Mechanistic understanding of virus pathogenesis and resistance

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

Endemic and exotic virus diseases pose a major threat to the livestock industry worldwide and in the case of potential zoonoses impinge on wider human welfare. Understanding mechanisms of virus pathogenesis in mammals and birds has major implications for identifying strategies that can translate to the clinic. We will i) exploit Roslin’s expertise in post genomic technologies to identify new viruses of veterinary importance, ii) map the viral genes associated with disruption of the innate immune response (PRRSV, influenza virus), iii) investigate the role of small non-coding RNA in beta- and gamma-herpesvirus infection and iv) explore the epidemiology and aetiology of newly discovered viruses.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50

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Arabi YM (2017) Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. in The New England journal of medicine

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Baillie JK (2013) Influenza--time to target the host? in The New England journal of medicine

 
Description • We have identified and/or shown a role in pathogenicity for three previously unknown influenza A virus (IAV) proteins. This work has been published in Science, PLoS Pathogens and J. Gen. Virol. (PIs Digard, Dutia and Nash). We also explored the interaction of IAV with macrophages in vitro and in vivo with particular emphasis on the role of macrophage phenotype in virus replication and outcome of infection (work published in J. Gen Virol). We showed that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by IAV but produce lower inflammatory responses. In vivo the inability to produce an inflammatory response results in amelioration of infection suggesting novel approaches to control of infection.

• Alteration of CpG/UpA dinucleotide frequencies in viral genomes, without changing protein sequences, was found to profoundly affect viral replication leading to papers in PNAS, eLife and Nucleic Acids Research (PIs Simmonds, Digard, Beard and Dutia). This informs the rational design of live-attenuated viral vaccines (as pursued via Sparking Impact funds) and primed a c. £1m Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Award to Prof. Peter Simmonds.

• We investigated the role of small non-coding RNAs in herpesvirus infection. Firstly, we characterised the expression of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 miRNAs in vitro and in vivo. This unique natural model of gammaherpesvirus infection allowed us to identify patterns of infection during acute and latent infection in vivo and, by construction of a deletion mutant, we were able to investigate the roles of a subset of miRNAs in pathogenesis. This award also contributed to studies on the role of gammaherpesvirus encoded chemokine binding proteins in the establishment of latent infection showing that they contribute to the establishment of latency by down regulation of immune responses. Using RISC immunoprecipitation we generated the first systematic analysis of miRNA targets in the context of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Multiple targets were validated and the top target, ATP6V0C was shown to be essential for virus replication. Knockdown of this gene resulted in a striking assembly and egress phenotype and suggest that inhibiting the cellular V-ATPase could be an effective therapeutic target for HCMV infection. (PIs Dutia, Grey)

• We have developed a number of tools and methods that enable researchers to access, use and manipulate large sequencing datasets. Specifically for this ISP, we published viRome, an R package which looks for signatures of both viRNA and piRNA responses in small RNA datasets (http://www.ark-genomics.org/bioinformatics/virome.). Insects are important vectors of viral diseases of both humans and animals; and the insect immune response to viruses often includes both a small RNA (viRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) response. Using viRome, we studied the small RNA response in insect vectors to a range of important viruses. We found that the Culicoides midge raises both a viRNA and piRNA response to both bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus (published in J. Virol); that knockdown of PIWI proteins results in enhanced Semliki Forest virus production, indicating an anti-viral function (published in J. Gen Virol); we characterized the antiviral RNAi response in tick cells infected with Flaviviruses (published in Nucleic Acids Research); and further characterised the tick response (both Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus) to tick-borne encephalitis virus; and finally characterised the antiviral RNAi response in vector and non-vector cells against Orthobunyaviruses. (PI Watson).

• The ISP funding has supported research into the interactions between poxviruses and their host cell. We carried out a high throughput loss of function screen of Vaccinia virus (VACV) replication using a RNAi library which identified 153 pro- and 149 anti-viral host factors that strongly influenced VACV replication. The most interesting of these hits have been studied in greater detail, with TRAF2 shown to promote VACV entry, RAB1A to facilitate virion morphogenesis, and the retrograde transport pathway to enable the unique double-wrapping step of virion maturation. These articles have contributed to the scant literature on host cell proteins and pathways which influence VACV replication. They represent fundamental research knowledge which will be applied to improve the clinical uses of VACV as a vaccine and an oncolytic therapy. The work was published in J Virol, Virology, PloS ONE and Nature Communications (PIs Beard, Digard).

