Maximising carbon retention in soils

Lead Research Organisation: Rothamsted Research
Department Name: Unlisted

Abstract

This project is part of the Cropping Carbon Institute Strategic Programme that aims to build a whole systems understanding of carbon allocation both above- and below-ground to provide the knowledge for achieving an optimal balance between harvestable and sequestered carbon in perennial cropping systems. This project aims to establish how different crop types influence the quantity and quality of carbon inputs into soils, how these inputs turn-over and how these processes are affected by environment and even crop genotype.
There are 4 components (Work Packages -WP) to the project:

1. We will build on strong research in carbon cycling in plant-soil interactions to assess the potential for carbon storage beneath the three perennials (willow, Miscanthus and pasture grass). We will develop methods for quantifying root biomass (WP2.1).

2. We will quantify total carbon and use NIRS to explore gross changes in soil carbon content and mass spectrometric (GC-MS, HPLC) techniques to determine and quantify the different organic components of labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM) and relate this to the results of WP1 on the metabolome of different plant compartments in willow and pasture grass (WP2.2).

3. Our close links with IBERS will also allow us to determine the effects of grass rooting morphology on plant carbon delivery and stability in soil, whilst access to Miscanthus genetic lines will allow us to distinguish between plant carbon turnover in soil and turnover of existing soil organic carbon (SOC) using natural abundance 13C-enrichment (WP2.3).

4. We will exploit in vivo and in vitro experimental approaches and cutting-edge biogeochemical applications to specifically determine: (i) the fate of plant carbon inputs to the SOM pool;(ii) the effects of fresh plant carbon inputs on residual SOM; and, (iii) differences in SOM turnover rates under changing land use (WP2.4).

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Land use and land use change impacts on soil carbon
We found significant losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) following a land use change from grassland to arable cropping and permanent bare fallow. Losses were apparent in both, top- and subsoil reflecting land use change effects on dynamics in the subsoil and topsoil. A desktop study in collaboration with Cranfield University revised the estimate for the total SOC stock of England and Wales to be 3282 Tg in the upper 150 cm, half of which was below 30 cm which illustrates the importance of subsoil C.
Carbon sequestration under novel perennial grasses and bioenergy crops
A field trial (part of the EU network 'EUCARPIA') at the North Wyke site was planted with Lolium perenne cv. 'AberMagic' (a high water-soluble carbohydrate grass) and L. perenne × Festuca pratensis cv. 'Prior' (a large, deep rooting Festulolium) (bred at IBERS; collaboration), with a reference control under permanent pasture. Yields of the two grasses exceeded those of the permanent pasture inside 3 years, and the roots of AberMagic and Prior rapidly extended into the subsoil. Both SOC and N were increased under AberMagic and Prior in the upper 0.3 m. The rapid and significant replacement of SOC stocks in re-sown plots compared with pasture was evident on the North Wyke Farm Platform (results from the BBSRC-funded SUREROOT project; uplifted to this project). We characterised n-alkanes from waxes and ?-hydroxy acids and a,?-diacids from suberin as biochemical 'biomarkers' of leaf and root inputs, respectively, creating a new methodology revised from existing methods in the process. Quantification of these concentrations in shoot and root material confirmed their utility as biomarkers (i.e. n-alkanes were quantified in roots but at much lower concentrations than in shoots). Evidence existed that root-contributed C was greater under AberMagic and Prior, but this was likely the initial effect of seed bed preparation. Novel grasses therefore offer the potential to both increase above-ground yield and SOC and N in the soil compared with conventional pasture, and hence may contribute towards food security and climate change challenges.
At RRes-H, we also monitored roots and SOC and N in soils under genotypes of the perennial bioenergy crops willow (Salix; as short-rotation coppice) and Miscanthus in a field experiment originally established under the BBSRC-funded BSBEC project. Soil cores taken both directly under the plant and in the gap between adjacent plants captured the spatial pattern of such plantations. Results indicated greater root stocks associated with Miscanthus compared to willow. Stocks of SOC increased under both bioenergy crops when planted in arable soil, particularly under the M. sinensis genotype. There was an association between SOC and root mass down the soil profile, suggesting that perennial root systems are an important contributor to SOC. The same leaf and root biomarkers were characterised, and isotopic analysis was used to exploited the natural labelling of Miscanthus-derived inputs (a C4 plant) into the soil (previously with C3 plants). Our findings support assumptions that managed grasslands and perennial systems can be a major carbon sink in the UK.
Root turnover and soil carbon
Based on our findings above of the importance of roots as a key driver for SOC sequestration, we established root turnover experiments in vivo using the Rhizolab facility at NIAB-EMR (a new collaboration) and in vitro in the laboratory at North Wyke. We focused on turnover of Miscanthus roots in order to exploit the natural isotopic labelling that this C4 plant provides. The data has been collected and analysed currently. We anticipate that our findings will be published and will provide new information on root turnover and SOC sequestration.
Exploitation Route We anticipate that findings will used by land managers, environmental and other scientists as well as policy makers, but also industry to justify their carbon accounting. Our modelling supports geneticists and breeders for genotypic selection and policymakers for strategic decision making.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Energy,Environment

