Designing cereal seeds for nutrition and health

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Unlisted

Abstract

The project will deliver lines of wheat with increased benefits for human health, focusing on two important traits: dietary fibre and mineral micronutrients.

Dietary Fibre:
The major dietary fibre components in wholegrain wheat and white flour are cell wall polysaccharides, arabinoxylan (AX) and ß-glucan. The objectives of the research in this area are to:
1. Determine the extent of genetic variation and genetic control of the content and composition in wheat to identify sources of variation for exploitation in breeding
2. Produce wheat lines with defined differences in endosperm cell wall composition, by identifying key synthetic genes and, using transgenesis or mutagenesis, modify their expression. We will then compare the location of these genes with QTLs for dietary fibre.
3. Characterise these transgenic wheat lines to determine the properties for specific end uses: human health, livestock feed and biofuels/distilling
4. Exploit information gained from manipulation of wheat endosperm cell walls to build a model of genes responsible for synthesis and feruloylation of xylan in grasses.

Mineral micronutrients:
Studies on mineral micronutrients will focus on increasing the contents of bioavailable iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in wheat. The objectives are to:
1. Exploit natural genetic variation in Fe and Zn concentrations and determine the chemical speciation in wheat grain.
2. Determine QTLs associated with Fe/Zn concentrations using double haploid populations grown in different seasons/locations with different levels of N.
3. Enhance Fe/Zn concentrations and/or bioavailability in wheat endosperm by transformation with candidate genes involved in their transport to and deposition in the grain.
4. Determine Fe/Zn chemical species and bioavailability in transgenic wheat.

Publications

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Lafiandra D (2014) Improving cereal grain carbohydrates for diet and health. in Journal of cereal science

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Lovegrove A (2017) Role of polysaccharides in food, digestion, and health. in Critical reviews in food science and nutrition

 
Description Identified genetic sources of high dietary fibre wheat for improved human health
Identified genes controlling fibre synthesis in wheat and characterised them by RNAi knock out in transgenic plants
Determined new information of mechanism of action of fibre in reducing the rate of glucose release during digestion of bread
Exploitation Route With breeders and food processors, supported by TSB and BBSRC
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare