The Rothamsted Long-Term Experiments including Sample Archive and e-RA database

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Unlisted

Abstract

Between 1843 and 1856, nine field experiments were started at Rothamsted Research to study the nutrient requirements of the principle arable crops and a hay meadow. One experiment failed because of poor soil structure and crop diseases. The remaining eight experiments have continued, with appropriate modifications, until today. These are now known as the ‘Rothamsted Classical Experiments’. They are the oldest, continuous agronomic experiments in the world. Samples of crops, soils and fertilisers and manures applied to the experiments were retained and the resulting Sample Archive now comprises >300,000 samples. No other long-term experiments have such an archive. The Electronic Rothamsted Archive database, e-RA, brings the data from the Classical and other long-term experiments into an accessible and useable format. These three components comprise the proposed Long-Term Experiments, Sample Archive and e-RA database National Capability (in brief, the LTEs NC).

The objectives of this National Capability are to:
1. Maintain and manage the Long-Term Experiments, Sample Archive and eRA database such that they are of continuing and increasing use to the national and international research community and to Rothamsted staff in the study of the long-term sustainability of cropping systems.
2. To further develop the eRA database such that the LTEs, Archive and data are more visible and accessible to the research community.

Current uses of the LTEs NC, that will deliver research and economic impact, are the investigation of key traits in wheat for nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency and grain quality and the ‘Metasoil/Terragenome’ and other genomic studies that are using soil from the Broadbalk and Park Grass experiments to explore microbial diversity and function. In particular, the ‘Terragenome’ project will obtain a large amount of metagenome sequence from a reference rhizosphere soil that can be of use to soil microbiologists around the world.

Publications

10 25 50

publication icon
Clark IM (2012) Impacts of nitrogen application rates on the activity and diversity of denitrifying bacteria in the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment. in Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

publication icon
Crews T (2014) Changes in soil phosphorus forms through time in perennial versus annual agroecosystems in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment

 
Description This is a long-term project with a 170-year history. Previous research and findings were reported under projects 4171 and 6004. New key findings since the beginning of this grant (1 April 2012) are below.

1. Some groups of bacteria may be positively or negatively related to agricultural practices. In particular, the ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agricultural practices while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management.

2. The increase in soil As on some plots on Park Grass can be explained by the As input from P fertiliser applications before 1948. Consequently, the P fertilisers used on the Park Grass Experiment before 1948 caused substantial As contamination of the soil.

3. Surveys of species diversity on Park Grass show that, over time and with the decrease in air pollution (sulphur and nitrogen), species diversity recovers. The results have been published in 'Nature' in a paper titled 'Biodiversity bounces back'.

4. Remote sensing of The Broadbalk and Hoosfield experiments using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (drone), in collaboration with Leuven University, Belgium, show that such non-intrusive techniques can be used to map soil organic carbon.

5. The introduction of a new variety of wheat (Crusoe) to Broadbalk resulted in the largest yields ever obtained on the experiment - 13.3 t/ha in 2014, showing the important role of genetics in crop yields.

6. The Electronic Rothamsted Archive (eRA) now makes available open access data for Broadbalk, Park Grass and Hoosfield, including yields, soil organic carbon, 3300 research reports, maps and plans, all of which will be given DOIs.

7. Recent analysis of soil data from the Woburn Ley-arable Experiments (established 1938) indicate that despite large losses of C, annual increases in soil organic C (SOC) of 4 ‰ are possible on this soil type (sandy loam) with the inclusion of grass or grass+clover leys or the application of FYM; but only for a limited period. Consequently, in some circumstances it may be possible to sequester carbon derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in SOC by replacing arable crops with leys. Such increases in SOC may help limit increases in atmospheric CO2. Such changes in agricultural management may offset some CO2 emissions and help mitigate the effects of climate change. However, the inclusion of leys in an arable rotation has to be a commercially sensible option for the farmer. Any subsequent return to all-arable cropping would lead to a decline in SOC.

8.Recent work by Fraaije et al using archived wheat samples from Broadbalk identified fungicide (methyl benzimidazole carbamates and quinone inhibitors) resistance in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici in 1985 and 2002. Subsequent studies on UK field populations have detected other resistance conferring mutations since 2015, with up to 15 different mutations found in 2017. The work indicates that the selection for some mutations was affected by fungicide dose rate, spray number and additives present.