 
Description Why do plants need soil to grow? A Royal Society YouTube video part of the Brian Cox School Experiment series. The importance of land use change to perennial systems, whether traditional grasslands or new systems of energy crops, either herbaceous and woody has been shown for carbon sequestration. Rates of carbon enrichment under these crops exceed arable systems by an order of magnitude to reach a new equilibrium, especially on low-fertility, degraded arable soils, that are marginal for food production. With a series of highly downloaded and cited papers as well as talks, presentations in conferences and public workshop we have reached a wide range of colleague scientist but also policy makers and the farming, energy industry and bio-economy. Especially, the latter two use new evidence in their life assessments of home-grown renewable resources. Most recent scenario simulations show that perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops can substantially improve the resource provision for the bio-economy. Further, the regional biomass water footprint can be optimized by selecting adequate SRC-willow canopy phenotypes.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Chemicals,Education,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description BBSRC - LINK
Amount £303,195 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L008548/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2014 
End 03/2019
 
Description BBSRC GCRF IAA
Amount £47,520 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description BBSRC GCRF IAA
Amount £9,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/GCRF-IAA/17/18 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Bioenergy Value Chains: Whole systems analysis and optimization
Amount £219,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/K036734/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2017
 
Description Climate-KIC ADMIT
Amount £43,300 (GBP)
Organisation European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) 
Sector Public
Country Hungary
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2017
 
Description International Partnering Award: China
Amount £30,489 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025595/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2020
 
Description Landscapes without Livestock
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Agricultural and Horticulture Development Board 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 10/2015
 
Description Low Carbon Farming project: 'Monitoring and Calculation of the Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Field under Different Management and Demonstration the BPMs'
Amount £1,500 (GBP)
Organisation Chinese Academy of Sciences 
Sector Public
Country China
Start 09/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Description Quantifying the Effect of Land Use on Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in the Tamar Valley
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation Westcountry Rivers Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description Neri Roncucci from Land Lab, University of Pisa (SSSA) - Modelling carbon retention under arable and perennial energy crops 
Organisation Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Training in modelling carbon in the soil under different land use and crop management. Co-supervise PhD student from Pisa
Collaborator Contribution Mr Roncucci was involved in the research of carbon dynamics under perennial energy crops and applying the Rothamsted Research modelling approach to UK and Italian data to understand the opportunities which arise from perennial bioenergy crops.
Impact We drafted a paper which unfortunately was rejected due to insufficient amount of data. His PhD was successfully defended with a very high grade. He had a large number of papers related to other data sets collected in Italy. Unfortunately non was co-authored by RRES staff
Start Year 2013
 
