Host genetic resistance to viruses

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

The outcomes of viral infections and the dynamics of host-pathogen interactions depend jointly upon the genotype of the host and the virus. For any viral strain, host genotype determines infection outcomes, extent and nature of pathology, and appropriate control strategies. Antiviral defences are divergent between species with gain and loss of genes and even entire gene families. For example, birds do not possess some of the genes involved in recognition of DNA viruses in mammals, and these genes are diversified amongst large mammals. Additionally, many viral infections have a limited host range and/or distinct pathology in different hosts. We aim to identify genetic loci controlling resistance and/or pathology, focussing on genetic variation within populations.

Publications

10 25 50
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Arabi YM (2017) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. in The New England journal of medicine

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Bishop SC (2014) Genomics and disease resistance studies in livestock. in Livestock science

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Chakraborty P (2017) Marek's disease virus infection of phagocytes: a de novo in vitro infection model. in The Journal of general virology

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Dunning J (2014) Antiviral combinations for severe influenza. in The Lancet. Infectious diseases

 
Description • We identified the first human genetic polymorphism that influences susceptibility to severe disease after infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus. This work was published in Nature. (PIs Digard, Freeman, Hume, Simmonds).

• Using specialised sequencing techniques we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism in population linkage disequilbirum with a causative mutation conferring almost complete resistance to the salmon disease Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV). This is now implemented in selection programmes for IPN resistance, and is worth an estimated £24million/year to the Scottish economy (PIs Houston, Bishop). In further work, to elucidate the functional mechanisms underlying the IPNV resistance mutation, a series of studies aimed at comparing the transcriptome profile between resistant and susceptible salmon fry have been performed (the first of which has been published in BMC Genomics). The study demonstrates that both genotypes of fish can become infected with the virus, but that susceptible animals are characterised by a larger, yet ineffective, innate immune response.

• A major genetic locus (QTL) affecting host resistance to salmonid alphavirus - a problematic viral disease for salmon in seawater - was discovered in large disease challenge studies of salmon, in collaboration with two major salmon breeding and production companies [Marine Harvest and Salmobreed (Now part of Benchmark)]. This work has been published in the journal Heredity (PIs Houston, Bishop).

• Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome is an endemic infectious disease of pigs, manifesting differently in pigs of different ages but primarily causing late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV).
PRRSV only infects a specific subset of cells of the innate immune system of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Previous research found that the virus needs a specific receptor, CD163, in order to make its own membrane fuse with the host cell membrane in an uptake vesicle to release the viral genetic information into the cytosol and achieve a successful infection. CD163 has a pearl-on-a-string structure, whereby the "pearl"/ domain number 5 was found to interact with the virus and allow it to infect a cell.
We generated pigs lacking the CD163 subdomain 5 using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in single cell fertilised eggs. The pigs were healthy under normal husbandry conditions and other biological functions conducted by the CD163 were found to be intact. We isolated a variety of monocyte and macrophage cells from these pigs and found them to be completely resistant to infection by both major genotypes of PRRSV. This work has been published in the journal PloS Pathogens (PIs Archibald, Whitelaw).
Exploitation Route Using a variety of techniques, including gene editing studies in cells from humans, pigs and chickens, genetic studies in critically-ill patients, and novel computational approaches, we have identified several genes that may influence the severity of influenza in humans. These genes may lead us to new drugs to treat flu: we have one new drug being synthesised at the moment for pre-clinical testing. Understanding the genetics will also enable us to design specific "precision medicine" approaches to make sure the right patients get the right treatment.

Resistance to viral diseases in salmon, including IPNV, is at the heart of a new strategic partnership between Roslin Institute and Hendrix Genetics. This partnership is initially focussed on developing and implementing CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in Atlantic salmon. Press release: http://www.thescottishfarmer.co.uk/news/14697537.Genetic_research_alliance_aims_to_improve_livestock_breeding/?ref=mrb&lp=17

QTLs affecting resistance to salmonid alphavirus (aka Pancreas disease Virus) have been implemented in Atlantic salmon breeding programmes via marker-assisted and genomic selection to help improve resistance to the disease. http://www.pressreader.com/uk/the-press-and-journal-aberdeen/20150522/282411282907070 ; http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2015/salmongene-220515; (Ross H).

