Immune responses to the environment

Lead Research Organisation: Babraham Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

The presence of microbial populations in the gut lumen presents a delicate problem for the immune system. It must maintain tolerance against food antigens and bacteria required for normal physiology while simultaneously neutralising pathogenic microorganisms. The recognition and appropriate response to commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms by the immune system must be maintained throughout the life-course [62]. The intestine contains highly organized lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes and the gutassociated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The latter consists of specialised structures such as Peyer's Patches, cryptopatches, and hundreds of isolated follicles located in the outer connective tissue called the lamina propria (LP). In addition, a population of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs), consisting of TCRƒaß?CD8aa? and TCR?d? T cells, resides beneath the single-cell epithelial barrier. The proximity of IELs ensures frequent interactions with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Such epithelial-immune integration is to be distinguished from infiltration of the epithelia by systemic immune cells in response to inflammatory cues. However, IELs are positioned to be amongst the first cells to sense and respond to changes in the environment. We will examine the biology of IELs, their interaction with the epithelial barrier and the repertoire of gut bacteria. To date, few molecules and processes have been described that mediate host-microbiota associations [63]. Many genes, molecules, pathways and regulatory principles that are used for the development and homeostasis of lymphocytes are re-used during the activation of these cells as part of the response to infection. This important principle has been demonstrated using mouse models in which genes are deleted at specific developmental stages. We will examine the roles of genes and pathways that are important for lymphocyte development and homeostasis for their contribution to immunity and the integrated function of different organ systems. Our ISP will continue its studies of the regulation of antibody responses and T cell activation, focusing on signalling pathways and taking advantage of the new small animal facilities to perform immune challenges.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Our studies on immune responses to the environment focused on some key infection models and the cellular immunology of the germinal centre has led to new concepts of how this process is dysfunctional in ageing. Work on PI3K extended our understanding of its role in the normal immune system and in pathology; our science underpinned the development and use of small molecule inhibitors of P110delta. Work on microRNAs has led to fundamental new knowledge on the molecular biology of lymphocytes. We were able to perform a detailed analysis of the role of MicroRNA155 in specific immune cell types including B cells and CD8 t cells. This opened up new avenues of research using CD8 T cells which continue in the new programme. Work on RNA binding proteins broke new ground on the mechanisms of lymphocyte development and activation. We discovered that they were fundamental for regulating quiescence a finding that has implications for many cells outside of the immune system. We also discovered role for a novel class of GTPases called GIMAPS in biology.

A particular challenge that we have faced is that to pursue our objectives to the fullest we need to maintain a multidisciplinary skillset and access to multiple technology platforms that are constantly evolving. This is certainly a problem that is common to all research institutes. We have tried to address the former by making our workplace a supportive environment that encourages equality and diversity-a place where people want to stay. For the latter we are making great efforts to raise funds for replacing equipment.

Overall, by combining physiological models with cellular and molecular approaches we have created new knowledge about the interaction of immune cells with other cells of the body and their roles in infection and cancer. This has implications for homeostasis/inflammation, vaccine responses, immunotherapy and the biology of ageing. Our discoveries have led to significant new funding and recognition including industrial funding. Of note work is being taken forward in new projects such as that funded by the Global Challenges Research Fund. Other work has attracted Industry attention and we are part of a research alliance with CRT funded by Celgene. Based on our work on B cells we have also become part of a H2020-MCSA Innovative Training Network.
Exploitation Route This is addressed above and the main areas are immunotherapy in cancer and autoimmunity, including vaccination; healthy ageing.
Sectors Healthcare

