NIMRI, SACIDs, SUA, MUHAS, Ministry of Health and Livestock Zanzibar, CDC, FAO, WHO country offices, USAID P&R- country and regional offices. Discussions of the One Health Strategy took place and feedback from LLH members contributed to the inclusion of AMR, endemic zoonoses and non-infectious conditions into the document.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute (TAWIRI) 
Organisation Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We share samples and data that are helpful to management decisions and research programmes run by TAWIRI.
Collaborator Contribution They provide local expertise, scientific inputs and offer supervisory support to students associated with our research.
Impact Outputs anticipated as part of SEEDZ project
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with University of Aberdeen - rodent borne zoonoses (plague, leptospirosis) 
Organisation University of Aberdeen
Department School of Biological Sciences Aberdeen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of data across sites in Madagascar and Tanzania, inputs/advice on human febrile illness studies
Collaborator Contribution Support for training in rodent studies, shared expertise in laboratory diagnostics, contacts with other collaborators, sharing of data/experiences across sites in Madagascar and Tanzania
Impact Sharing of expertise, expanding contact networks for research on rodent-borne zoonoses
Start Year 2010
 
Description Collaboration with University of Otago 
Organisation University of Otago
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Otago is a partner institution on the Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses (BB/L018926/1) project. Team members from the University of Glasgow participate in regular meetings (in person and via skype) with research associates at the University of Otago.
Collaborator Contribution Professor John Crump contributes intellectual input into study design for the SEEDZ project. Professor Crump participates in regular skype meetings and annual in-person meetings. In 2016, Professor John Crump and SEEDZ Pi Sarah Cleaveland successfully applied for a William Evans Visiting Fellowship for Prof Cleaveland to travel to New Zealand for six weeks.
Impact William Evans Visiting Fellowship for Professor Sarah Cleaveland, 2016 - $7500 Publications: Allan KJ, Biggs HM, Halliday JEB, Kazwala RR, Maro VP, Cleaveland SC, Crump JA. 2015. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(9): e0003899. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003899 Crump JA, Heyderman RS. A Perspective on Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015;61(S4):S235-40. DOI: 10.1093/cid/civ709 Crump JA, Kirk MD. 2015. Estimating the Burden of Febrile Illnesses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 9(12): e0004040. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004040 Crump JA, Sjölund-Karlsson M, Gordon MA, Parry CM. 15 July 2015. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, laboratory diagnosis, antimicrobial resistance, and antimicrobial management of invasive Salmonella infections. Clin Microbiol Rev doi:10.1128/CMR.00002-15. Penno EC, Baird SJ, Crump JA. 2015. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for bloodstream infections for sepsis management in low resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93(4), 2015, pp. 850-860. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0083. Zhang HL, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Cleaveland S, Kazwala RR, Crump JA, Sharp JP, Halliday JEB. 2016. Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3): e0004476. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004476 Conference Presentations: Crump JA. The highs and lows of typhoid disease burden: a story of inequities and moving targets. In symposium 510. Bridging the gap towards defining the burden of typhoid in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Crump JA. Insights on global epidemiology of severe febrile illness. In symposium 501: Febrile illness: epidemiology, diagnostics, management. 65th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Atlanta, GA, 13-17 November 2016. Hopkins H, Thomas NV, Crump JA, González IJ, Guérin PJ, Newton PN, Schellenberg D, Bell D, Reyburn H. Mapping fever aetiologies in malaria-endemic areas: an interactive, open-access, on-line map. Abstract. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel Switzerland. 6-10 September 2015. Zhang HL, Omondi OM, Musyoka AM, Afwamba IA, Swai RP, Karia FP, Muiruri C, Reddy EA, Crump JA, Rubach MP. The challenges of maintaining Good Clinical Laboratory Practices in low-resource settings: a health program evaluation framework case study from East Africa. Abstract 1326. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015. Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Washington State University 
Organisation Washington State University
Department School of Global Animal Health
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of data collection instruments and analytical methodologies for evaluating the economic impact of malignant catarrhal fever in Tanzania. Collaboration on Social, Economic and Environmental Drivers of Zoonoses BB/L018926/1. Successful collaboration on "Supporting Evidence Based Interventions (SEBI)", a Gates-funded initiative.
Collaborator Contribution Team members contribute intellectually to our collaborative activities. Dr Felix Lankester will lead field work relating to the SEBI project, including training for field staff in Tanzania. Team members from WSU attend annual project meetings and participate in monthly research skype calls.
Impact Successful collaboration on the SEEDZ grant Successful collaboration on the Gates-funded SEBI project Successful collaboration on a Gates-funded project on combining intervention platforms Conference presentations: Yoder J. Inferring the value of statistical life from tough tradeoffs: Choosing between the risk of death from rabies and the cost of treatment in rural Tanzania. Invited Lecture - University of Glasgow, 1 September 2016.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Duke University - febrile illness 
Organisation Duke University
Department School of Medicine Duke
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design of field epidemiological research for animal health studies, veterinary expertise, development of laboratory diagnostic tests for animal samples.
Collaborator Contribution Development of an integrated human-animal health research project in Tanzania, establishment of human febrile surveillance platform for research on bacterial zoonoses, shared use of laboratory diagnostic facilities, institutional support, training and capacity-building.
Impact Major new integrated human-animal health research project in northern Tanzania investigating bacterial zoonoses as causes of non-malaria febrile illness. Zhang HL, Kunda W, Mnzava KW, Mitchell ST, Melubo ML, Kibona TJ, Sharp JP, Kazwala RR, Cleaveland S, Crump JA, Halliday JEB. Mixed methods survey of zoonotic disease awareness and practice among animal and human healthcare providers in Moshi, Tanzania. Abstract 1105. 64th American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene annual meeting, Philadelphia, PA, 25-29 October 2015.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children (MOHCDGEC) 
Organisation Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Country Tanzania, United Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Time contributed to Ministry policy development, findings from research will directly inform the Tanzanian One Health Strategic Plan through stakeholder workshops, input into collaborative research activities.
Collaborator Contribution Partners contribute intellectually to research proposal development through annual in-person meetings and monthly skype calls, Ministry policy development and research activities
Impact -
Start Year 2019
 