PRRS is endemic in most pig producing countries worldwide. Vaccines have mostly failed to stop the spread of the virus, which continues to evolve rapidly. Consequently, it is one of the greatest challenges facing pig producers today. In Europe alone, the disease is estimated to cost the pig industry more than €1.5 billion each year.
Genome-editing offers opportunities to boost food security by reducing waste and losses from infectious diseases, as well as improving animal welfare by reducing the burden of disease. Our results take us closer to realising these benefits and specifically address the most important infectious disease problem for the pig industry worldwide.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment,Healthcare

URL http://www.fishupdate.com/ipn-salmon-gene-research-progress-fishupdate-com/
 
Description We identified a means of selecting a genetic trait conferring almost complete resistance to the salmon disease Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN). This is now implemented in selection programmes for IPN resistance, and is worth an estimated £24million/year to the Scottish economy. Furthermore, this work provided proof-of-principle of the utility of genetic approaches to controlling infectious disease in aquaculture and has developed into a much wider programme led by Dr Ross Houston, examining other pathogens such as oyster herpes virus amongst others. This programme is still in progress and is reported in more detail in the current Roslin Institute BBSRC strategic programme grants.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Environment
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Royal Society Contact Group on Gene Editing Technologies
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description A global shared data biological sample resource to support productivity improvement for tropical livestock
Amount £5,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2020
 
Description BBSRC Responsive Mode
Amount £900,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R008612/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description BBSRC responsive mode
Amount £682,857 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P003966/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description BBSRC/India DBT Joint call in farmed animal diseases
Amount £1,300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L004666/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Description CALL: INTEGRATING AND OPENING RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES OF EUROPEAN INTEREST
Amount € 10,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID H2020-INFRAIA-2016-1 project number 731014 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2022
 
Description Dissecting the molecular pathways of MDV oncoprotein Meq for understanding pathogenesis and aid vaccine development
Amount £384,966 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007632/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description EU H2020
Amount € 5,500,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description H2020
Amount € 5,500,000 (EUR)
Funding ID DELTA-FLU 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description NERC Aquaculture Innovation Award
Amount £202,253 (GBP)
Funding ID NE/P010695/1 
Organisation Natural Environment Research Council 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description Newton International Fellowship
Amount £96,501 (GBP)
Funding ID NF160037 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2019
 
Description The SHIELD Consortium for Host Defence Therapeutics
Amount £4,500,000 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N02995X/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 07/2021
 
Title In silico generation of genome wide guide sequences for pig and chicken 
Description One of the aims of the project is to design CRISPR guide sequences against each of the annotated genes for pig and chicken using the most advanced algorithms available. this has now been achieved and selected guide sequences are being test in pig and chicken cell lines to determine efficacy. Once the full libraries have been validated the guide sequences will be made publicly available through dedicated pig and chicken genome websites. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Once publicly available, any researcher will be able to search for guide sequences to their gene of interest, allowing rapid generation of guide sequences to generate knockout libraries. 
 
Title Cool tools - a biologist friendly parameterized model of an influenza A virus infected cell 
Description There is a need for formalised diagrams that both summarise current biological pathway knowledge and support modelling approaches that explain and predict their behaviour. We presented a new, freely available modelling framework that includes a biologist-friendly pathway modelling language (mEPN), a simple but sophisticated method to support model parameterisation using available biological information; a stochastic flow algorithm that simulates the dynamics of pathway activity; and a 3-D visualisation engine that aids understanding of the complexities of a system's dynamics in a publication in the journal PloS Biology. We presented example pathway models that illustrate of the power of approach to depict a diverse range of systems, including a parameterized model of an influenza A virus infected cell. For more details on the assembly and parameterisation of this pathway and to download the pathway itself, see S2 Text, S2 Graphml, S2 Fig and S3 GraphML in: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002530.g005 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Too early to say, but the publication has been viewed nearly 8000 times in the 7 months since it was published. 
 