 
Description We discovered new mechanisms regulating immune cell development and function. By using physiological models we have created new knowledge about the interaction of immune cells with other cells of the body and their roles in infection and cancer. Work on PI3K underpinned the development and use of small molecule inhibitors and garnered considerable interest and support from industry. Work on microRNAs has led to fundamental new knowledge on the molecular biology of lymphocytes and led to new funding. We also discovered role for a novel class of GTPases called GIMAPS in biology. In many cases several and students progressed their careers. several postdocs progressed to group leader or lecturer positions; other found roles in medical charity or science publishing. Two senior group leaders left Babraham to take up prestigious professorships. Our discoveries have led to significant new funding and recognition including industrial funding. They have contributed to a greater understanding of how gene regulation is altered in cancer and this has led to new investment see http://commercial.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-research-uk-announces-drug-discovery-collaboration-celgene-corporation we are part of this collaboration. see also https://cosmic-h2020.eu/ for the new training programme that we are part of.we have been able to leverage substantial further funding to enhance our outputs considerably
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Gilead Oncology Faculty
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Following the EMA approval of Zydelig® (idelalisib) in September 2014, and the presentation of new data on idelalisib at ASH 2014, Gilead medical affairs launched a new idelalisib speaker programme, known as "Gilead Oncology Faculty". This medically led, non-promotional activity aims to provide engaged experts the opportunity to be trained on idelalisib data of high quality and scientific content (on label; new indications and new oncology drugs within the Gilead portfolio to be added according to their approval) and subsequently, to give Gilead affiliates across the EMEA region engagement opportunities with registered haematology experts for their local / regional non-promotional speaking events.
URL https://www.gileadfaculty.com
 
Description Memberhsip of Bloodwise research grants evaluation panel 2013-2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact funding of research relevant to blood cancers
 
Description BBSRC Bach2
Amount £601,438 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description BBSRC GCRF Data & Resources
Amount £171,733 (GBP)
Funding ID BBS/OS/GC/000008A 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 07/2017
 
Description Celgen CRT Translation Alliance
Amount £500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Cancer Research Technology (CRT) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description EMBO Young Investigator Award
Amount € 25,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Molecular Biology Organisation 
Sector Learned Society
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description ERC starting grant
Amount € 1,500,000 (EUR)
Funding ID LS6_637801 
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2020
 
Description GCRF Networks in Vaccines Research and Development
Amount £1,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 10/2022
 
Description H2020 ITN
Amount € 6,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID ENLIGHT-TEN - AMD-675395-1 
Organisation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions 
Department Initial Training Networks (ITN)
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Global
Start 04/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description High-throughput automation of sequencing library generation for Wellcome Trust-funded research at the Babraham Institute
Amount £244,089 (GBP)
Funding ID 208380/Z/17/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 01/2018
 
Description ITN
Amount € 36,052,456 (EUR)
Funding ID COSMIC 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2022
 
Description ITN Phd
Amount € 250,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 675392 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description Initial Training Networks (ITN): Horizon 2020
Amount € 6,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID ENLIGHT-TEN - AMD-675395-1 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description Investigator Award
Amount £1,300,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2022
 
Description MRC
Amount £406,637 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N009398/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 03/2019
 
Description MRC MICA programme grant
Amount £1,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/M012328/2 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2015 
End 01/2019
 
Description Mechanisms of regulatory T Treg cell stability in health and disease
Amount £96,696 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P504555/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2020
 
Description Molecular regulation of NK cell functional maturation by the transcription factor BACH2
Amount £658,607 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S024468/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 05/2022
 
Description NC3R studentship
Amount £90,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NC/L001217/1 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 08/2017
 
Description Resolving mechanisms of gene regulation within the immune system using forward genetics
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2019
 
Title Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies 
Description "Guidelines for the use of flow cytometry and cell sorting in immunological studies" represent a community effort to collect the currently accepted best methods for monitoring most of the variation of the major players of immune system (along with their organelles and functionality) and include standards for data interpretation, as well as cautions about technical issues. One aspect of the guidelines concerns data reproducibility, a topic that has recently attracted considerable attention. Therefore, the guidelines are meant to help researchers avoid potential pitfalls that could drastically alter the interpretation of their data. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact paper has been widely dowloaded, read and cited 
URL https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/eji.201646632
 
Title mouse model 
Description We have generated novel mouse models. The details of many of these are available in our peer-reviewed papers. A number of models are still under evaluation 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact see pubished papers 
 
Title NGS data 
Description We have submitted numerous NGS datasets including RNAseq, ribosome foot printing, iCLIP, CHIPseq 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact some data is being reused by us and others 
 
Description Celgene CRT Alliance 
Organisation Cancer Research Technology (CRT)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Celgene CRT alliances been described here http://commercial.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-research-uk-announces-drug-discovery-collaboration-celgene-corporation we are one of the academic partners
Collaborator Contribution This is a complex collaboration involving MRC, BBSRC, Wellcome and CRUK funded groups
Impact many, but specifically I have extended the contract of a talented postdoc in my lab. I would add that this is new money from Celgene which is a US company-so this is a genuine economic impact in the UK
Start Year 2018
 