Description A talk of presentation - Poster at World One Health Congress 2020 - Acute Brucellosis Bodenham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented by Rebecca Bodenham on "Acute brucellosis in humans in northern Tanzania:
determining prevalence, infecting Brucella species and risk factors for infection in a pastoralist community". The congress website recorded 44,456 users. Distribution: 1106 researchers, 562 governments, international organisations.; 61 industry participants; 17 press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://worldonehealthcongress.org
 
Description A talk of presentation - Poster at World One Health Congress 2020 - Brucellosis Diagnostics Lukambagire 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented by AbdulHamid Lukambagire on "Performance and costs of serological tests for human brucellosis" at the World One Health Congress 2020. The congress website recorded 44,456 users. Distribution: 1106 researchers, 562 governments, international organisations.; 61 industry participants; 17 press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://worldonehealthcongress.org
 
Description Chair of session on Global Health Security at World One Health Congress 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Cleaveland chaired a session on Global Health Security at the on-line World One Health Congress, which triggered some interesting debate around One health priorities and operationalisation, epidemic preparedness, governance, leadership and mentorship.
The congress website recorded 44,456 users.
Distribution: 1106 researchers, 562 governments, international organisations.; 61 industry participants; 17 press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://worldonehealthcongress.org
 
Description Community sensitisation meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact These were a series of community meetings held with village leaders of 4 villages in Longido and Ngorongoro district in Nothern Tanzania, in order to sensitise the community to ongoing and upcoming University of Glasgow projects. Meetings began with an overview of research on Taenia multiceps carried out as part of SEEDZ and subsequent projects. This included showing attendees the life cycle of the parasite (via leaflets and video) and suggestions on ways it can be prevented. Discussion then moved onto informing the community about upcoming research in prevention of zoonoses and other livestock diseases including mobilising key members to facilitate research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Development of Animal Health Strategy for Africa (AHSA) - ES 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact AU-IBAR, a continental institution responsible for managing animal resource, organized series of consultative meetings from May 2018 to September 2019. The objective of these consultative meetings was to develop animal health Strategy for Africa (AHSA). AHSA development process included forming a platform, Continental Animal Health Platform (CAHP) comprising 24 State and Non-State actors across Africa. These included DRC, South Sudan, Zimbabwe, EAC, COMESA, ECCAS, IGAD, RESEPI West and Central Africa, RESOLAB West and Central Africa, EAREN Eastern Africa, RESEP represented by Mozambique, SADC Laboratory and Epidemiology Networks, University of Zambia, Benha University, 2A2E-V, EISMV, 2AVSB, KWS, World Animal Protection, Brooke, CORET, EAFF/PAFO, NEALCO, SACAU and AUC.The AHSA was completed in December 2018 and officially endorsed in September, 2019. EAREN Eastern Africa, SADC Laboratory and Epidemiology Networks and SEEDZ co-investigator, Dr. Emanuel Swai has been participating in developing the strategy especially by contributing on the chapter 'Reduce disease risks and impacts on animals, humans and environment'.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description District and ward medical and veterinary health providers meeting - AD + JV 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop attended by medical and veterinary health providers from the district and ward level from four districts in Tanzania. The aim was to deliver key outcomes from ZELS and related University of Glasgow projects and to spark discussion across sectors on ways to reduce impacts of zoonoses in pastoral communities. The event used Ketso - a particpatory toolkit used to faciliate creative discussion - to gather intervention ideas from attendees. Discussion primarily focused on the practicalities of implementation, particularly focusing on raising awareness and introducing compulsory vaccination as key ways to prevent zoonoses. As a result of the workshop, plans were made for further engagement with attendees, including creation of a zoonoses factsheet to assist ward and district health workers in further engagement with pastoral communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Livestock Field Officer and District Veterinary Officer meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This meeting was held for livestock field officers and district veterinary officers who were involved the SEEDZ project. The meeting consisted of an overview of results, including the serological analyses, and findings in relation to Rift Valley Fever (e.g. confirmation that raw milk is likely to be an important potential source of infection for people). Discussion centred on ways to prevent zoonoses, followed by in-depth discussion of educational materials that can be used to communicate effective ways to reduce risks of zoonoses to livestock keepers. The main outcome of this meeting including informing attendees of key results of the zoonoses research and thoughtful feedback on educational materials for