Title FANTOM consortium 
Description Our ongoing engagement with the FANTOM5 consortium has enabled the identification of the full set of promoters and enhancers used in the human and mouse genome; work recently published in two Nature papers 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Through the FANTOM5 consortium, we demonstrated that the SNP associated with disease susceptibility in humans is unlikely to be causal, and identified enhancers that control all three members of the IFITM family during monocyte-macrophage differentiation (http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-02-484188). In a detailed study in mice, we identified the relationships between type 1 and type II interferon responses in macrophages (http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.6HI0313-169R). 
URL http://fantom.gsc.riken.jp/5/
 
Title PRJEB14979 
Description Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) is a widespread alphaherpesvirus of poultry that causes Marek's disease (MD) characterised by fatal visceral CD4+ TCRaß+ T cell tumours at high incidence in susceptible hosts. As is the case with many virus-induced tumours, immortal cell lines harbouring viral genome have been generated from ex vivo cultures of MD tumours. As readily-available sources of large numbers of cells of a uniform type, MDV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) have proved extremely valuable in studying virus-host interaction. While the viral genome is held in a latent state in most of the cells, a minor population of cells display spontaneous reactivation identifiable by the expression of lytic viral genes such as pp38. The process of spontaneous reactivation in these cell populations offers the opportunity for investigating the biological processes involved in the reactivation events. For this, we used two lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from lymphomas induced by pRB1B-UL47eGFP, a recombinant MDV engineered to express EGFP fused with the UL47. We used Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify the rare EGFP-positive cell population with spontaneously activating viral genome from the majority EGFP-negative cells and analysed their gene expression profiles by RNA-sequencing using Illumina HiSeq2500. The reads generated were mapped using TopHat and gene expression levels were analysed by edgeR. Ingenuity pathway analysis software on more than 2000 differentially-expressed genes between the lytically infected (EGFP-positive) and latently infected (EGFP-negative) cell populations was used identify major biological pathways involved in the reactivation. These studies revealed that amongst others, transcripts directly involved in T activation such as CD3 complex, CD28, ICOS, phospholipase C, CD3 complex were down-regulated following reactivation of the virus in the LCL. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These data detail the gene expression changes during spontaneous activation of MDV and will be useful to researchers investigating the mechanism of action of this important virus, as well as in vaccine design 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB14979
 
Description Centre for tropical livestock genetics and health (CTLGH) 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Mick Watson is co-leading programme 5 (informatics and bioresources) programme of CTLGH which aims to collect data on genotype and phenotype into a central database which can subsequently be mined for useful associations. So far we have ensured that scientists have access to the latest high performance computing environment for research, we have analysed and continue to analyse hundreds of farm animal genomes from LMIC countries, and we have built the data portal (http://data.ctlgh.org)
Collaborator Contribution The partners are involved in all programmes, which include:Program 1: Harnessing genetic variability among indigenous and exotic breeds of cattle (as well as their crosses) to develop genetic and genomic tools that will be used to improve productivity under harsh tropical conditions and to mitigate the impact of cattle on climate change. Program 2: Harnessing genetic variability in tropical productivity and adaptation among various breeds of Chickens. Program 3: Development and application of precision breeding (through novel reproductive and germplasm technologies) to achieve step changes in livestock genetic improvement. Program 4: Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of certain cattle and poultry breeds to tropical diseases and pests. Program 5: A shared global data and biological sample resource to support continued research and development on tropical livestock genetics and health.
Impact The data portal so far: http://data.ctlgh.org The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, bringing together geneticists, parasitologists, virologists, epidemiologists and data scientists together.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Centre for tropical livestock genetics and health (CTLGH) 
Organisation Scotland's Rural College
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Mick Watson is co-leading programme 5 (informatics and bioresources) programme of CTLGH which aims to collect data on genotype and phenotype into a central database which can subsequently be mined for useful associations. So far we have ensured that scientists have access to the latest high performance computing environment for research, we have analysed and continue to analyse hundreds of farm animal genomes from LMIC countries, and we have built the data portal (http://data.ctlgh.org)
Collaborator Contribution The partners are involved in all programmes, which include:Program 1: Harnessing genetic variability among indigenous and exotic breeds of cattle (as well as their crosses) to develop genetic and genomic tools that will be used to improve productivity under harsh tropical conditions and to mitigate the impact of cattle on climate change. Program 2: Harnessing genetic variability in tropical productivity and adaptation among various breeds of Chickens. Program 3: Development and application of precision breeding (through novel reproductive and germplasm technologies) to achieve step changes in livestock genetic improvement. Program 4: Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance of certain cattle and poultry breeds to tropical diseases and pests. Program 5: A shared global data and biological sample resource to support continued research and development on tropical livestock genetics and health.
Impact The data portal so far: http://data.ctlgh.org The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, bringing together geneticists, parasitologists, virologists, epidemiologists and data scientists together.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Benchmark PLC in salmon gene editing 
Organisation Benchmark Holdings
PI Contribution This collaboration has been to develop a successful Industrial Partnership Award proposal for BBSRC into gene editing for disease resistance in salmon. Our team have developed gene editing facilities and capability in house for salmon (cell culture and embryos), and worked together with Benchmark to codevelop the project which begins on 1 April 2018. The reference code is BB/R008612/1.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are bringing substantial in kind contribution, cash contribution and expertise to the project. This includes access to samples and data from their salmon breeding programme in Norway, and access to year-round salmon gametes for gene editing experiments.
Impact Outputs include the successful award of project BB/R008612/1
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Cawthron Institute in New Zealand 
Organisation Cawthron Institute
Country New Zealand 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution This collaboration is built around a BBSRC partnering award in which I was the UK PI (BB/N022114/1 New Zealand - UK Paterning Award: Breeding for disease resistance in farmed oysters using genomic tools). The idea is to merge the genomic tools and skills that we have developed in the UK with the advanced shellfish selective breeding programmes that Cawthron run in New Zealand. Our research team has, for example, developed a high density SNP genotyping array for farmed oysters - the first of its kind for this species.
Collaborator Contribution Cawthron have world-leading selective breeding programmes for shellfish, including Pacific Oysters. One of the main target traits is to increase resistance to Oyster Herpes Virus (OHV) which can decimate stocks on oyster farms. They are providing our collaborative projects with access to extensive samples and data from their pedigreed oysters which have been challenged with OHV, in addition to their time to manage and run the project and provide intellectual input.
Impact Funded collaborative grant: NE/P010695/1 Application of genetic markers to improve resistance to herpes virus in commercial oyster populations This grant application builds on the BBSRC travel award and will provide funds for genotyping Cawthron's pedigreed oyster material with our high density SNP array developed under the BBSRC Aquaculture Initiative project BB/M026140/1 Investigation of Host Genetic Resistance to Oyster Herpes Virus using a High Density SNP Array. The downstream impact will be improved selective breeding for disease resistance in oysters, and transfer of much needed skills and expertise in advanced shellfish breeding from NZ to the UK. These collaborations also involve the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas). The collaboration brings together expertise in genomics, sequencing, selective breeding, shellfish biology and virology.
Start Year 2016
 