• We have continued our studies of a range of avian oncogenic viruses, including the characterisation of a number of important avian cell types and lines (many transformed by oncogenic viruses). We have discovered and published microRNAs associated with duck-enteritis virus (published in J. gen. Virol); we published (J. Virol) one of the first examples of a retrovirus using canonical processing mechanisms to generate a novel viral microRNA, with possible roles in myeloid leucosis ; we have demonstrated that the oncoprotein encoded by REV-T, v-Rel (an NF-kappa-B orthologue) binds upstream of gga-miR-155 during infection and promotes massive expression of this microRNA, manipulating both the host immune system and the cell cycle (J. Gen. Virol); finally, we have discovered and published genes differentially expressed during spontaneous reactivation of Marek's disease virus (accepted for publication). More generally, we have produced additional datasets that enable us to study gene regulation during transformation of avian cells by oncogenic viruses, including transcription factor binding, methylation patterns and gene expression/RNA-Seq. (PI Watson).

• In 2014-2015 there was a large outbreak of highly pathogenic bird flu in Asia, Europe and North America. We, together with other global partners (in The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses) analysed avian influenza sequences collected by all the partners. In particular we led sophisticated phylodynamic analyses on the viral sequence data and were able to show that this was not the usual H5N1 strain, but a new reassortment, H5N8 which was spread by wild long range migrating bird populations (published in Science). Consequently we helped advise the respective governments, including the Scottish Government about the avian influenza incursion risk to domestic flocks from wild birds.
Exploitation Route At the academic level, this section of the Institute Strategic Programme grant has generated a wealth of research data and findings that serve to underpin future research and grant applications, by ourselves and others, as well as leading into numerous interactions with industrial partners.

Further specific examples are:

We have put IP protection in place for the idea of altering CpG/UpA dinucleotide frequencies as a means of developing safe and effective vaccines and have found an industry partner to develop the technology further

The avian influenza phylodynamics work is ongoing - the virus was detected again in 2016, and by autumn/winter 2016 there were new outbreaks across Europe, so again we analysed the viral sequence data for origin and spread, and contributed information to the Scottish Government about the disease incursion risk to domestic flocks from wild birds, ultimately resulting in the domestic bird housing order in place until the end of Feb 2017.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description By understanding how important viral diseases interact with their hosts, we can better design intervention strategies such as novel vaccines, drugs and targeted gene drives. This may result in better farm animal production and increased human health via the reduction of the impact of animal and human diseases. BBSRC strategic investment at Roslin via this and other Institute Strategic Programmes has sustained expertise and facilities that have attracted substantial inward investment at the Easter Bush Campus. This has recently included a £15M Gates Foundation funding to establish the Centre for Tropical Livestock Genetics & Health to implement genetic gain and treatments in support of farmers in low- and middle-income farmers, including to control endemic and zoonotic diseases. It has also driven dozens of productive collaborations with industry via contracts and leveraging schemes, leading to a £10M private equity investment to form Roslin Technologies to commercialise our research and construction of a new £32M Innovation Centre adjacent to the Institute to engage and grow businesses. Moreover, the expertise supported by this funding has attracted major investment in Agri-Tech Centres at Easter Bush funded by InnovateUK (Centre for Innovation Excellence in Livestock & Agri-EPI). These Centres will increase national capacity for infectious challenge in farmed animals, gene editing and collection of novel phenotypes and be linked to stakeholders throughout the food supply chain.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Economic

 
Description EPIC 2
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Epidemiologic projects are providing 'real world' impact, with the EPIC2 consortium project (£9.4M of funding in total, including £700 to the RI) providing expert advice to the Scottish Government and industry stakeholders on exotic (and increasingly endemic) disease risks. Strands of forecasting and 'horizon scanning' work include risk assessments of the introduction of West Nile virus into the South of England and the spread of Schmallenburg virus (SBV) into Scotland.
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/home/eng/Media_Center/docs/pdf/PortailAI/H5N8_OFFLU_Statement-1.pdf
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club
Amount £94,126 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M502984/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club
Amount £94,126 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M502972/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2020
 
Description BBSRC responsive mode
Amount £682,857 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P003966/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description BBSRC strategic LOLA
Amount £458,687 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K002465/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2013 
End 05/2018
 
Description BBSRC/India DBT Joint call in farmed animal diseases
Amount £1,300,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L004666/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Description Boehringer Ingelheim The PCV2 European Research Award
Amount € 25,000 (EUR)
Organisation Boehringer Ingelheim 
Department Boehringer Ingelheim
Sector Private
Country Canada
Start 02/2017 
End 04/2018
 
Description CALL: INTEGRATING AND OPENING RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES OF EUROPEAN INTEREST
Amount € 10,000,000 (EUR)
Funding ID H2020-INFRAIA-2016-1 project number 731014 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2022
 