Description Sabbatical of CSIRO scientist at North Wyke 
Organisation Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
Department CSIRO Waite Campus
PI Contribution Invitation to scientist from CSIRO to spend 3 months at the North Wyke site of Rothamsted Research (RRes) to learn biochemical techniques relating to carbon compounds and isotope analysis to link carbon source to deposition in the soil ('biomarkers'). Training given by the team.
Collaborator Contribution The scientist learned the techniques, and then applied them to soil samples collected during the project from under the perennial bioenergy crop Miscanthus. This enabled the biochemical characterisation of compounds in the soil, and isotope analysis exploited the natural isotopic labelling of fresh carbon in the soil arising from the C4 plant Miscanthus being planted into soil that had only previously supported C3 crops (e.g. wheat). This completed a piece of work related to the project and the findings will be disseminated.
Impact A component of the project was completed on biomarkers and how Miscanthus sequesters carbon into the soil. A full dataset was assembled, and the outputs are in a draft paper to be submitted in 2018. The scientist played a full role on the organising committee of the 6th International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter - a major international conference that RRes hosted at the Harpenden site (03-07/09/2017) - which itself was chaired by Dungait. The next conference in this series (the 7th) will be chaired by the scientist and will be hosted at CSIRO (SA, Australia). This will ensure that the collaboration, begun during this project, will extend into the future.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems 
Organisation CGIAR
Department International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Country Colombia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Soils and forage are sampled in grasslands on the Farm Platforms in each country used for livestock production under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for export to Rothamsted. A standard sampling protocol has been developed. All Farm Platforms are members of the Global Farm Platform network.
Collaborator Contribution Soils and forage are sampled on the North Wyke Farm Platform under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for analysis. Analysis of soils and forage from all Farm Platforms are analysed at Rothamstd for: (1) SOC content (STOCK) (2) Quantitative Indicator of microbial diversity and abundance (PLFA) (3) Measure of good soil structure (water-stable aggregates; WSA) (4) Forage productivity (YIELD) (5) Forage quality (NUTRITION: protein and digestible fibre and associated fermentable and un-fermentable energy using NIRS/MIRS/SPAD)
Impact Soils and forages have been sampled in each country and are currently being analysed.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems 
Organisation CGIAR
Department International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Country Colombia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Soils and forage are sampled in grasslands on the Farm Platforms in each country used for livestock production under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for export to Rothamsted. A standard sampling protocol has been developed. All Farm Platforms are members of the Global Farm Platform network.
Collaborator Contribution Soils and forage are sampled on the North Wyke Farm Platform under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for analysis. Analysis of soils and forage from all Farm Platforms are analysed at Rothamstd for: (1) SOC content (STOCK) (2) Quantitative Indicator of microbial diversity and abundance (PLFA) (3) Measure of good soil structure (water-stable aggregates; WSA) (4) Forage productivity (YIELD) (5) Forage quality (NUTRITION: protein and digestible fibre and associated fermentable and un-fermentable energy using NIRS/MIRS/SPAD)
Impact Soils and forages have been sampled in each country and are currently being analysed.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems 
Organisation INIA Uruguay
Country Uruguay 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Soils and forage are sampled in grasslands on the Farm Platforms in each country used for livestock production under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for export to Rothamsted. A standard sampling protocol has been developed. All Farm Platforms are members of the Global Farm Platform network.