Description ILRI 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We work with ILRI on all aspects of genomics and data science, including whole genome sequencing of multiple African animals, data recording and database design, web and web content development, and bioinformatics training.
Collaborator Contribution We work with ILRI on all aspects of genomics and data science, including whole genome sequencing of multiple African animals, data recording and database design, web and web content development, and bioinformatics training.
Impact So far we have sequenced the genomes of approx 800 African farm animals from diverse breeds and ecotypes
Start Year 2016
 
Description Pirbright Institute 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As BBSRC Institutes within the National Institutes of Bioscience umbrella we collaborate on a variety of virology projects, pooling expertise, facilities and data.
Collaborator Contribution Please see the specific publications involving joint authors
Impact Toward the aim of defining the basis of resistance of poultry to viral diseases (DO1.2), we analysed the early immune response of Brown Leghorn and inbred line 61 chickens housed by the National Avian Research Facility to infection by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus, in collaboration with The Pirbright Institute. This identified candidate genes and pathways associated with resistance (DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02828-14). Uplift funding totalling >£800k linking Pirbright and Roslin Institute researchers will use epitope fingerprinting to investigate the genetic plasticity of infectious bronchitis virus strains to develop improved cross-protective vaccines (BB/M012069/1). Toward making disease-resistant animals, research linking ISPG2 and ISPG4 aims to define the contribution of RelA polymorphism to resistance to African Swine Fever Virus in pigs. Challenge experiments at The Pirbright Institute are ongoing at the time of writing. We currently have two joint PhD students shared between the Institutes - one (Miss Anabel Clements, supervised by Professor Paul Digard [RI] and Drs Munir Iqbal and Holley Shelton [PI]) is working on virulence determinants of avian influenza virus, while the other (Miss Laura Dunn, supervised by Dr Pip Beard [RI] and Dr Linda Dixon [PI]) is studying miRNA modification by African swine fever virus. Dr Beard, a senior virologist and pathologist has been appointed to a joint Roslin / Pirbright position, starting 1st May, 2016.
 
