Determining transmission characteristics of endemic and emerging TSEs

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: The Roslin Institute

Abstract

Although cases of classical TSE disease in ruminants appear to be in decline, while TSEs remain in the environment and new emerging isolates are being identified there are still major concerns for food security. The transmission potential of novel isolates to other ruminants and to humans is still unknown. As with any disease, the risk of intra- and inter-species transmission is a composite of many factors, including the infectivity levels in tissues and/or bodily fluids of the infected host, the routes by which that infection can pass to the new host and the way that the new host responds to the incoming infection. Host-specific variables control some of these aspects, whilst pathogen-specific variables affect others. The major aim of work in this theme is to acquire a thorough understanding of the cellular and molecular factors influencing TSE transmission that are dictated by both the new host and the TSE agent. This work intersects with the aims of ISP3 focusing on the innate immune system, which we anticipate will identify common candidate genes underlying genetic resistance to disease as well as similar pathways that are modulated by pathogens. In line with our intention to produce work with impact, this research aims to identify candidates for future transgenic approaches, for the development of diagnostic tests, to target therapeutic intervention and to aid our understanding of the risk of transmission of novel TSE agents through the food chain. The work therefore fits entirely within the BBSRC strategic priority of food security.

Publications

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Angers R (2014) Structural effects of PrP polymorphisms on intra- and interspecies prion transmission. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Bakkebø MK (2015) The Cellular Prion Protein: A Player in Immunological Quiescence. in Frontiers in immunology

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Barria MA (2014) Molecular barriers to zoonotic transmission of prions. in Emerging infectious diseases

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Barron R (2014) Prion disease zoonosis: assessing risk associated with new and emerging prion agents. in CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources

 
Title Public engagement video 
Description We created a public engagement video which explained the findings from BBSRC grant BB/L007452/1 to a lay audience. This was made publicly available. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact n/a 
URL https://media.ed.ac.uk/media/What+happens+to+your+spleen+when+you+get+oldF/1_4wmqldeh
 
Description 1. Moving the Roslin Sheep Scrapie Flock to contained conditions indoors allows many studies of natural TSE transmission. We now have extremely high transmission rates of natural scrapie and cases are occurring in younger animals, emphasising close contact as an important mediator of prion disease transmission. We continue to vary husbandry practices in a defined manner, both to gain better control of production of sheep of a range of genotypes, but also to mix sheep of less susceptible genotypes with the highly-susceptible VRQ/VRQ animals to establish whether the scrapie transmission can be manipulated.
2. Determining mediators of susceptibility to prion diseases is crucial to control disease spread. We have shown that partial susceptibility to intracerebral BSE challenge of sheep with a supposedly resistant ARR/ARR genotype cannot be explained by additional genetic variation in the PRNP gene, but instead highlighted that disease onset was associated with variation of the shadoo protein, which is encoded by the SPRN gene. We have also studied susceptibility of sheep to scrapie and BSE in depth and recently published long term studies of the overall role that PRNP genetics plays in prion susceptibility (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143251) as well as more targeted studies focussing on specific codons (e.g. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.039008-0). Our British goat herd survey found low frequency representation of an important disease-resistant PRNP allele, 222K which has consequences for future scrapie eradication programs (doi: 10.1136/vr.103521). We have also shown that PRNP gene variation in carnivores is very low and therefore unlikely to modulate prion disease susceptibility (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050623)
3. We have previously reported that M cells are the critical sites of prion agent uptake from the gut lumen after oral exposure (doi: 10.1038/mi.2011.68). Prion agents are acquired by M cells overlying Peyer's patches in the small intestine, but not by those in the large intestine. Furthermore, the lymphoid tissues in the large intestine are relatively deficient in their ability to acquire particulate antigens from the gut lumen (doi:10.1128/JVI.01544-15). In a separate study we have shown that the density of M cells in the lining of the small intestine dramatically influences susceptibility to orally-acquired prion agents: a reduction in their density impedes disease transmission, whereas increased M-cell density exacerbates disease pathogenesis (doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006075). Conversely, we have showed that prion uptake and dissemination does not depend on the sialic acid receptor sialoadhesin (doi: 10.1111/imm.12294) nor on SIGN-R1, transmembrane C-type lectin involved in recognition of opsonised particles (doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2016.08.005).
4. The commensal microbiota of the gut has many effects on host health including the regulation of the functional maturation of microglia in the CNS. We show that the absence of the commensal gut microbiota has no effect on prion disease pathogenesis, suggesting that dramatic changes to the abundance and/or complexity are unlikely to influence CNS prion disease pathogenesis (doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000860). In addition, we show that CXCR5-exressing conventional dendritic cells play a role in the efficient propagation of prion towards the FDC in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine (doi: 10.1128/JVI.00124-17).
5. Seminal studies using the sheep BSE model had previously shown that all clinically relevant blood products are capable of transmitting prion infectivity (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023169). UK blood undergoes leucodepletion in an effort to reduce infectivity at a high economic cost to the health services. We have now reported that neither leucoreduction nor P-CAPT blood filters completely removes infectivity in the sheep BSE model (doi: 10.1111/trf.13145). This could suggest that these methods may not be efficient enough in removing infectivity in a blood donation setting.
6. The accumulation of prions in the small intestine is essential for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. We now show that the magnitude of PrPC expression in the lining of the small intestine is unlikely to be an important factor which influences oral prion disease susceptibility (doi: 10.1128/JVI.01010-18) .
7. Autolysosomal dysfunction and unstable microtubules are hallmarks of protein misfolding diseases. Using prion models of disease, we report that prion aggregates travel via autolysosomes in the cytoplasm and that treatment with the polyamine, spermine, clears aggregates by enhancing autolysosomal flux (doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28296-y). This is the first report in which spermine has been applied as an approach to clear misfolded protein which may have implications for the broader family of misfolded proteins.
Exploitation Route The outputs of our research will be used to assess the need for filtration of blood products and inform on risk assessments to safeguard patient safety. We also provided a means for evaluation diagnostic tests which will have a major impact on patient safety and has economic value in the UK health setting. Our findings on CWD have the potential to aid food safety recommendations for venison and could impact on farmed cervid health and welfare.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare

 
Description This programme of research has brought together a number of prion scientists in order to determine the transmission characteristics of endemic and emerging TSEs. This programme has played a major role in the maintenance of the Roslin Sheep Scrapie Flock, a unique resource in not only UK but also worldwide prion research. The maintenance of this flock has not only generated many scientific outcomes but has become a resource for genetic studies due to its closed nature and detailed breeding records. Its maintenance in a farm setting has also allowed studies in decontamination and perpetuation of infectivity. It is undergoing embryo collection and cryopreservation to maintain the resource in an efficient manner. During the course of this programme, the role of gut-associated lymphoid tissues in prion uptake has been extensively studied. Studies involving mouse models provided evidence that age plays a role in disease susceptibility, a finding that has wider and significant implications for mucosal immunity during aging. Transgenic mouse models expressing various polymorphisms, insertions and deletions, and inbred wild type mice have provided a tool to study the transmission characteristics and zoonotic potential of prion diseases. The maintenance of these models during the course of this programme has contributed to a number of scientific outcomes but has allowed international collaborations to be set up and resources shared across laboratories. The use of mouse models in assessing zoonotic potential and modelling potential for transmission between individuals has a significant role in informing public health and aiding diagnosis of human prion diseases. In addition, the facilities to maintain sheep experimentally infected with prions have allowed their use as a large animal model to study the risks of disease transmission associated with blood transfusion, which is of particular relevance to human health and infection control. This has allowed The Roslin Institute to leverage significant levels of additional funding from Dept. of Health (over £5 million), and the outputs of this research will aid in assessing the need for leucoreduction of blood products and risk assessments to safeguard patients safety, as well as providing archived tissue and blood banks, which can be used to evaluate and develop diagnostic tests. The evaluation of diagnostic tests could in the long-term not only improve patient safety but have a major economic value as procedures become more efficient in hospitals. Chronic Wasting Disease, a disease originally found only in North America, has now been identified in Europe. Some of the European cases appear to show distinctive neuropathology, which could be an indication of a new or atypical strain. ISP funding has allowed the characterisation of North American cases and this dataset has attracted attention from Canadian groups. A collaborative project has since ensued attracting funding of ~$500,000CAD from the Alberta Prion Research Institute. Our established expertise in prion diseases of ruminant livestock, and our developing work on CWD have led to presentations at UK Governmental policy meetings (ACDP) and scientific workshops, and helped to secure funding from DEFRA and the British Deer Society to investigate the genetic susceptibility of British deer species to CWD. Understanding the nature of CWD is important, as the disease would have a devastating impact on the rapidly expanding farmed venison industry in the UK, but also in terms of public health, as fears over the possibility zoonotic transmission remain in light of recent experimental evidence.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare
Impact Types Policy & public services

 
Description EFSA working group on goat TSE resistance
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description EU policy on safety of embryos with regard to scrapie in sheep
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Affects use of sheep embryo transfer in international trade. To prevent scrapie transmission, the advice is to use genetically resistant animals.
 