Description CASE studentship
Amount £90,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L004666/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2017
 
Description Dissecting the molecular pathways of MDV oncoprotein Meq for understanding pathogenesis and aid vaccine development
Amount £384,966 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007632/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Dissecting the molecular pathways of MDV oncoprotein Meq for understanding pathogenesis and aid vaccine development
Amount £312,917 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007632/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 05/2021
 
Description EPIC: Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks
Amount £10,000,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Scotland 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 04/2021
 
Description EU H2020
Amount € 5,500,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description H2020
Amount € 5,500,000 (EUR)
Funding ID DELTA-FLU 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 05/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description Houghton Trust small project grants
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Houghton Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Unknown
Start 01/2016 
End 01/2017
 
Description Identification of interferon stimulated genes that restrict cross-species transmission of influenza A virus.
Amount £614,702 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S00114X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description MRC project grant
Amount £476,066 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/N001796/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 12/2018
 
Description MRC project grant
Amount £674,045 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/M011755/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 01/2018
 
Description Mobility grant for staff teaching/training
Amount £804 (GBP)
Organisation erasmus + 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description Principal's Career Development PhD studentship
Amount £72,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2013 
End 08/2016
 
Description Project grant
Amount £873,050 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/M011747/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2018
 
Description Sir Henry Dale Fellowship - Eleanor Gaunt - The role of CpG dinucleotides in regulating virus replication kinetics
Amount £1,025,674 (GBP)
Funding ID 211222/Z/18/Z 
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2023
 
Description Tools and Resources Development Fund
Amount £144,529 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N021738/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 09/2017
 
Title CDCD pig model 
Description We improved a caesarean-derived, colostrum deprived pig model to ensure that animal welfare and survivability of pigs increases. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Survivability of pigs increased from 50% to 90-100% 
 
Title ELispot for PCV2 
Description The assay is able to detect a cellular immune response to PCV2. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Improvement of vaccine efficacy assessment. 
 
Title Iin vitro infection model for Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome 
Description Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC) are isolated from blood and either cryopreserved or used immediately. PBMC are cultured in vitro in the presence of CSF1 for 5 days.Growth in the presence of CSF1 facilitates the differentiation of PBMC into macrophages. These in vitro differentiated macrophages are subsequently infected with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The in vitro PRRS infection model facilitates studies of genetic variation in both host (pigs) and pathogen (e.g. PRRSV) simultaneously. Unlike the for laboratory mouse there is an absence of inbred strains or lines of pigs. The PBMC resource allows the same pig to be infected separately with multiple different pathogens or genetic variants of a pathogen.The PBMC resource and in vitro PRRS infection model also facilitates genetics studies that require population or sample sizes of hundreds to thousands that are not feasible through animal challenge experiments. Thus, the in vitro infection model also contributes to the 3Rs agenda. 
 
Title In silico generation of genome wide guide sequences for pig and chicken 
Description One of the aims of the project is to design CRISPR guide sequences against each of the annotated genes for pig and chicken using the most advanced algorithms available. this has now been achieved and selected guide sequences are being test in pig and chicken cell lines to determine efficacy. Once the full libraries have been validated the guide sequences will be made publicly available through dedicated pig and chicken genome websites. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Once publicly available, any researcher will be able to search for guide sequences to their gene of interest, allowing rapid generation of guide sequences to generate knockout libraries. 
 
Title PDCoV-ELISA 
Description A test to develop antibodies to PDCoV IgA and IgG antibodies for early detection of infection was developed. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The test is used for early detection of infection of a pig herd with PDCoV. 
 
Title PEDV assay 
Description An ELISA for detection of IgG and IgA PEDV antibodies was developed. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Test is used to determine if pig herds are free of PEDV 
 
Title Cool tools - a biologist friendly parameterized model of an influenza A virus infected cell 
Description There is a need for formalised diagrams that both summarise current biological pathway knowledge and support modelling approaches that explain and predict their behaviour. We presented a new, freely available modelling framework that includes a biologist-friendly pathway modelling language (mEPN), a simple but sophisticated method to support model parameterisation using available biological information; a stochastic flow algorithm that simulates the dynamics of pathway activity; and a 3-D visualisation engine that aids understanding of the complexities of a system's dynamics in a publication in the journal PloS Biology. We presented example pathway models that illustrate of the power of approach to depict a diverse range of systems, including a parameterized model of an influenza A virus infected cell. For more details on the assembly and parameterisation of this pathway and to download the pathway itself, see S2 Text, S2 Graphml, S2 Fig and S3 GraphML in: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002530.g005 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Too early to say, but the publication has been viewed nearly 8000 times in the 7 months since it was published. 
 