Description Roslin-Genus Cooperative Partnership Addendum 16 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Roslin Institute team conceived and executed the research project to test the hypothesis that gene-editing the pig CD163 gene would confer resistance to infection with PRRSV.
Collaborator Contribution The Genus team contributed to the project design and management.
Impact Paper published: Burkard et al. 2017. PLOS Pathogens 1392): e1006206
Start Year 2010
 
Description Strategic research partnership with WorldFish 
Organisation Worldfish
Country Malaysia 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution A strategic research partnership has been established between Roslin and WorldFish. This partnership is initially focussed on use of advanced genetic and genomic technology to improve selective breeding of tilapia - one of the world's most important foodfish. Our contribution has included development of a research programme that builds on research performed in Atlantic salmon to inform strategies and techniques to implement genomic selection in WorldFish tilapia breeding programme.
Collaborator Contribution WorldFish run a family based selective breeding programme for tilapia and will provide data and samples from this programme to inform the research.
Impact This is a multidisciplinary partnership involving researchers involved in tilapia health, genetics, molecular biology and bioinformatics.
Start Year 2017
 
Description The National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases (NIHSAD), Bhopal India 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This collaboration is directly funded by a joint grant from the BBSRC and Indian DBT (see further funding awards). The Roslin side brings expertise in avian genomics and influenza A virus molecular biology
Collaborator Contribution Our partners at NIHSAD bring expertise in highly pathogenic influenza A virus pathogenicity studies carried out under high biosafety containment. The overall aim is to investigate the determinant that set resistance or susceptibility to avian influenza amongst diverse birds species including chickens, ducks, pigeons and crows.
Impact See publication: PMID 25592823
Start Year 2013
 
Title Domain 5 of CD163 for use in antiviral compositions against PRRS, and transgenic animals 
Description The present invention relates to methods and compositions useful for the prevention and/or treatment of PRRS in animals, typically domestic pigs. The invention relates to proteins which comprise fragments of CD163, nucleic acid constructs encoding such proteins, and methods of modifying expression or activity of CD 163 in vivo. 
IP Reference WO2015011483 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact Steps along the way to converting this intellectual property into socio-economic impact including establishing regulatory approval, if necessary, for products from gene edited pigs to enter the food chain generally or in this specific example and agreeing licensing terms with appropriate players in the agri-food chain.
 
Description Annual Roslin Institute Open Doors Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The annual Roslin Institute Open Doors day was held on 14 October 2017 and was attended by 491 people. It involved 81 members of staff and students and showcased a wide range of research arising from BBSRC strategic investment, including (but not limited to), food safety, influenza, genetic improvement, DNA, imaging and the ethical treatment of animals in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Come Dine With The Future 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact What will we be eating in 50 years time? H Sang and 4 other presenters described what will be on their dinner menu, considering advances in technology and challenges of sustainability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bkta-s7z9DY
 
Description Flu Fighters public exhibition stand 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 4. With £10k BBSRC funding, ISPG4-funded researchers jointly developed 'Flu-Fighters', an interactive exhibit suitable for children and adults highlighting our research to create influenza-resistant farm animals, develop improved vaccines and diagnostic tests, and understand the role of viral and host factors in the outcome of infection. This was run over three days in November 2014 at the Great British Bioscience Festival (visited by over 6500 people) as part of BBSRC's 20th anniversary programme. ISPG4 scientists were involved in running it again at the Royal Society's 2015 Summer Science Exhibition in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Organised a British Council Researcher Links conference in Mexico 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-organised a Researcher Links conference about Genomics in Aquaculture in Merida, Mexico in January 2017. This 5 day event featured around 40 scientists, with a mix of young researchers and mentors from both the UK and Mexico. This has already led to several collaborative links between UK and Mexico in this field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://sites.google.com/site/genomicsinaquaculturemxuk/home
 
Description Peebles Brownies Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 80 brownies attended a hands on workshop aimed at educating girls in the career opportunity's available in science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description TedX Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact TedX Glasgow is a volunteer-run event attended by a an audience from school children to people supported by their employers to attend for personal development. The talks are very varied addressing a wide range of topics and so this was an opportunity to talk about GM technology in a Scottish context and in the context of sustainable agriculture. There was an oportunity at the end of the day to meet members of the audience freely and I had a lot of interesting discussions. The Youtube video has ~900 views. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DUbqrh5otWs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017