Description Member of the Independent Archive Advisory Group for the Animal and Plant Health Agency TSE Tissue Archive (Defra)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Risk assessment for vCJD transmission
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
URL https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/186959/risk_assessment_Feb...
 
Description BBSRC US partnering award
Amount £36,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/K021257/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 05/2017
 
Description Chronic wasting disease in UK
Amount £24,563 (GBP)
Funding ID SE2023 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2017
 
Description Defra R&D contract
Amount £430,414 (GBP)
Funding ID SE1447 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description Department of Health
Amount £2,067,455 (GBP)
Funding ID 007/0195 
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 08/2011 
End 12/2020
 
Description General Scheme - Abigail Diack - A comparative platform for strain typing CWD
Amount £131,947 (GBP)
Funding ID RES0036432-S001 
Organisation Alberta Prion Research Institute 
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2020
 
Description How do resistant ovine pmp genotypes become susceptible genotypes
Amount £135,623 (GBP)
Funding ID SE1445 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2012 
End 06/2015
 
Description Policy Research Programme - Abigail Diack for RI - Consortium Funding - Assessing and defining pre-clinical vCJD infectivity using transmission and protein aggregation models
Amount £1,553,441 (GBP)
Funding ID PR-R17-0916-23001 
Organisation Department of Health (DH) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 12/2020
 
Description Policy Research Programme Department of Health
Amount £1,130,627 (GBP)
Funding ID PR-ST-1214-10003 
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 03/2015 
End 02/2019
 
Description Policy Research Programme on variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease
Amount £882,178 (GBP)
Funding ID PR-R17-0916-23006 
Organisation Department of Health (DH) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 03/2021
 
Description Principals career development scholarship
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Research funding
Amount £26,782 (GBP)
Organisation British Deer Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description Role of distinct mononuclear phagocyte subsets in oral prion disease pathogenesis
Amount £550,023 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S005471/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 04/2022
 
Description Study of effects of ageing on M cells
Amount £450,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M024288/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2015 
End 10/2018
 
Description Study of effects of ageing on marginal zone B cells
Amount £450,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/L007452/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2014 
End 02/2017
 
Description Study of effects of helminth infection on prion disease pathogenesis
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Council on Science and Technology (CONACYT) 
Sector Public
Country Mexico
Start 11/2014 
End 10/2017
 
Description Study of the immunobiology of M cells (Sehgal)
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EASTBIO DTP 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2012 
End 08/2016
 
Description Study of the role of macrophages in prion disease pathogenesis
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Funding ID GR002413 
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2016 
End 12/2017
 
Description The Wellcome Trust Clinical Veterinary Research Training Programme
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Bloomsbury Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2013 
End 08/2013
 
Description The evolution of TSE strains in mixed infections
Amount £420,414 (GBP)
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description Towards breeding of goats for genetically determined TSE resistance
Amount £208,000 (GBP)
Funding ID SE2018 
Organisation Department For Environment, Food And Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2012 
End 03/2016
 
Description Variation to Contract - Project extension
Amount £367,140 (GBP)
Funding ID 007/0162 
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 01/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Variation to contract - subclinical infection
Amount £176,124 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Catalonia 
Department Department of Health
Sector Public
Country Spain
Start 11/2015 
End 03/2016
 
Title Total protein as a method for data normalisation when using quantitative fluorescent western blotting 
Description Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB) to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls) are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to ß-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ~20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate that normalisation using total protein analysis on samples run in parallel with stains such as Coomassie blue provides a more robust approach. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This publication: PLoS One. 2013 Aug 30;8(8):e72457. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072457. eCollection 2013. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting. Eaton SL1, Roche SL, Llavero Hurtado M, Oldknow KJ, Farquharson C, Gillingwater TH, Wishart TM. Has already been cited >70 times since publication and led to interviews with "The Scientist" magazine etc and further publications in JoVE 
URL http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/metrics?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072457
 
Description Characterization of PrP-specific monoclonal antibodies 
Organisation Central Veterinary Institute
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We contributed monoclonal antibodies raised against the sheep PrP protein to various studies.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners assisted in the characaterization of the antibodies, particularly epitope mapping.
Impact Publications: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091143
 
Description Development of blood tests for TSES 
Organisation NHS Blood and Transplant (NHSBT)
Department Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We supplied blood samples from sheep experimentally infected with BSE, which were used to validate the ability of proposed blood tests to detect preclinical TSE infection, before being applied to human samples.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners were responsible for method development and testing of samples.
Impact Publications: doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01759.x. doi: 10.1111/trf.13145.
 