Title Loss of function RNAi screen of Vaccinia virus replication in HeLa cells 
Description A functional high throughput small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen targeting 6719 druggable cellular genes was undertaken to identify host factors (HF) influencing the replication and spread of VACV. The results of the screen were made available at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0098431#pone.0098431.s001 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This was one of the first RNAi screens undertaken for poxvirus replication and has been used by many groups to identify host proteins or pathways to target to modulate poxvirus disease. 
URL http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0098431#pone.0098431.s001
 
Title Modulation of host cell miRNAs by Vaccinia virus 
Description Vaccinia virus causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A) polymerase which adds poly(A) tails to the 3' end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi). Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h) and late (24 h) times post infection. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This work led to a PhD studentship which is investigating the alterations of miRNAs by African Swine Fever virus, a virus closely related to Vaccinia virus, in order to see if manipulation of miRNAs can be used as a novel control mechanism for this pig disease. Sequencing data was deposited in GEO database (GSE54235) 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE54235
 
Title PRJEB14979 
Description Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) is a widespread alphaherpesvirus of poultry that causes Marek's disease (MD) characterised by fatal visceral CD4+ TCRaß+ T cell tumours at high incidence in susceptible hosts. As is the case with many virus-induced tumours, immortal cell lines harbouring viral genome have been generated from ex vivo cultures of MD tumours. As readily-available sources of large numbers of cells of a uniform type, MDV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) have proved extremely valuable in studying virus-host interaction. While the viral genome is held in a latent state in most of the cells, a minor population of cells display spontaneous reactivation identifiable by the expression of lytic viral genes such as pp38. The process of spontaneous reactivation in these cell populations offers the opportunity for investigating the biological processes involved in the reactivation events. For this, we used two lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from lymphomas induced by pRB1B-UL47eGFP, a recombinant MDV engineered to express EGFP fused with the UL47. We used Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to purify the rare EGFP-positive cell population with spontaneously activating viral genome from the majority EGFP-negative cells and analysed their gene expression profiles by RNA-sequencing using Illumina HiSeq2500. The reads generated were mapped using TopHat and gene expression levels were analysed by edgeR. Ingenuity pathway analysis software on more than 2000 differentially-expressed genes between the lytically infected (EGFP-positive) and latently infected (EGFP-negative) cell populations was used identify major biological pathways involved in the reactivation. These studies revealed that amongst others, transcripts directly involved in T activation such as CD3 complex, CD28, ICOS, phospholipase C, CD3 complex were down-regulated following reactivation of the virus in the LCL. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These data detail the gene expression changes during spontaneous activation of MDV and will be useful to researchers investigating the mechanism of action of this important virus, as well as in vaccine design 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/PRJEB14979
 
Description BIVI Collaboration 
Organisation Boehringer Ingelheim
Country Germany 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Analysis of samples and consulting on tests and treatment options
Collaborator Contribution Test kits and samples.
Impact Confidentials
Start Year 2013
 
Description Biochemical interaction of CD163 with PRRSV glycoproteins GP2, GP3, and GP4 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing purified, tagged CD163 protein variations for the assessment of biochemical and biophysical interactions of the protein with the PRRSV glycoproteins GP2, GP3, and GP4 and glycoprotein complex GP2/3/4.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaboration partners area analysing the biochemical and biophysical interactions of CD163 variants with the PRRSV glycoproteins GP2, GP3, and GP4 and glycoprotein complex GP2/3/4 using their established baculoviral expression system.
Impact So far we are in the early stages of this collaboration and many protocols are still being optimised.
Start Year 2018
 
Description David Griffiths, Moredun 
Organisation Moredun Research Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution We have been working with David Griffiths at The Moredun Research Institute since 2011 in the study of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma
Collaborator Contribution David Griffiths is an expert in the study of ovine pulmondary adenocarcinoma, how the virus functions and how we might design intervention strategies such as vaccines. My group is expert in the use of genomics and bioinformatics and together we are using sequencing to understand how the virus interacts with its host
Impact NA
Start Year 2011
 