9. The importance of maintaining and using long-term experiments and sample archive as resources for research on plant and soil processes and properties, especially those which change slowly and affect soil fertility, was recognised in a comprehensive publication by Johnston and Poulton in 2018.

10. A review of long-term data published in 2019 confirmed that residues of P applied in fertilizers and manures over many years build up reserves of P in soil and that there is a strong relationship between crop yield and plant-available P (Olsen P). This relationship can be used to determine a critical level of Olsen P. For soils near the critical level P-use efficiency is high when the P applied and offtake by the crop is nearly equal. Maintaining soil near the critical level should optimize yield and the use of the global P resource while minimizing the risk of P movement in to ground and surface waters.

11. The spread of multi-fungicide resistance alleles in clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus is a global human health concern. Fraaije et al (2020) examined the development of fungicide resistant Aspergillus fumigatus populations in soils from some long-term experiments. They reported low numbers of resistant isolates and a lack of new genotypes in soils of fungicide-treated commercial and experimental wheat crops. Consequently, arable crop production systems were considered a "coldspot" for azole resistance development. However, several of the resistant strains found in agricultural soils were similar to those found earlier in the environment and/or in patients.
Exploitation Route 1. Soil from the Park Grass experiment has been used in the Metagenome project as a global standard soil metagenome.

2. The trialling of remote sensing by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (drone) on Broadbalk is continuing, seeking to unravel interferences caused by soil moisture and shading. This will greatly help in the development of remote sensing technologies.

3. Findings based on work from the long-term experiments have contributed to the wider understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the development of fungicide resistance and may be of use when developing practical strategies to limit the development and spread of fungicide resistance

4. Outcomes from the review of soil P dynamics to determine critical levels of plant available P can be used to help advise farmers on management practices to maintain their soil fertility, optimize yield and ensure the efficient use of the global P resource whilst minimizing the risk of P movement in to ground and surface waters.

5. Although agricultural systems were not considered to represent a serious problem in relation to the development of fungicide resistant Aspergillus fumigatus populations further research on the spread of different fungicide-resistant alleles was recommended to inform optimal practices to combat the spread of antifungal resistance and to safeguard the efficacy of azoles for future treatment of invasive aspergillosis.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/long-term-experiments-national-capability
 
Description Soil from the Park Grass experiment has been used in the Metagenome project. This is a global collaborative project to provide a standard soil for soil metagenomic analyses that will facilitate the exploration of soils for new products such as antibiotics. The Broadbalk Experiment has been used to trial remote sensing by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (drone) for soil carbon, with the remotely sensed data calibrated against soil analyses. This will greatly help in the development of remote sensing technologies. Open Access data on soil organic carbon, yields and met data have been uploaded onto the Electronic Rothamsted Archive (eRA) facilitating research and education. There is a continuing demand for access to the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments National capability from a range of stakeholders. Currently, we receive about 20 requests annually for samples from the LTEs, mostly for academic research. In the last 5 years, 88 articles have been published that utilised archived and/or fresh samples and data from the LTE-NC. there has been a steady increase in the number of users and sessions accessing the e-RA website. In 2016, the e-RA data managers received 109 requests for data access (34 internal/75 external), a 62% increase compared with requests received in 2010. In addition, there were >4000 unique visits to the e-RA website in the last 12 months. Data and other key outputs have continued to be made available through the website, scientific papers, press releases, web articles and other social media and conference presentations. Information about the LTEs has also been disseminated to the general public through information boards located around Rothamsted estate. In May 2016, the public were invited to attend the 160th anniversary of the work on Park Grass where they heard about the recent findings relating to the effects of changes in atmospheric N deposition on plant species diversity on Park Grass. Data and samples have continued to be made available since the end of this award (March 2017) and future outputs are reported on in the Rothamsted Long-term Experiments National Capabilities award (BBS/E/C/000J0300).
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic

 
Description Distributed infrastructure for EXPErimentation in Ecosystem Research, EXPEER
Amount £3,170 (GBP)
Funding ID FP7-262060 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Seventh Framework Programme (FP7)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 08/2014 
End 03/2015
 