Description EM Analysis of plaque seeding 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Providing material for analysis by electron microscopy
Collaborator Contribution Performed electron microscopic analysis of tissue from our mouse models.
Impact Jeffrey M, McGovern G, Chambers EV, King D, Gonzalez L, Manson JC, Ghetti B, Piccardo P and Barron RM (2012). Mechanism of PrP amyloid formation in mice without transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Brain Pathology 22:58-66 Jeffrey M, McGovern G, Barron R, Baumann F (2015). Membrane pathology and microglial activation of mice expressing membrane anchored or membrane released forms of Aß and mutated human APP: a comparison with prion disease. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 41:458-470. Barron RM, King D, Jeffrey M, McGovern G, Agarwal S, Gill AC and Piccardo P (2016). PrP aggregation can be seeded by pre-formed recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils without the replication of infectious prions. Acta Neuropathologica 132:611-624 DOI 10.1007/s00401-016-1594-5
Start Year 2007
 
Description Genetic association with TSE disease in sheep and goats 
Organisation Veterinary Laboratories Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We provided the genetic analysis of their experimental sheep and goat TSE studies. Regular meetings were held and study design and interpretation of data were shared.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, discussion of study design and manuscript preparation.
Impact González, L., Dagleish, M. P., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Sisó, S., Eaton, S. L., Goldmann W., Witz, J., Hamilton, S., Stewart, P., Pang, Y., Steele, P., Reid, H. W., Chianini F., Jeffrey, M. (2012) Factors influencing temporal variation of scrapie incidence within a closed Suffolk sheep flock. J Gen Virol 93, 203-211. Gonzalez, L., Jeffrey, M., Dagleish, M.P., Goldmann, W., Siso, S., Eaton, S. L., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Stewart, P., Steele, P., Pang, Y., Hamilton, S., Reid, H.W., Chianini, F. (2012) Susceptibility to scrapie and disease phenotype in sheep: cross-Prnp genotype experimental transmissions with natural sources. Vet Res. 43(1):55 Sisó, S., Chianini, F., Eaton, S.L., Witz, J., Hamilton, S., Martin, S., Finlayson, J., Pang, Y., Stewart, P., Steele, P., Dagleish, M.P., Goldmann, W., Reid, H.W., Jeffrey, M., González, L. (2012). Disease phenotype in sheep after infection with cloned murine scrapie strains. Prion 6(2):174-183 Dagleish, M.P., Martin, S., Steele, P., Finlayson, J., Eaton, S. L., Sisó, S., Stewart, P., Hamilton, S., Pang, Y., Chianini, F., Reid, H. W., Goldmann, W., González, L., Castilla, J., Jeffrey, M. (2015) Susceptibility of European red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to alimentary challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. PLOS ONE 10(1):e0116094 Houston, H., Goldmann, W., Foster, J., Gonzalez, L., Jeffrey, M., Hunter, N. (2015) Comparative susceptibility of sheep of different origins, breeds and PRNP genotypes to challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. PLoS ONE 10(11): e0143251
Start Year 2012
 
Description Genetic diversity in Turkish sheep and goats 
Organisation Ankara University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My group has an advisory role and supports the data interpretation and manuscript preparation. We check the quality of data and provide control material
Collaborator Contribution They conduct sampling of DNA from animals, sequencing and genotypes. We are in contact regarding new projects and student exchange.
Impact Meydan, H., Pehlivan, E., Özkan, M., Yildiz, M.A., Goldmann, W. Prion Protein Gene Polymorphisms in Turkish Native Goat Breeds. Journal of Genetics IN PRESS (accepted 2016) Meydan, H., Özkan, M.M., Yildiz, M. A., Goldmann, W. (2013) Novel Polymorphisms in Ovine Prion Protein Gene. Animal Genetics 44: 588-591
Start Year 2012
 
Description Modelling of preclinical testing strategies for control of classical scrapie 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of classical scrapie in sheep, and the performance of diagnostic tests, to inform inputs for mathematical models.
Collaborator Contribution Development and analysis of mathematical models to determine the outcomes of different preclinical testing strategies.
Impact Publications: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032884 doi: 10.1099/vir.0.022566-0
Start Year 2009
 