Description ISU collaboration 
Organisation Iowa State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing knowhow and imput
Collaborator Contribution Providing laboratory and animal space
Impact Several publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description In vivo challenge of genome edited deltaSRCR5 pigs with PRRSV-1 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Following the successful generation of pigs lacking domain 5 (SRCR5) of the CD163 and the promising in vitro results, showing primary cells of these pigs to be resistant against PRRSV infection we obtained further funding from Genus plc. to conduct an in vivo study. 4 delta SRCR5 pigs and 4 wild type pigs were challenged with PRRSV-1. We conducted the study and analysed the outcomes.
Collaborator Contribution Genus plc contributed funding to conduct the in vivo study to assess infectability of delta SRCR5 pigs with PRRSV-1
Impact We published the results of this study in a scientific publication, disseminated the results in a press release package, as well as presented the work at various scientific conferences and public engagement events.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Maintenance of delta SRCR5 pigs 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Breeding and maintenance of the genome edited delta SRCR5 pig line from the end of "Engineering resistance to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)" (BB/L004143/1) and the beginning of "Understanding the CD163 - PRRS virus interaction to improve genetic engineering for resistance" (BB/R004463/1).
Collaborator Contribution Genus plc provided the funds for breeding and maintenance of the delta SRCR5 pigs.
Impact The outcomes of this project are directly interlinked with the outcomes of the grants mentioned above.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Pirbright Institute 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As BBSRC Institutes within the National Institutes of Bioscience umbrella we collaborate on a variety of virology projects, pooling expertise, facilities and data.
Collaborator Contribution Please see the specific publications involving joint authors
Impact Toward the aim of defining the basis of resistance of poultry to viral diseases (DO1.2), we analysed the early immune response of Brown Leghorn and inbred line 61 chickens housed by the National Avian Research Facility to infection by Infectious Bursal Disease Virus, in collaboration with The Pirbright Institute. This identified candidate genes and pathways associated with resistance (DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02828-14). Uplift funding totalling >£800k linking Pirbright and Roslin Institute researchers will use epitope fingerprinting to investigate the genetic plasticity of infectious bronchitis virus strains to develop improved cross-protective vaccines (BB/M012069/1). Toward making disease-resistant animals, research linking ISPG2 and ISPG4 aims to define the contribution of RelA polymorphism to resistance to African Swine Fever Virus in pigs. Challenge experiments at The Pirbright Institute are ongoing at the time of writing. We currently have two joint PhD students shared between the Institutes - one (Miss Anabel Clements, supervised by Professor Paul Digard [RI] and Drs Munir Iqbal and Holley Shelton [PI]) is working on virulence determinants of avian influenza virus, while the other (Miss Laura Dunn, supervised by Dr Pip Beard [RI] and Dr Linda Dixon [PI]) is studying miRNA modification by African swine fever virus. Dr Beard, a senior virologist and pathologist has been appointed to a joint Roslin / Pirbright position, starting 1st May, 2016.
 
Description Roslin-Genus Cooperative Partnership Addendum 16 
Organisation Genus plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The Roslin Institute team conceived and executed the research project to test the hypothesis that gene-editing the pig CD163 gene would confer resistance to infection with PRRSV.
Collaborator Contribution The Genus team contributed to the project design and management.
Impact Paper published: Burkard et al. 2017. PLOS Pathogens 1392): e1006206
Start Year 2010
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Animal Health Research Institute
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Animal Health Service
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency
Country Korea, Republic of 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Department Harbin Veterinary Research Institute (HVRI)
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Erasmus University Medical Center
Department Department of Viroscience
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of the Venezie
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Government of Canada
Department Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Government of Canada
Department Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Hokkaido University
Department Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Hokkaido University
Department Research Center for Zoonosis Control
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA)
Country Hungary 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Konkuk University
Country Korea, Republic of 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation National Food Chain Safety Office
Department Veterinary Diagnostic Directorate
Country Hungary 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation National Veterinary Institute
Country Sweden 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department National Wildlife Research Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory
Country Georgia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation US Geological Survey
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation University Libre Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB)
Department Spatial Epidemiology Laboratory
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Zoology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation University of Wageningen
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Utrecht University
Department Department of Farm Animal Health
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses 
Organisation Wellcome Trust
Department Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme in Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution I performed phylogeographic analysis on avian influenza sequence data from the 2014/2015 highly pathogenic bird flu outbreaks supplied by the collaborators, resulting in a paper in Science. Since then I have also been performing analysis on the 2016/2017 outbreaks and investigating the generation of reassortments by phylodynamic (computational) methods.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed sequence data from avian influenza cases, other avian influenza case data and expertise relating to bird migration. This collaboration was mediated through GISAID http://platform.gisaid.org/epi3/frontend The main collaborators are Erasmus Medical Centre, University of Utrecht and Friedrich Loeffler Institute.
Impact Paper: "Role for migratory wild birds in the global spread of avian influenza H5N8" The Global Consortium for H5N8 and Related Influenza Viruses: S Lycett, R Bodewes, (many others), .. M Woolhouse, T Kuiken Science 14 Oct 2016: Vol. 354, Issue 6309, pp. 213-217 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8852
Start Year 2014
 