Description Depleting regulatory T (Treg) cells in cancer 
Organisation Cancer Research Technology (CRT)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have generated preliminary data that has formed the basis for a drug development programme aimed at generating new immune based therapies for cancer that work by depleting immunosuppressive regulatory T cells accumulating within tumours
Collaborator Contribution A discussion is currently underway to undertake an industrial collaboration with CRUK-TDL
Impact Not yet delivered
Start Year 2018
 
Description Drug discovery programme targeting the immunosuppressive transcription factor activity of BACH2 
Organisation Cancer Research Technology (CRT)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have previously found that BACH2 promotes tumour immunosuppression by promoting Foxp3+ Treg cell-mediated suppression of CD8+ T cells and IFN-? within tumors (Roychoudhuri et al., J Clin Invest. 2016). This has formed the basis for an on-campus industrial collaboration with Cancer Research Technology (CRT). We aim to develop a cell-based reporter assay for the transcription factor activity of BACH2 in order to perform a high-throughput screen of small molecule inhibitors. The collaboration resulted from a meeting arranged by Martin Turner between LLSD and CRT and was supported by a Babraham Institute Knowledge Exchange and Commercialisation Committee Campus Collaboration Award (£15K). Preliminary data generated formed the basis for a successful application for a CRUK Drug Discovery Award (£300K). We are developing stable reporter cell lines using bioinformatically derived enhancer sequences that are responsive to transcriptional repression by BACH2 and amenable to high-throughput drug screening by our collaborators at CRT.
Collaborator Contribution Performance of a high-throughput drug screen (>200k compounds) using cell-based reporter assays for the transcription factor activity of BACH2 generated in the laboratory.
Impact This collaboration resulted in receipt of further funding - a BI Knowledge Exchange and Commercialisation Committee Campus Collaboration Award (£15K) and a CRUK Drug Discovery Award (£300K)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Human Gimap studies 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine (WIMM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Advice, reagents.
Collaborator Contribution We have advised on ongoing studies of Gimap proteins in human immunology and mouse model systems. We have provided specific antibody reagents from our collection.
Impact Progress but no outputs as yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Katsikis 2017 onwards 
Organisation Erasmus University Medical Center
Department Immunology (EMC-I)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution collaborative studies of the effects of IAV on lung epithelial cells
Collaborator Contribution expertise
Impact manuscript in submission, another one in preparation
Start Year 2017
 
Description Katsikis new 
Organisation Erasmus University Medical Center
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution exchange of reagents and knowhow
Collaborator Contribution exchange of reagents and knowhow
Impact non so far
Start Year 2014
 
Description Transcriptional and epigenetic programmes of lung inflammation 
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution A key commercial collaboration between Rahul Roychoudhuri (RR) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)/Epinova, which is now supported by two BBSRC CASE awards, aims to understand the transcriptional and epigenetic programmes that promote lung inflammation. We aim to define transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms by which airway immune homeostasis is maintained by transcriptional and epigenetic regulators.
Collaborator Contribution Support of CASE awards, co-supervision of PhD students, supply of pharmacological agents for use as tool compounds in assessment of epigenetic regulators
Impact We have gained an understanding of how lung inflammation is restrained by suppression of ILC2 activation and promotion of Treg differentiation by the transcription factor BACH2 and are exploring mechanisms by which BACH2 may regulate epigenetic programmes in T cells
Start Year 2016
 
Description Understanding the molecular and cellular basis for the function of agonist antibody-based immunotherapies 
Organisation F-star Biotechnology Limited
PI Contribution This collaboration with F-Star Biotechnology Limited aims to understand the molecular and cellular basis for the function of agonist antibody-based immunotherapies in cancer. The work, funded by F-Star, will take place in our laboratory and will be undertaken by a funded postdoctoral scientist. The collaboration is facilitated by the proximity of the Institute to F-Star on the Babraham Research Campus
Collaborator Contribution F-Star have fully funded the research collaboration and are providing reagents for the investigations which will be conducted using pre-clinical mouse models.
Impact Immunology Molecular biology Drug development Bioinformatics
Start Year 2019
 