Description Neuropathological and immunopathological phenotyping of experimentally transmitted TSEs in sheep 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We carried out various experiments in sheep to study routes of transmission (e.g. by transfusion of blood components), genetic susceptibility, and pathogenesis of TSEs.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners contributed expert analysis of neuropathology and lymphoid tissue changes in the sheep used in these studies.
Impact Publications: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143251. doi: 10.1111/trf.13145 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091143 doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.06.002 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2009.01013.x doi:10.1182/blood-2008-04-152520 PubMed PMID: 16569766 PubMed PMID: 15722547 PubMed PMID: 15722546 PubMed PMID: 12774113 PubMed PMID: 12354546 PubMed PMID: 11814318 PubMed PMID: 15722546
 
Description Prion disease susceptibility in carnivores and deer 
Organisation Colorado State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are collaborating with the groups of Drs Hoover and Mathiason at the University and Dr Miller at Division of Parks and Wildlife. My group has contributed genetic analysis of the prion gene from their experimental deer, which is crucial for their experimental set up and we provided the interpretation of the data in the context of genetic association with prion disease. With Dr Miller we have investigated the genetics of carnivores that are exposed to chronic wasting disease, a prion disease of wild deer in Colorado. We sequenced over a hundred samples from bear and mountain lion to establish genetic diversity. We contributed to their manuscript preparation. I visited the Colorado facilities and presented a seminar.
Collaborator Contribution Both groups in Colorado have provided samples for the analysis and background information regarding the animals collected . They have contributed to the interpretation of results and contributed to the manuscript preparation. Members of the group visited the Roslin Institute for presentations and discussion of the ongoing studies
Impact Stewart, P., Campbell, L., Skogtvedt, S., Griffin, K., Arnemo, J., Tryland, M., Miller, M.W., Tranulis, M.A., Goldmann, W. (2012) Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region. PLoS ONE 7(12):e50623 Selariu A, Powers JG, Wild MA, Brandhuber M, Mayfield A, Fullaway S, Nalls A, Goldmann W, Wyckoff AC, Zabel M, Hoover EA, Mathiason CK. (2015) In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk. J Gen Virol 96, 3444-3455 Nalls, A., McNulty, E., Powers, J., Seelig, D., Hoover, C., Haley, N., Hayes-Klug, J., Anderson, K., Stewart, P., Goldmann, W., Hoover, E., Mathiason, C. (2013) Mother to Offspring Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reeves' Muntjac Deer. PLoS One 8, 8 e71844
Start Year 2012
 
Description Prion disease susceptibility in carnivores and prion protein processing 
Organisation Norwegian School of Veterinary Science
Country Norway 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We initiated both studies and planned the experiments. The study was driven by the current epidemic of chronic wasting disease in the USA and tried to answer the question what consequences this epidemic may have on wild species. We also wanted to show how prion protein processing does influence the outcome of prion disease. The collaboration was strengthened by several meeting on both sides of the groups and presentation of research seminars to the respective Institutes.
Collaborator Contribution The group headed by Prof Michael Tranulis has provided material from several mammalian species fro this project. They were actively involved in the planning of experiments and recruited further research teams from Norway into the project, which gave us unique access to wild mammals, particularly aquatic species. They provided sheep samples and protein analysis results that were compared to our UK results to strengthen the outcome of the study.They provided control antibodies and performed Western blots in parallel to my group.
Impact Stewart, P., Campbell, L., Skogtvedt, S., Griffin, K., Arnemo, J., Tryland, M., Miller, M.W., Tranulis, M.A., Goldmann, W. (2012) Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region. PLoS ONE 7(12):e50623 Campbell, L., Gill, A. C., McGovern, G., Hopkins, J., Jalland, C.M.O., Tranulis, M.A., Hunter, N., Goldmann, W. (2013) The PrPC C1 fragment derived from the ovine A136R171 PRNP allele is highly abundant in sheep brain and inhibits fibrillisation of full-length PrPC protein in vitro. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Molecular Basis of Disease (BBAdis) 1832: 826-836 Bakkebø, M.K., Mouillet-Richard, S., Espenes, A., Goldmann, W., Tatzelt, J., Tranulis M.A. (2015) The prion protein: a player in immunological quiescence? Frontiers in Immunology 6, 450 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00450
Start Year 2012
 
Description QuIC analysis of low PrPSc mouse models 
Organisation National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Department Rocky Mountain Laboratories
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of brain tissue from an unique mouse model of TSE disease
Collaborator Contribution Performed QuIC analysis of material from our mouse model
Impact Vascellari S, Orrù CD, Hughson AG, King D, Barron RM, Wilham JM, Baron GS, Race B, Pani A and Caughey B (2012). Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC. PLoS One 7:e48969
 