Description The National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases (NIHSAD), Bhopal India 
Organisation Indian Council of Agricultural Research
Department National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This collaboration is directly funded by a joint grant from the BBSRC and Indian DBT (see further funding awards). The Roslin side brings expertise in avian genomics and influenza A virus molecular biology
Collaborator Contribution Our partners at NIHSAD bring expertise in highly pathogenic influenza A virus pathogenicity studies carried out under high biosafety containment. The overall aim is to investigate the determinant that set resistance or susceptibility to avian influenza amongst diverse birds species including chickens, ducks, pigeons and crows.
Impact See publication: PMID 25592823
Start Year 2013
 
Description VT collaboration 
Organisation Virginia Tech
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing of a pig model and testing viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Developing vaccines
Impact Several publications
Start Year 2014
 
Description Venu Nair, The Pirbright Institute 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been working with Venu Nair at The Pirbright Institute for over 10 years, broadly in the area of avian oncogenic viruses such as Marek's disease and ALV.
Collaborator Contribution Venu's group are expert in virology and virus research whereas my group is expert in genomics and bioinformatics. Together we use genomics to explore virus-host interactions.
Impact 28113043 24155381 23967013 22492913 19403687 19297609 18256158
Start Year 2006
 
Description Zoetis - emerging pathogens of farmed and companion animals 
Organisation Zoetis
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Work in theme 2 on detection and characterisation of emerging or novel viruses in animals and humans led to the publication of 24 papers. £75k uplift funding was obtained for such research and Zoetis agreed to support a European hub at RI for detection of emerging pathogens of farmed and companion animals.
Collaborator Contribution See above.
Impact Work is ongoing
Start Year 2014
 
Title Domain 5 of CD163 for use in antiviral compositions against PRRS, and transgenic animals 
Description The present invention relates to methods and compositions useful for the prevention and/or treatment of PRRS in animals, typically domestic pigs. The invention relates to proteins which comprise fragments of CD163, nucleic acid constructs encoding such proteins, and methods of modifying expression or activity of CD 163 in vivo. 
IP Reference WO2015011483 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact Steps along the way to converting this intellectual property into socio-economic impact including establishing regulatory approval, if necessary, for products from gene edited pigs to enter the food chain generally or in this specific example and agreeing licensing terms with appropriate players in the agri-food chain.
 
Title viRome: an R package for the visualization and analysis of viral small RNA sequence datasets. 
Description SUMMARY: RNA interference (RNAi) is known to play an important part in defence against viruses in a range of species. Second-generation sequencing technologies allow us to assay these systems and the small RNAs that play a key role with unprecedented depth. However, scientists need access to tools that can condense, analyse and display the resulting data. Here, we present viRome, a package for R that takes aligned sequence data and produces a range of essential plots and reports. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: viRome is released under the BSD license as a package for R available for both Windows and Linux http://virome.sf.net. Additional information and a tutorial is available on the ARK-Genomics website: http://www.ark-genomics.org/bioinformatics/virome. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL http://www.ark-genomics.org/bioinformatics/virome
 
Description Annual Roslin Institute Open Doors Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The annual Roslin Institute Open Doors day was held on 14 October 2017 and was attended by 491 people. It involved 81 members of staff and students and showcased a wide range of research arising from BBSRC strategic investment, including (but not limited to), food safety, influenza, genetic improvement, DNA, imaging and the ethical treatment of animals in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Avian Pathogenesis Meeting, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute. "Generation of genome wide CRISPR Cas9 libraries for pig and chicken" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Avian Pathogenesis Meeting was organised to provide an opportunity for interaction and collaboration with veterinary scientists from China. I presented our work on genome-wide CRISPR/cas9 libraries for pig and chicken and ISG libraries for pig and chicken. We highlighted our new capability to perform high throughput systematic functional screens in livestock species. Potential collaborations and sharing of resources were discussed and are currently being acted on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BBSRC Animal Health Research Club Fourth Dissemination Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A retrospective report on the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club project on "Engineering resistance to Porcine Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV)" was presented including the ongoing research in the BBSRC project " Understanding the CD163 - PRRS virus interaction to improve genetic engineering for resistanc" (BB/R004463/1) and outreach activities. This was followed by questions and discussions from/with scientists engaged in other BBSRC Animal Health Research Club and with representatives from the industrial co-funders of the BBSRC Animal Health Research Club.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Bike riding and science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Science in the Saddle". The Midlothian Ranger Service and scientists from The Roslin Institute combined to provide a grand day out on the bike for the general public in Midlothian's countryside. It was a gently paced cycle with frequent stops to hear scientific talks. I spoke about post mortem examinations and how they help scientists in 2013, and smallpox and its relevance to us today in 2014.
The major advantage of this method of public engagement is after you give your talk to the group you continue riding through the countryside with the group of cyclists and have a chance to chat informally about your information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description CPD event for High School Biology teachers 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact SSERC CPD Summer School for 22 high school teachers. A lecture on the principles and application of genome editing and delivery of parts of a workshop we were developing on "Cows, Coughs and CRISPR". The participants reported an increased understanding of the topic and their feedback on the workshop allowed us identify an appropriate level of content and to further tailor it to the needs of the school curriculum.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Come Dine With The Future 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact What will we be eating in 50 years time? H Sang and 4 other presenters described what will be on their dinner menu, considering advances in technology and challenges of sustainability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bkta-s7z9DY
 