Title Annual Mean Air Temperature Anomaly at Rothamsted 1878-2019 
Description Rothamsted has one of the longest running continuous sets of daily meteorological recordings in the world. Temperature has been measured since 1878. The figure above shows the temperature anomaly in annual mean air temperature (black circles), for years 1878 to 2019, relative to the 1878 to 1920 long-term average, which represents the pre-industrial era. Variation in annual temperature is smoothed using an 11-year (132 month) moving average (red line, which removes solar variability and shorter-term variability such as the Southern Oscillation (Hansen et. al., 2010)). The figure shows that air temperatures have risen sharply since 1987 (Scott, 2015) with annual temperatures, over the last decade, estimated to be between 1.3°C and 1.6°C higher than the pre-industrial period (Hansen. et. al., 2016). Much of the rise is due to increases in temperature during the autumn and winter months, and at night-time. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/Met/met_open_access_res_matempanomaly
 
Title Annual Mean Air Temperature at Rothamsted 1878-2019 
Description Rothamsted has one of the longest running continuous sets of meteorological recordings in the world. The figure shows the annual mean air temperature at Rothamsted every year from 1878-2019. Also shown is the mean over each five-year period, 1878-1882, 1883-1887, etc. The red line shows the mean temperature, 1878-1987. Mean annual air temperature has fluctuated considerably between 1878-2013. However, when the variation in annual temperature is smoothed using five-year means, it is apparent that air temperatures have risen sharply since 1987 (Scott, 2015). The mean air temperature at Rothamsted is now approximately 10.04°C which is 1.1°C higher than the 1878-1987 average. The 10 warmest years on record occurred in the last 17 years. Much of the rise is due to increases in the autumn and winter months, and in night time temperatures. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rms/02-RMAAtemp
 
Title Annual Mean Air Temperature at Rothamsted, 1878-2013 
Description Summary data showing annual mean air temperature at Rothamsted every year from 1878 - 2013. Also shown is the mean over each five-year period, 1878-1882, 1883-1887, etc. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title BKYIELD: Broadbalk wheat grain and straw yields 1844-1925 
Description Wheat grain and straw yields have been recorded every year since the experiment began, with the first harvest in 1844 (the crop was sown in autumn 1843). Dried grain and straw samples have also been kept for chemical analysis since 1844; these are preserved in the Rothamsted Sample Archive. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 1999 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/Broadbalk/
 
Title Broadbalk Crop Nutrient Content, Potatoes 1968-1996 
Description From 1968 Broadbalk was divided into 10 sections. Grain and straw from selected sections and plots of all crops (wheat and rotational crops) were collected and stored in the Sample Archive. They were analysed for Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na) and Sulphur (S). Data is presented here for % nutrients in potato tubers and is the response to different fertiliser treatments and cropping. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rbk1/01-BKNUTRP
 
Title Broadbalk Crop Nutrient Content, Wheat 1968-2017 
Description From 1968 Broadbalk was divided into 10 sections. Grain and straw from selected sections and plots were collected and stored in the Sample Archive. They were analysed for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and sulphur (S). Data is presented as % nutrient in wheat grain and straw and is the response to different fertiliser treatments and cropping. Nitrogen is available all years and other nutrients for selected years, and for varying sections (see Table of Contents for summary and downloadable file for detail). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rbk1/01-BKNUTRW
 
Title Broadbalk Wheat Experiment brown foot rot (Fusarium spp.) 1992-2009 
Description This dataset contains scores of Brown Foot Rot (BFR) caused by Fusarium spp., from the Broadbalk wheat experiment, with associated grain yield at harvest, 1992-2009. BFR infection varied a lot from year to year, possibly due to variation in winter and spring temperature and rainfall. Infection was greatest in 3rd wheats and continuous wheat, and least in 1st wheats. Fertilizer application rates influenced infection, with the lowest rates in plots where one or more nutrients was missing (plots 10 and 11). The plots treated with the most nitrogen (plots 15 and 21) had the highest BFR scores, as also reported for Broadbalk by Glynne (1969) and in dilution plating studies by Bateman and Coskun (1995) and Snyder and Nash (1968). This dataset was assembled by Amisha Pradhan in summer 2021 as part of the Nuffield Research Placements Summer Studentship scheme. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rbk1/01-BKBFR
 