Description Wolkers 
Organisation Sanquin
Country Netherlands 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We hosted a student from sanguine. we suppled essential know how and reagents to the project
Collaborator Contribution they developed a model of T cell activation
Impact manuscript submitted
Start Year 2017
 
Title Cinical trial of GSK 
Description Based on the discovery of Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) GSK has announced a clinical trial of their Pi3Kd inhibitor GSK2269557. This is supported by and MRC-MICA award, but build on work we have done on PI3Kd, including discovery that APDS leads to hyperactive PI3Kd in T cells. 
Type Therapeutic Intervention - Drug
Current Stage Of Development Early clinical assessment
Year Development Stage Completed 2015
Development Status Under active development/distribution
Impact Another trial has been announced by Novartis. 
URL https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02593539
 
Description BBC World service interview for Carr et al (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Discussed the findings reported in our 2016 paper on ageing and the immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC radio 4 today programme interview for Carr et al (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview on BBC radio 4 to discuss the findings reported in our 2016 paper on ageing and the immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC radio Cambridge interview for Carr et al (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview to discuss our 2016 publication on Ageing and the Immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BBC radio Scotland interview for Carr et al (2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview with BBC radio scotland on our 2016 paper on ageing and the immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Cambridge Bioresource volunteer event, CRUK, Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presented our work on ageing and the response to vaccination to an adult lay audience. This included people who are interested in taking part in research studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Cambridge T.V. interview on Ageing (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed by Cambridge T.V. on our research into ageing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Discussed animal research on Cambridge TV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed for a programme aired on Cambridge TV about the use of animals in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.cambridge-tv.co.uk/impact-animal-research/
 
Description Interview for French radio for Carr et al (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview to discuss the findings of our research on ageing and the immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview for Swiss Radio (French) Carr et al (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview to discuss the results reported in our 2016 paper on ageing and the immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview with Cambridge TV for Carr et al (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview about our 2016 publication on ageing and the human immune system
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Interview with Naked Scientists for podcast (2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with the Naked Scientists on our research into Ageing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited speaker: Sanofi Immune Memory Symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Michelle Linterman was invited to present at a conference organised by Sanofi Pasteur at their headquarters in France. The presentation was followed by questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation at Glaxo Smith Kline, Stevenage, United Kingdom 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentations from Michelle Linterman and Alice Denton on the basic biology of the response to vaccination, with a specific focus on the biology of stromal cells. The presentations were followed by a discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public talk on Ageing and the immune system at the Cambridge Corn Exchange (2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public presentation of our work on Ageing and the response to vaccination
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Royal Society Summer Exhibition, 2015: Immune Army 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We presented our exhibition: "Immune Army: weapons of microscopic destruction"; at the Royal Society Summer exhibition 2015. Many members of my lab participated in the design of the exhibition materials, the accompanying video (https://youtu.be/oMj8UxMPYJU) and at the exhibition itself. I spent two full days at the exhibition. Work on Activated PI3K Delta Syndrome (APDS) and Cancer immunotherapy from my lab featured prominently in this exhibition.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sse.royalsociety.org/2015/immune-army/
 
Description T.V. interview BBC look east 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview on our research on how the response to vaccination changes with age
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Talk at GSK 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation was given at the Glaxo Smith Klein site in Stevenage, UK on our work on the germinal centre response. Following this visit a joint BBSRC iCASE award was made for a PhD student to be shared between the Babraham Institute and GSK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk on ageing to local discussion group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an evening talk to a local discussion group in Great Abington, Cambridgeshire delivered by G.B and Prof Joanna Latimer (University of York) who is a Public Engagement collaborator of the Institute. Our presentation covered both the biology of ageing (illustrated by examples of relevant Babraham science) and sociological aspects of our private and public attitudes to ageing. A wide-ranging and rich discussion took place with the audience of 15-20.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Visit of School Teachers in the lab 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discuss and demonstrate our research to visiting teachers in our laboratory.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description WMD 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact WMD: Weapons on microscopic destruction was a multimedia presentation by students postdocs and project leaders. it involved the use of iPADs, games and fridge magnets to engage discussion of how the immune system works and how it is affected by ageing.

it has been presented multiple times and has engaged many young and older individuals
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact practical demonstrations and participation in a simple experiment

inspired young people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010