Description Communicating Science to budding scientists at Abbotsleigh School for Girls in Sydney 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Pip Beard and Megan Davey from The Roslin Institute held a video conference with year 9 science students (14 year olds) and discussed their work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Easter Bush Campus annual open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The annual Roslin Institute Open Doors day was held on 13 October 2018 and was attended by over 600 people. It showcased a wide range of research arising from BBSRC strategic investment, including (but not limited to), gene editing food safety, influenza, genetic improvement, DNA, imaging and the ethical treatment of animals in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Edinburgh Science Festival, Flu Fighters 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in Flu Fighters during the Edinburgh Science Festival 2015.
We showcased the exhibit 'Flu Fighters' at the festival. The 'Flu Fighters' exhibit focuses on influenza viruses and the science behind the varied approaches to combating flu being developed at Roslin and Pirbright. It showcases current research including GM animals, novel approaches to vaccines and diagnostic tests and host/virus genetics.
The exhibit also demonstrates how flu transmits from animals to humans and highlight the challenges of preventing large-scale outbreaks.The 'Flu Fighters' exhibit provides an opportunity for visitors to run diagnostic tests on a chicken, design their own flu virus and discuss the pros and cons of genetic modification of animals.
Over 100 people attended the morning and the activities sparked questions from both children and parents/carers. A better understanding of the problem for the poultry industry, eco system (wild birds) and human health was reported back.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Flu Fighters public exhibition stand 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 4. With £10k BBSRC funding, ISPG4-funded researchers jointly developed 'Flu-Fighters', an interactive exhibit suitable for children and adults highlighting our research to create influenza-resistant farm animals, develop improved vaccines and diagnostic tests, and understand the role of viral and host factors in the outcome of infection. This was run over three days in November 2014 at the Great British Bioscience Festival (visited by over 6500 people) as part of BBSRC's 20th anniversary programme. ISPG4 scientists were involved in running it again at the Royal Society's 2015 Summer Science Exhibition in London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Gorebridge Girl Guides visit to Roslin 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Gorebridge Girl Guides visit the Roslin Institute for a day to see what being a scientist involves. Gorebridge is a deprived area of Edinburgh with high unemployment and low tertiary education levels. The girls who attended reported surprise at seeing female scientists, and agreed the day had changed their perception of what a research scientist was.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
 
Description H5N8 bird flu press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release about H5N8 bird flu study; also covered by BBC news http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-37643894
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.roslin.ed.ac.uk/news/2016/10/14/migration-routes-hold-key-to-bird-flu-spread-global-study...
 
Description Institute of Animal Pathogology, University of Bern. "Bringing high throughput approaches to livestock species". Invited talk. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Was invited to Bern to present on our work on developing CRISPR/Cas9 and ISG libraries for pig and chicken. Collaborations and sharing of resources were discussed and are being put into action. Additionally the visit was organised to increase links with an institute with aligned scientific interests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk European Veterinary Vaccinology Workshop 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk on career opportunities in academia for young scientists
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hTujbImUCcI
 
Description One Health Models of Infectious Disease. University of Edinburgh. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting our work on generation of genome wide CRISPR Cas9 libraries for pig and chicken. The meeting was aimed at establishing a Wellcome Trust studentship program at the Roslin Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Peebles Brownies Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 80 brownies attended a hands on workshop aimed at educating girls in the career opportunity's available in science
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation to the BBSRC executive committee "Bringing high throughput approaches to livestock species" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The BBSRC executive were visiting Roslin Institute to review on going research programs as part of the ISP funding.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Press reports on PRRSV-resistant pigs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In connection with the publication of our research paper "Pigs Lacking the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Domain 5 of CD163 Are Resistant to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus 1 Infection" (doi: 10.1128/JVI.00415-18) we published a press package and answered interview request from many broadcasting and media agencies. As a result the following print and broadcast pieces were released:

International Broadcast:
BBC Scotland, BBC News at Six, BBC News at Ten, BBC World, BBC Sunday Morning Live, BBC Radio 4 Farming Today, BBC Radio Five Live, BBC Radio 4, BBC Radio Scotland, BBC World Service, Guardian Podcast, BBC Radio Shetland, Swiss Radio & TV (SRF), Country Today (Victoria, Australia, Radio), Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, France 24

Print UK:
The Daily Telegraph, The Times, The Guardian, Scottish Daily Mail, The i, Scottish Daily Express, The Sun, Scottish Sun, Daily Mirror, Daily Star, Metro, The Herald, Scotsman, Daily Record, Dundee Courier, Edinburgh Evening News, Aberdeen Evening Express, The Week, Press & Journal, Yorkshire Post

Online UK
BBC Online, Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, The Times, The Guardian, Daily Mirror, Daily Express, Scotsman, Irish News, Irish Examiner, Shropshire Star, Express & Star, Hastings Observer, Scarborough News, Eastbourne Herald, Shoreham Herald, West Sussex County Times, Yorkshire Evening Post, Glasgow South & Eastwood Extra, Rye & Battle Observer, Crawley Observer, Bognor Regis Observer, Mid Sussex Times, Worthing Herald, Littlehampton Gazette, Bexhill-on-Sea Observer, Portsmouth News, Chichester Observer, Midhurst & Petworth Observer, Dundee Evening Telegraph, Aberdeen Evening Express, Independent Recorder, TDNews, BT.com, BreakingNews.ie, The London Economic, The Weekly Observer, The Scientist, The London Economic, Science Magazine, Earth.Com, Independent Recorder, BT.com, Breakingnews.IE, I4U News, Press & Journal, Livekindly.co, Tech Times, IFLScience, Technology Networks

Online / Print International:
NTN24 (CST Science, Health & Technology Magazine, Latin Americas), Infosurhoy, The Economic Times (India), First Post (India), Eurasia Review, HealthEuropa, Jstor Daily, Times Of India, St Lucia News Online, Times Now (India), Business Standard (India), CanIndia.com (India), Green Report (Italy), New Kerala.com, Fanpage.It (Italy), Le Monde Veterinaire (France)

Veterinary / Science-related press:
Agri-Pulse, Veterinary Times, Vet Record, Pig World, Feedstuffs, Laboratory Equipment, GlobalMeatNews.com, Animal Pharm, Ag Daily, Agribusiness Intelligence, Laboratory Equipment, Pig Progress, Pig World, Labiotech.EU, MRCVS, Farmweek, National Hog Farmer, Farming UK, Frontline Genomics, Farmers Weekly, Food Weekly News
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/gene-edited-pigs-resistant-billion-dollar-virus
 
Description Regulation of splicing by the host ubiquitin segregase, VCP/p97, is essential for human cytomegalovirus replication 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact invited seminar at Glasgow Virology Workshop, University of Glasgow .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS stand at Royal Highland Show, Edinburgh, Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stand at the Royal Highland Show with exhibits covering different aspects of research including avian influenza, animal breeding and sheep transcriptomics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2016,2017
 
Description Royal Society Summer Exhibition Flu Fighters exhibit. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in Flu Fighters during the Edinburgh Science Festival 2015. We showcased the exhibit 'Flu Fighters' at the festival. The 'Flu Fighters' exhibit focuses on influenza viruses and the science behind the varied approaches to combating flu being developed at Roslin and Pirbright. It showcases current research including GM animals, novel approaches to vaccines and diagnostic tests and host/virus genetics. The exhibit also demonstrates how flu transmits from animals to humans and highlight the challenges of preventing large-scale outbreaks.The 'Flu Fighters' exhibit provides an opportunity for visitors to run diagnostic tests on a chicken, design their own flu virus and discuss the pros and cons of genetic modification of animals. Over 100 people attended the morning and the activities sparked questions from both children and parents/carers. A better understanding of the problem for the poultry industry, eco system (wild birds) and human health was reported back.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Science Insights - Outbreak Investigations using Sequence Data 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact For the whole Science Insights programme around 40 pupils intending to apply for university attend Roslin/Easter Bush for 2 days in July.
I do an influenza and other viruses sequence analysis workshop for 2-3 hours (once in 2015 and twice in 2016) for 3-4 people per session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Swine Practitioner workshop - France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Key opinion leaders from Asia were invited to discuss advances in PCV2 research including control and diagnostics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description VGTI, Portland Oregon. ""Discovering novel host-pathogen interactions using systematic approaches" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Was invited to give a presentation at Portland VGTI on our work on Human cytomegalovirus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description dissecting the interferon response to human cytomegalovirus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar to the Edinburgh infectious disease symposium.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018