Title Broadbalk Wheat Experiment yields and N uptake Section 1, 2001-2015 
Description This dataset contains the annual harvested grain and straw yields and N content for each treatment plot of the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment, Section 1 (continuous wheat) 2001-2015. Also other agronomic information including sowing and harvest date, amount, type and date of application of fertilizers and manure, and wheat varieties. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rbk1/01-YLDS10115
 
Title Broadbalk changes in Olsen P in top soil, 1844-2010 
Description Summary data showing changes in plant-available phosphorus (Olsen P) in the topsoil (0-23cm) of selected plots of the Broadbalk Wheat experiment, 1844-2010. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Broadbalk changes in soil organic carbon, 1865-2010 
Description Summary data showing the long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) (t ha-1) content in the topsoil (0-23 cm) in selected treatments of the Broadbalk experiment, 1865-2010. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Broadbalk mean long-term winter wheat yields, 1852-2016 
Description Summary data showing the mean long-term winter wheat yields from selected treatments on Broadbalk 1852-2016. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Dataset: Park Grass Hay Yields, Fertilizer and Lime Treatments 1965-2018 
Description This dataset contains the yields of hay (t/ha), for both the 1st and 2nd cuts, harvested from Park Grass Hay Experiment since 1965-2018. Details of the fertilizer, lime treatments and harvest dates are also included. In 1965, a new liming regime was introduced with four sub-plots per plot (a. at pH 7, b. at pH 6, c. at pH 5 and d. un-limed). Yields are provided for all fertiliser treatment plots and sub-plots (except for plots 5 and 6 cd, which were used for micro-plot experiments). Yields are expressed as t/ha at 100% dry matter. Variations in yield reflect the various fertilizer treatments and liming regimes, as well as the local weather and atmospheric inputs. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rpg5/01-OAyieldsperiod3
 
Title Dataset: Park Grass Species, Fertilizer and Lime Treatments 1991-2000 
Description The dataset contains the proportional biomass of botanical species of Park Grass hay experiment 1991-2000. They comprise the biomass of all treatment plots. Each survey was done annually just before the first cut. There are sixty-eight species in the dataset and are comprised of forbs, grasses, and legumes. The species composition in different plots reflect their fertiliser treatment and pH of the plot due to liming. Unfertilised control plots have the greatest species numbers (up to 25 species per plot) and plots receiving nitrogen as ammonium sulphate have the lowest species number (down to one or two per plot), particularly where lime is not applied, due to the acidifying effects of the ammonium on the soil. Nitrogen applied as sodium nitrate also decreases species numbers. There was no evidence of any local extinctions or species invasions during the 10-year period of study. Fertilizer and lime treatments are also provided in the dataset. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rpg5/01-OAPGspecies9100
 
Title Hoosfield changes in soil organic carbon, 1852-1998 
Description Summary data showing changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) content in selected treatments of the Hoosfield experiment, where spring barley has been grown each year since 1852, 1852-1998. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2012 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Hoosfield mean long-term spring barley yields, 1852-2015 
Description Summary data showing the mean long-term winter wheat yields from selected treatments on Broadbalk 1852-2016. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Mean Monthly Rainfall at Rothamsted March 1853 - July 2018 
Description This dataset represents the monthly mean rainfall at Rothamsted continuously from March 1853 - July 2018 and is based on continuous daily records measured at the site. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Mean monthly rainfall at Rothamsted October 1985-September 2017 
Description This dataset represents the mean monthly rainfall recorded at Rothamsted from October 1985 - September 2017 and is derived from continuous daily records measured at the site. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rms/01-rmsMMR10850917
 