Description Seeding protein aggregation in mice 
Organisation Colorado State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of amyloid plaque seeding in mouse brain
Collaborator Contribution Provision of mice and tissue from animals overexpressing 101L PrP
Impact Piccardo P, King D, Telling G, Manson JC and Barron RM (2013). Dissociation of prion protein amyloid seeding from transmission of a spongiform encephalopathy. J Virol. 87:12349-12356 doi: 10.1128/JVI.00673-13
 
Description Structural analysis of prion proteins 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department School of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of prion proteins
Collaborator Contribution Analysis of prion proteins and lipids
Impact Several publications and grant applications
 
Description Study of M cell immunobiology and their role in mucosally-acquired infections 
Organisation Tohoku University
Department Graduate School of Medicine
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr. Atsushi Kobayashi worked within my research group for 2 years here at The Roslin Institute.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Dr. Atsushi Kobayashi brought his expertise here for two years and worked as a visiting scientist in my research group.
Impact Several publications: DNA RESEARCH 19, 407-422, (2012); doi:10.1093/dnares/dss022 Mucosal Immunology 5, 216-225; doi: 10.1038/mi.2011.68 Mucosal Immunology 6, 1027-1037; doi:10.1038/mi.2012.141 Mucosal Immunology 6, 666-677; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.30
Start Year 2011
 
Description Study of M cell immunobiology and their role in mucosally-acquired infections (Emory) 
Organisation Emory University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided the ageing and prion disease pathogenesis mouse models
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Ifor Williams provided expertise in M cell immunobiology and mucosal immunology. Prof. Williams also provided unique M-cell-deficient mice (Vil1-Cre Rank-flox mice) as well as reagents to synthesise murine recombinant gst-RANKL. These were invaluable for the study of M cells in mice in vivo.
Impact Several publications: DNA RESEARCH 19, 407-422, (2012); doi:10.1093/dnares/dss022 Mucosal Immunology 5, 216-225; doi: 10.1038/mi.2011.68 Mucosal Immunology 6, 1027-1037; doi:10.1038/mi.2012.141 Mucosal Immunology 6, 666-677; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.30 Nat Nanotechnol. 2015 Apr;10(4):361-9; DOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2015.19 PLoS Pathog 12(12): e1006075; doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006075 Prof. WIlliams is also a named collaborator on the following BBSRC grants: BB/J014672/1 BB/M024288/1 BB/K021257/1
Start Year 2009
 
Description Study of M cell immunobiology and their role in mucosally-acquired infections (RIKEN) 
Organisation RIKEN
Department RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS)
Country Japan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We provided the ageing and prion disease pathogenesis mouse models.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Hiroshi Ohno and his colleagues provided expertise in M cell immunobiology.
Impact Several publications: DNA RESEARCH 19, 407-422, (2012); doi:10.1093/dnares/dss022 Mucosal Immunology 5, 216-225; doi: 10.1038/mi.2011.68 Mucosal Immunology 6, 1027-1037; doi:10.1038/mi.2012.141 Mucosal Immunology 6, 666-677; doi:10.1038/mi.2013.30 Prof. Ohno is also a named collaborator on the following BBSRC grants: BB/J014672/1 BB/M024288/1 and BBSRC Japan Partnering Award
Start Year 2007
 
Description Study of effect of S1PR1 deficiency on prion disease pathogenesis 
Organisation National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Department Genetics of Development and Disease Branch
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We provided the prion disease pathogenesis model.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Richard Proia provided CD19cre S1PR1flox/flox mice. In these mice S1pr1 expression is conditionally ablated only in Cre recombinase-expressing cells (B cells).
Impact Joint publication in the Journal of Immunology: J Immunol 2012; 188:5032-5040; doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200349
Start Year 2010
 
Description Study of role of sialoadhesin in prion disease pathogenesis 
Organisation University of Dundee
Department Division of Population Health Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided the mouse prion disease pathogenesis models
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Paul R. Crocker provided expertise in glycoimmunology as well as CD169-deficient mice
Impact Immunology, 143, 120-129 (2014); doi:10.1111/imm.12294
Start Year 2012
 