prevention of zoonoses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Needs and Readiness Assessment for 'In-Service Applied Veterinary Epidemiology Training' Programme (ISAVET) - ES 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) component of Global Health Security Agenda - Zoonotic Diseases in Animal Health in Africa project (GHSA-ZDAH) programme in Tanzania in collaboration with the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and One Health Coordination Desk (OHCD) organized a consultation process for country 'Needs and Readiness Assessment'(NRA) from 8th - 11th July 2019 in which the validation process for the NRA took place on 12th July 2019 in Morogoro and therefore of the draft work plan to roll out the ISAVET programme for Frontline Animal health Workforce. ISAVET is aiming at addressing critical shortage of skilled and competent animal health personnel at front line levels. Tools developed through ZELS and SEEDZ i.e. outbreak data collection tools (i.e. RVF) served as a model for designing ISAVET course materials.
NRA involved gathering of data through a team of seven (7) technical staff from DVS, TVLA and FAO. Thereafter, a validation workshop was organized where a total of 20 technical personnel drawn from government Ministries from mainland and Zanzibar (MLF, MANRLF, MoHCDGEC, and PMO-OHCD), Academic/Research Institutions (SUA, LITA), government agencies (TVLA, FELTP), participated. SEEDZ co-investigator, Dr. Emanuel Swai served as a resource person in this workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description OOHTZ discussions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Discussions have been held with NGOs involved in community health delivery/ pastoral development. Local NGOs include ACE Africa; Ujamaa Community Resource Trust (UCRT); PINGOS (Pastoralist Indigenous NGO Forum); Northern Tanzania Rangelands Initiative (Nature Conservancy); Haki Kazi Catalyst; FAME Africa; Endulen Hospital Outreach Programme; Milele Animal Health, Moshi. Other NGOs include Neglected Tropical Disease NGO network, GALVmed, and potential industrial partners, including CEVA Animal Health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poster presentation - World One Health Congress 2020 (Jo Sharp, Alicia Davis) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The poster on "Rethinking One Health: emergent human, animal and environmental assemblages" (Jo Sharp and Alicia Davis) was presented at the on-line World One Health Congress. The congress website recorded 44,456 users.
Distribution: 1106 researchers, 562 governments, international organisations.; 61 industry participants; 17 press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://worldonehealthcongress.org
 
Description Poster presentation at World One Health Congress (Jennika Virhia) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presented by Dr. Jennika Virhia on "But our goats are dizzy: participatory epidemiology, co-produced research and endemic zoonoses in northern Tanzania" at the World One Health Congress.
The congress website recorded 44,456 users.
Distribution: 1106 researchers, 562 governments, international organisations.; 61 industry participants; 17 press.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://worldonehealthcongress.or
 
Description Presentation at World One Health Congress (Aetiology of livestock abortion - Kathryn Allan) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Live presentation by Dr. Kathryn Allan on "The aetiology of livestock abortions in Tanzania" given during a plenary session of the World One Health Congress.
The congress website recorded 44,456 users.
Distribution: 1106 researchers, 562 governments, international organisations.; 61 industry participants; 17 press.
The presentation attracted considerable interest with many questions from the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://worldonehealthcongress.org
 
Description Training of One Health Rapid Response Teams - ES + RK 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact FAO Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) as part of "Supporting the GHSA to Address Zoonotic Diseases and Animal Health in Africa" project organised a sub national, multi-sectoral focused, 4-day training for One Health Rapid Response Teams for 8 districts of Mbeya and Songwe regions. A total of 52 health personnel participated in the training, drawn from the One Health Coordination Desk (2), Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children - MoHCDGEC (2), Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries - MoLF (4), President's Office, Regional Administration and Local Government - PO-RALG (37), MNRT (3), Sokoine University of Agriculture -SUA (2) and USAID P&R (1).The training was facilitated by experts drawn from MoLF, MoHCDGEC, OHCU, SUA and FAO. Training covered Epidemiological surveillance and outbreak investigation and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Actors along the livestock value-chains in relation to transmission of six Priority Zoonotic Diseases (PZDs). SEEDZ team members Dr Emmanuel Swai and Prof. Kazwala attended and were involved in the training. RVF outbreak investigation protocols, and tools that were developed with SEEDZ serological outputs will serve as reference material in the event of a future RVF outbreak.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Videos and brochures on One Health research at University of Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Production of video and brochures around One Health themes and dissemination at the World One Health Congress in 2020 via the Scottish Institutions' virtual "Hub".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020