Title Organic carbon accumulation in Broadbalk Wilderness, 1881-1999 
Description Summary data showing changes soil organic carbon on an area of the previously cultivated land on the Broadbalk field fenced off in the 1880s and allowed to revert naturally to woodland, 1881-1999. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Organic carbon accumulation in Geescroft Wilderness, 1883-1999 
Description Summary data showing changes soil organic carbon on an area of the previously cultivated land on the Geescroft field fenced off in the 1880s and allowed to revert naturally to woodland, 1883-1999. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Park Grass changes in species numbers over time 1864-2011 
Description Summary data showing changes in species richness for selected Park Grass plots, 1864-2011. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Park Grass soil pH, 1856-2011 
Description Summary data showing changes in soil pH in water for selected plots from the Park Grass experiment, 1856-2011. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Rothamsted Ley Arable Soil Organic Carbon 1948-2008; Fosters 
Description Summary data showing the effect of two contrasting farming systems, Fosters Ley Arable, which was originally long-term arable for several centuries, and Highfield Ley Arable, which was originally permanent grassland, on their soil organic carbon (SOC) at Rothamsted over a 60-year time-period 1948-2008. Results are given as tonnes per hectare of organic C for 0-22.5 cm depth of soil, based on measured soil weights, and adjusted for changes in bulk density. The figure shows the grassland contains two-thirds as much SOC as the arable at Fosters (and twice as much SOC at Highfield). SOC increased on Fosters under newly sown grass and it also increased with improved grassland management on Highfield. However, after 60 years there was still less SOC in Fosters sown grass than in the permanent grassland soil on Highfield. This possibly is because, after 1991 and the change to grass/clover on the whole plot, it is likely that yields would have been less and thus a smaller input from root exudates and dead roots. With arable cropping, large amounts of SOC were lost on Highfield but it took 50 years to decline to that on Fosters. The figure shows that after 60 years the soils appear to be reaching equilibrium following changes in the cropping system level for this farming system on this soil type. Thus, in soils ploughed out of permanent grass or put into permanent grass after arable cropping the SOC now appears relatively constant. On any one soil type, the equilibrium level will be larger with permanent grass than with continuous arable cropping. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk/dataset/rrn2/01-FSOC4808
 