Description Zoonotic transmission of prions 
Organisation Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Piedmont
Country Italy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Performed prion transmission studies into human PrP and bovine PrP transgenic mice using bovine brain infected with BASE
Collaborator Contribution Provided the BASE brain tissue
Impact Wilson R, Hart P, Piccardo P, Hunter N, Casalone C, Baron T, and Barron RM (2012). Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical BSE. Journal of General Virology 93:1132-1140 Wilson R, Plinston C, Hunter N, Casalone C, Corona C, Tagliavini F, Suardi S, Ruggerone M, Moda F, Graziano S, Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Pocchiari M, Ingrosso L, Baron T, Richt J, Andreoletti O, Simmons M, Lockey R, Manson JC, and Barron RM (2012). Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP. Journal of General Virology 93:1624-1629
Start Year 2007
 
Description Zoonotic trasnmission of prions 
Organisation French Agency for Food Safety (AFSSA)
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Performed transmission experiments to human PrP and bovine PrP transgenic mice using H-BSE infected brain tissue
Collaborator Contribution Provided the H-BSE infected brain tissue
Impact Wilson R, Hart P, Piccardo P, Hunter N, Casalone C, Baron T, and Barron RM (2012). Bovine PrP expression levels in transgenic mice influence transmission characteristics of atypical BSE. Journal of General Virology 93:1132-1140 Wilson R, Plinston C, Hunter N, Casalone C, Corona C, Tagliavini F, Suardi S, Ruggerone M, Moda F, Graziano S, Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Pocchiari M, Ingrosso L, Baron T, Richt J, Andreoletti O, Simmons M, Lockey R, Manson JC, and Barron RM (2012). Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP. Journal of General Virology 93:1624-1629
Start Year 2007
 
Description Zoonotic trasnmission of prions 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department National Animal Disease Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Performed transmission studies in human PrP and bovine PrP transgenic mice using Chronic Wasting Disease infected brain tissue
Collaborator Contribution Provided the Chronic Wasting Disease infected brain tissue
Impact Wilson R, Plinston C, Hunter N, Casalone C, Corona C, Tagliavini F, Suardi S, Ruggerone M, Moda F, Graziano S, Sbriccoli M, Cardone F, Pocchiari M, Ingrosso L, Baron T, Richt J, Andreoletti O, Simmons M, Lockey R, Manson JC, and Barron RM (2012). Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP. Journal of General Virology 93:1624-1629
Start Year 2007
 
Title Commercial release of novel PrP-specific monoclonal antibodies 
Description A panel of novel monoclonal antibodies against sheep PrP were generated and characterized. Three of these monoclonal antibodies have been licensed to AbD Serotec/BioRad for commercial sale. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Yes
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091143
 
Description Hosted female pupil to gain hands on 1 week work experience 'researcher shadowing' in my lab 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact hosted female pupil to gain hands on 1 week work experience 'researcher shadowing' in my lab and visit sparked pupil to successfully apply to study neuroscience at Glasgow university
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Aurora Academic mentor (Inspiring leadership in women, Leadership foundation for higher education 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Aurora Academic mentor (Inspiring leadership in women, Leadership foundation for higher education. Coaching and mentor
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description BBC Expert Women 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Expert Women; Field Biologist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Vx8FJg3VXo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description BBC Radio Scotland Brain Waves 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact BBC Radio Scotland Brain Waves Interviewed as Expert Scientist on the neurobiology of love an attachment for a Valentines special.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description BBSRC Pool of Experts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact BBSRC media: What it's like to be a BBSRC committee member https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zidU5cl--lo
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description BNA Streetfair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact British Neuroscience Association Streetfair, held at the Barbican Centre in London alongside the annual BNA symposium. Activity to communicate work we do on TSE disease, protein misfolding and neurodegeneration to the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Big Bang, Schools science competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was a judge moderator for Big Bang, a schools competition for science projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013
 
Description Brain infection study reveals how disease spreads from gut 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release describing our study published in the Journal of Virology: http://jvi.asm.org/content/89/18/9532.long
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.ed.ac.uk/news/2015/prions-040815
 
Description Cambo Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science Festival at Cambo in Fife. Roslin hosted an activity based around the animal brain and brain diseases. Event aimed at school children, with engaging hands-on activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Careers Event for S2 secondfary pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S2 pupils to interact with people working in STEM related jobs. Each group given 3 minutes to question each different STEM Ambassador about how they use science in their work. Aim to interest pupils in science before selecting their subjects for 3rd year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Careers Event for Schoolchildren 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S2 pupils to interact with people working in STEM related jobs. Each group given 3 minutes to question each different STEM Ambassador about how they use science in their work. Aim to interest pupils in science before selecting their subjects for 3rd year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Careers event for S4 secondary pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S4 pupils to interact with professionals across a range of areas including STEM. Aim was to give pupils information on careers in biological research prior to choosing final year subjects and University degrees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description Careers event for S4 secondary pupils 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Careers workshop for S4 pupils. Approx 50 pupils attended and had discussions and questions over biological science careers. The school gave an update to say that pupils were interested and requested information on work experience/placement programs as a result.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2017
 