Collaborator Contribution Soils and forage are sampled on the North Wyke Farm Platform under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for analysis. Analysis of soils and forage from all Farm Platforms are analysed at Rothamstd for: (1) SOC content (STOCK) (2) Quantitative Indicator of microbial diversity and abundance (PLFA) (3) Measure of good soil structure (water-stable aggregates; WSA) (4) Forage productivity (YIELD) (5) Forage quality (NUTRITION: protein and digestible fibre and associated fermentable and un-fermentable energy using NIRS/MIRS/SPAD)
Impact Soils and forages have been sampled in each country and are currently being analysed.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems 
Organisation Kerala Veterinary and Animal Science University
Country India 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Soils and forage are sampled in grasslands on the Farm Platforms in each country used for livestock production under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for export to Rothamsted. A standard sampling protocol has been developed. All Farm Platforms are members of the Global Farm Platform network.
Collaborator Contribution Soils and forage are sampled on the North Wyke Farm Platform under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for analysis. Analysis of soils and forage from all Farm Platforms are analysed at Rothamstd for: (1) SOC content (STOCK) (2) Quantitative Indicator of microbial diversity and abundance (PLFA) (3) Measure of good soil structure (water-stable aggregates; WSA) (4) Forage productivity (YIELD) (5) Forage quality (NUTRITION: protein and digestible fibre and associated fermentable and un-fermentable energy using NIRS/MIRS/SPAD)
Impact Soils and forages have been sampled in each country and are currently being analysed.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems 
Organisation SSLLP Malawi
Country Malawi 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Soils and forage are sampled in grasslands on the Farm Platforms in each country used for livestock production under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for export to Rothamsted. A standard sampling protocol has been developed. All Farm Platforms are members of the Global Farm Platform network.
Collaborator Contribution Soils and forage are sampled on the North Wyke Farm Platform under 'Standard', 'Improved' and 'Poor' management and prepared for analysis. Analysis of soils and forage from all Farm Platforms are analysed at Rothamstd for: (1) SOC content (STOCK) (2) Quantitative Indicator of microbial diversity and abundance (PLFA) (3) Measure of good soil structure (water-stable aggregates; WSA) (4) Forage productivity (YIELD) (5) Forage quality (NUTRITION: protein and digestible fibre and associated fermentable and un-fermentable energy using NIRS/MIRS/SPAD)
Impact Soils and forages have been sampled in each country and are currently being analysed.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Sub-contractor to Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London in the EIT-funded project ADMIT-Bio-Succinnovate under the Climate-KIC programme 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We supported the spatially specific estimates of biomass in different UK regions available for the bio-economy, here the resource for bio-renewable succinic acid. We trained and co-supervised the PhD student Yuanzhi Ni at Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, to calibrate, validate and upscale an existing process-based crop growth model. We agreed to carry out the following services for Imperial: 2.1. (a) those as set out in Schedule 1 annexed hereto which includes the provision of an interim report including yield, spatial carbon stocks maps and Land based GHG emission factors for feedstock supply locations (England, Wales, Hungary and France) to be delivered by end of November 2016. A conference paper and a peer-reviewed paper are published/under review, respectively.
Collaborator Contribution Partner at Imperial College (Dr Jeremy Woods, Centre for Environmental Policy) were leader of Work Package 8 in the Bio-Succinnovate project. We were initially a partner in our own right but changed to being a subcontractor (16122 -Consultancy agreement Rothamsted Biosuccinnovate). Imperial College administered and paid a reasonable fee (€15k).
Impact Conference paper at the International Bioenergy Conference and Exhibition, Shanghai: Assessing Availability and Environmental Impacts of Lignocellulosic BIOMASS Feedstock Supply - Case Study for a Catchment in England (9 pages) Ni, YZ, Mwabonje, O., Richter, G., Qi, A., Yeung, K, Patel, M. Woods, J. (2018) ASSESSING AVAILABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY - CASE STUDY FOR A CATCHMENT IN ENGLAND Biofpr (Accepted for publication; revisions to be submitted by 8 April 2018)
Start Year 2015
 