Title Rothamsted Ley Arable soil organic carbon 1948-2008 
Description Summary data showing the effect of two contrasting farming systems (Highfield originally permanent grassland at least from 1838 & Fosters originally long-term arable for several centuries) on SOC at Rothamsted over a 60-year time-period 1948-2008. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) atmospheric nitrogen chemistry data: 1993-2015 
Description Atmospheric Nitrogen Dioxide data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data (weight of NO2) are collected by diffusion tubes at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous fortnightly records from 1993 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This data was used in work to examine the effect of long-term nitrogen inputs on grassland species diversity as published in Storkey, J. , Macdonald, A. J. , Poulton, P. R. , Scott, T. , Kohler, I. H. , Schnyder, H. , Goulding, K. W. T. and Crawley, M. J. (2015) "Grassland biodiversity bounces back from long-term nitrogen addition", Nature , 528, (7582), 401-4. DOI: 10.1038/nature16444. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/baf51776-c2d0-4e57-9cd3-30cd6336d9cf
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) baseline vegetation data: 1991-2000 
Description Baseline Vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). This was a one-off whole site baseline vegetation survey (though given the intensive nature of this survey, some sites did it over successive years) to generate a vegetation map and identify the areas within the site to be monitored. In this protocol up to 500 systemic 2m x 2m plots were surveyed and species presence recorded. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Environmental Change Network data is made available for collaborative research and contributes to publication outputs for this project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/a7b49ac1-24f5-406e-ac8f-3d05fb583e3b
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) bat data: 1993-2015 
Description Bat species data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. The count of individual species is recorded. These data are collected while walking a defined transect using a bat detector at ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous records (the transects are walked four times each year) from 1993 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/2588ee91-6cbd-4888-86fc-81858d1bf085
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) bird data: 1995-2015 
Description Bird species data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual bird species are recorded. These data are collected, using the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO)'s Breeding Bird Survey methodology, at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous records from 1995 to 2015 (the transects are walked twice each year). ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on this project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/5886c3ba-1fa5-49c0-8da8-40e69a10d2b5
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) butterfly data: 1993-2015 
Description Butterfly data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual species are recorded. These data are collected while walking a defined transect at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous weekly records from 1993 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/5aeda581-b4f2-4e51-b1a6-890b6b3403a3
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) carabid beetle data: 1992-2015 
Description Carabid beetle data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. The count of individual species is recorded. These data are collected by pitfall traps at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous fortnightly records from 1992 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/8385f864-dd41-410f-b248-028f923cb281
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) coarse grain vegetation data: 1993-2012 
Description Coarse grain vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). In this protocol, 50 2m x 2m plots are randomly selected within each vegetation type on the site - species presence is recorded in 40cm x 40 cm cells randomly selected within these plots. They represent continuous records every nine years from 1993 to 2012. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on this project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/d349babc-329a-4d6e-9eca-92e630e1be3f
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) fine grain vegetation data: 1994-2015 
Description Fine Grain Vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see supporting documentation). In this protocol, 10m x 10m plots are randomly selected within each vegetation type on the site - species presence is recorded in 40cm x 40 cm cells randomly selected within these plots. They represent continuous records every three years (some sites record data annually) from 1994 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/b98efec8-6de0-4e0c-85dc-fe4cdf01f086
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) meteorology data: 1991-2015 
Description Meteorology data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include albedo (ground and sky), temperature (dry bulb, wet bulb and soil (at 10cm and 30cm)), relative humidity, radiation (net. and solar), rainfall, surface wetness, soil moisture, wind direction and wind speed. These data are collected by Automatic Weather Stations at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous hourly records from 1991 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/fc9bcd1c-e3fc-4c5a-b569-2fe62d40f2f5
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) moth data: 1992-2015 
Description Moth data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Counts of individual species are recorded. These data are collected by moth traps at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol.They represent continuous nightly records from 1992 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/a2a49f47-49b3-46da-a434-bb22e524c5d2
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) precipitation chemistry data: 1992-2015 
Description Precipitation chemistry data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include pH, conductivity, alkalinity, aluminium, calcium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous, potassium, sulphate sulphur, sodium, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. These data are collected by a bulk collector at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous weekly records from 1992 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/18b7c387-037d-4949-98bc-e8db5ef4264c
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) soil solution chemistry data: 1992-2015 
Description Soil solution data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include pH, conductivity, alkalinity, aluminium, calcium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous, potassium, sulphate sulphur, sodium, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. These data are collected by suction samplers at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol. They represent continuous fortnightly records from 1992 to 2015. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/b330d395-68f2-47f1-8d59-3291dc02923b
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) spittle bug data: 1993-2015 
Description Spittle Bug data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected by quadrat sampling at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol . They represent continuous annual records from 1993 to 2015. Spittle Bug adults (Philaenus spumarius) are sampled and separated by sex and by colour morph; it is likely that the proportions of morphs are environmentally determined and will therefore be good indicators of environmental change. Spittle bug nymphs are counted and the mean number of nymphs per spittle recorded. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/aff433be-0869-4393-b765-9e6faad2a12b
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) stream water chemistry data: 1992-2015 
Description Stream water chemistry data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. Variables measured include pH, conductivity, alkalinity, aluminium, calcium, chloride, ammonium, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorous, potassium, sulphate sulphur, sodium, total nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous. The data are collected by dip samples at ECN's terrestrial sites (where there is a stream present) using a standard protocol. They represent continuous weekly records from 1992 to 2015. The sites at which these data are collected are: Cairngorms, Glensaugh, Moor House - Upper Teesdale, North Wyke, Rothamsted, Sourhope, Wytham and Y Wyddfa (Snowdon). ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/fd7ca5ef-460a-463c-ad2b-5ad48bb4e22e
 
Title UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) woodland vegetation data: 1993-2014 
Description Woodland vegetation data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) terrestrial sites. These data are collected at all of ECN's terrestrial sites using a standard protocol (see Supporting documentation). This survey is conducted when plots surveyed during the coarse-grain survey fall in woodland. Seedlings, diameter at breast height (dbh), height and species dominance are recorded within a surrounding 10m x 10m plot. ECN is the UK's long-term environmental monitoring programme. It is a multi-agency programme sponsored by a consortium of fourteen government departments and agencies. These organisations contribute to the programme through funding either site monitoring and/or network co-ordination activities. These organisations are: Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Cyfoeth Naturiol Cymru - Natural Resources Wales, Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency, Forestry Commission, Llywodraeth Cymru - Welsh Government, Natural England, Natural Environment Research Council, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Scottish Government and Scottish Natural Heritage. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data sets from the Environmental Change Network are made available for collaborative research and contribute to publication outputs on the LTE-NCG project, including Rennie, S., Andrews, C., Atkinson, S., Beaumont, D., Benham, S., Bowmaker, V., Dick, J., Dodd, B., McKenna, C., Pallett, D., Rose, R., Schafer, S., Scott, T., Taylor, C. and Watson, H. (2020). The UK Environmental Change Network datasets - integrated and co-located data for long-term environmental research (1993-2015). Earth System Science Data, 12, 87-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-87-2020. 
URL https://catalogue.ceh.ac.uk/id/94aef007-634e-42db-bc52-9aae86adbd33
 
Title eRA 
Description A new version of the Electronic Rothamsted Archive (eRA) has been launched: http://www3.rothamsted.ac.uk/cdera/extract/pages/data_extraction_prototype6.html. It includes: data from the North Wyke Farm Platform; open access data on yields for the Broadbalk and Hoosfield long-term (>150 years) experiments; plant species data for Park Grass; soil organic carbon trends; meteorological data; 3300 reports, maps and plans, which will be given DOIs and made publically available. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact eRA has been delivering data to enquirers for many years with a steadily increasing demand: 73 users in 2010/11 and 120 users in 2015/15. The new version of eRA was launched in 2014. 
URL http://www3.rothamsted.ac.uk/cdera/extract/pages/data_extraction_prototype6.html
 
Description COSMOS: COsmic ray Soil Moisture Observing System UK 
Organisation UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We have become one of the UK's host sites for COSMOS, a nationwide network to systematically measure soil moisture and other environmental variables such as weather, soil temperature and solar radiation.
Start Year 2014
 
Description MiSAFE 
Organisation James Hutton Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution 'Development and Validation of Microbial Soil Community Analyses for Forensic Purposes' - aiming to develop and implement effective protocols and working procedures in soil forensics
Start Year 2013
 
Description Park Grass, a Genomic Observatory 
Organisation Laboratoire Ampere
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Park Grass has been registered as a 'genomic observatory', defined as "an ecosystem and/or site subject to long-term scientific research, including (but not limited to) the sustained study of genomic biodiversity from single-celled microbes to multicellular organisms." Full details at: http://www.genomicobservatories.org/
Start Year 2012
 
Description Remote sensing of soil carbon on Broadbalk 
Organisation University of Leuven
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In November 2013 Louvain University, Belgium used a drone (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to take aerial images of Broadbalk using a multi-spectral camera and construct a map of soil carbon. Funded by the EU ExpeER project. In March 2014 our Belgian collaborators returned to carry out additional aerial imaging over the Hoosfield Barley Experiment. We were able to provide access to the sites for this work and help develop the plans for the approach to be used.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators from Louvain provided the equipment and expertise to carry out the aerial imaging, subsequent data manipulation and analysis.
Impact ALDANA-JAGUE E., GOULDING K., MACDONALD A., POULTON P., STEVENS A., VAN WESEMAEL B AND VAN OOST K. (2014) High-resolution spatial patterns of Soil Organic Carbon content derived from low-altitude aerial multi-band imagery on the Broadbalk Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted, UK. Proceedings of the European Geosciences Union Meeting, Vienna, May, 1, 2014.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Inclusion of the experiments, archive and e-RA details in the UK Soils Observatory 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research or patient groups
Results and Impact The UK Soils Observatory was launched in April 2014. It brings together maps, data and publications on UK soils. The long-term experiments, sample archive and e-RA database are now available through the UKSO under the category of observatories. The UK Soils Observatory (UKSO) provides a unified starting point for accessing UK soils data and underpinning research (with the specific objective of providing these data for free where possible). The UKSO project will acquire new data, harmonise licensing, develop access software, and ensure data interoperability to improve the clarity and ease-of-use of our national and region soil-data resources.
Website with database:

no actual impacts realised to date
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.UKSO.org
 
Description International Year of Soils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Sample Archive and soil cores from the long-term experiments were exhibited as part the activities at the Rothamsted International Year of Soils event on May 17-18, 2015. Positive comments about the event were received from visitors, including Professor Sir Martyn Poliakoff CBE FRS, Vice President of the Royal Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015