Description Visit by student to North Wyke (MX) 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Trained and mentored student in soil sampling and bulk analysis, extraction and analysis of PLFA, including stable 13C isotope analysis.
Collaborator Contribution PhD student
Impact Meng X, Cardenas LM, Donovan N, Zhang J, Murray P, Zhang F, Dungait JAJ, Soil erosion increases soil microbial activity at the depositional position of eroding slopes, European Geophysical Union. Vienna, Austria, April 2016.
Start Year 2015
 
Description An invited seminar at Department of Environmental Systems, UC Merced, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Soil organic carbon: little things mean a lot
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://es.ucmerced.edu/seminars
 
Description Biomass and Energy Crops V Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact There were talks and discussion over two days and an open panel discussion and interviews on the second day, see link below
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCZCMCCAkmtgV5TsNaBCpdIQ/videos
 
Description British Society of Soil Science Annual Meeting 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster presentation: Gregory, A. S., Dungait, J. A. J., Joynes, A., Richter, G. M. & Murray, P. J. 2013. Biomarkers link inputs from perennial energy crops and grasses to soil organic carbon. British Society of Soil Science Annual Meeting: Soil Science and Biogeochemistry: a Journey Through Space and Time. 3-5 September 2013. Lancaster, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://soils.org.uk/node/133
 
Description ELS 2014: The Earth Living Skin: Soil, Life and Climate Changes. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Biochemical approaches to link inputs from perennial energy crops to soil organic carbon"
Presented at European Geosciences Union. Soil System Sciences Division. ELS 2014. The Earth Living Skin: Soil, Life and Climate Changes. 22-25 September 2014. Bari, Italy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Eurosoil 2012: Fourth International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "The effect of agricultural land use on the nature and dynamics of subsoil carbon"
Presented at Eurosoil 2012: Fourth International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies: Soil Science for the Benefit of Mankind and Environment. 2-6 July 2012. Bari, Italy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Holding it all together: the role of organic carbon in soil self-organisation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Key Note presentation (Prof. J Dungait). The 5th International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter. Göttingen, Germany, September 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Invited lecture: Biogeochemistry of the Rhizosphere, Univesity of Gothenburg, Sweden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Gave lecture and ran exercise for post grads over 3 days
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.cec.lu.se/sites/cec.prodwebb.lu.se/files/announcement_of_rhizosphere_ph.d._course.pdf
 
Description Invited speaker at Farm Carbon Cutting Toolkit workshop, Cirencester, Glos. February 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave talk on methods for increasing SOC in arable soils.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.organicresearchcentre.com/manage/authincludes/article_uploads/FCCT%20Farming%20Profitably...
 
Description Invited speaker at Sainsbury Farming Scholars Soil Science workshop, Imperial College, April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented research on grassland soils at Rothamsted Research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited speaker at Soil Association 'Low Carbon Farming' event: 'Out and About Increasing Soil Carbon', March 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave overview on options for increasing soil organic matter in farmland using research evidence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fK0dHqxTqGM&feature=youtu.be
 
Description Invited talk at EGU 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meng X, Cardenas LM, Donovan N, Zhang J, Murray P, Zhang F, Dungait JAJ, Soil erosion increases soil microbial activity at the depositional position of eroding slopes, European Geophysical Union. Vienna, Austria, April 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited talk for FWAG SW - Benefits of Carbon: the current scientific evidence, Callington, Somerset. February 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Gave overview of current research on organic matter dynamics in agriculture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.fwagsw.org.uk/archive/north-wyke1/
 
Description Royal Society / BBC short film for Brian Cox School Experiment series 'Do plants need soils to grow?' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Open Access You Tube resource for Primary School teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=88Cx7ucjSyg&list=PLg7f-TkW11iWG41vtwzDfNyegH8GBg1XN&index=4
 
Description Royal Society of Chemistry Invited Lecture Transformation and transport of organic compounds in agricultural soils. University of Plymouth, UK, January 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Overview of biogeochemical approaches to measuring and monitoring organic matter dynamics in agriculture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SOM 2015: Fifth International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Land use controls soil organic carbon dynamics in both topsoil and subsoil horizons."
Presented at SOM 2015: Fifth International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter. 20-24 September 2015. Göttingen, Germany.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SOM 2017: Sixth International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gregory, A. S., Dungait, J. A. J., Shield, I. F., Macalpine, W. J., Cunniff, J., Durenkamp, M., White, R. P., Joynes, A. & Richter, G. M. 2017. Roots control soil carbon sequestration under the perennial bioenergy crops Salix and Miscanthus. SOM 2017: Sixth International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter. 3-7 September 2017. Harpenden, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Plenary talk (Prof. J Dungait) Soil Organic Carbon - devising a single proxy measure for the sustainability of pastoral systems. CIAT-Colombia, Cali, Colombia, October 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015