Description Chromatography demo 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Demonstrated chromatography to a group of final year students from a local school
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Dunbar Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We ran a 'What's in our brain' activity which was targeted at school children, and consisted of an introduction to the basic anatomy and functions of different regions of the brain, and also the differences and similarities of the brains of different animal species, as well as a neuroeconomics game about human decision making.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland Glasgow. Selected from over 500 applications for media training.
The aim of the day was to give an introduction to the world of the media, the opportunity to meet some industry professionals as well as getting some hands on training, both on air and on screen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland Glasgow. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Expert Women's Day Scotland. BBC Scotland Glasgow. August 2013. Selected from over 500 applications for media training.
The aim of the day was to give an introduction to the world of the media, the opportunity to meet some industry professionals as well as getting some hands on training, both on air and on screen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Farm detectives 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Pupils attended for a school visit to carry out hands-on science workshops. This led to questions and awareness of what jobs are available in science and what they entail
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description GetPROTECTED workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This Edinburgh Neuroscience workshop focuses on the structure and function of the brain and why it is important that you protect your brain from damage. It looks at head protection in the context of cycling and sport. Targeted at primary school children (aged 9-11). 6 workshops have run so far (average class size of 25 pupils per class) at different schools in Edinburgh and Midlothian.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.edinburghneuroscience.ed.ac.uk/node/2151
 
Description Gut cells are gatekeepers of infectious brain diseases, study finds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release via the media describing our recent research published in PLoS Pathogens
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbsrc.ac.uk/news/health/2016/161214-pr-gut-cells-gatekeepers-of-infectious-brain-diseases...
 
Description Highland Show, Ingliston. Scotland's biggest agricultural show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presenting posters of research and games to interest youngsters. Answering resulting questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Informa Biopharmaceutical Raw Materials Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk about risks of TSE infection in biological produces and processes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Interconnect Student Network is a networking organisation for women in STEM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Promoting the advancement of women in STEM subjects by championing engagement with Athena SWAN-related activities: Invited speaker, Interconnect March 2014 - Student Network is a networking organisation for women studying science, engineering, technology (SET) and the built environment in Scotland.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Interview with the Scientist Magazine - All is not quiet on the Western front 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article can be found here: http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/42826/title/All-Is-Not-Quiet-on-the-Western-Front/

This was in response to the loading control methodology we published for normalisation in Eaton et al. PLoS One and Eaton et al. JoVE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/42826/title/All-Is-Not-Quiet-on-the-Western-Fr...
 
Description Keeping bugs at Bay: a Public Engagement Activity at the Roslin Institute 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This activity aims to teach people how the immune system fights bugs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Keeping bugs at Bay: a Public Engagement Activity at the Royal Highland Show 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This activity aims to teach people how the immune system fights bugs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Kickstart University of Edinburgh Widening Participation Summer School Neuroscience workshop. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Kickstart University of Edinburgh Widening Participation Summer School 2016 Neuroscience workshop. I wrote, led and delivered the workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Media comments on identification of case of BSE in a cow on an Aberdeenshire farm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact I was contacted by the media to provide my professional expertise and opinion on the identification of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) on a Scottish farm in 2018. I provided a press statement with some information, as well as a detailed Q&A document. These were used by the media in both print and on-line articles. For example, The Herald, Daily Telegraph, Daily Mail, etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ed.ac.uk/roslin/news-events/latest-news/comment-on-bse-case-aberdeenshire
 
Description Midlothian Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Midlothian Science festival aims to inspire and engage visitors in science and discovery, showcase current local science, cultivate curiosity, inspire local children to embark on scientific careers. Our group were involved in hosting an exhibit which was displayed at different high schools and libraries. We ran a 'What's in our brain' activity which was targeted at school children, and consisted of an introduction to the basic anatomy and functions of different regions of the brain, and also the differences and similarities of the brains of different animal species, as well as a neuroeconomics game about human decision making. The same activity was also included as part of the Easter Bush Doors open day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Midlothian Science festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science festival to highlight research at the roslin Institute and encourage questions relating to research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014
 
Description Midlothian open doors day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Highlights research at the Institute to the general public including school children
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Neuroinflammation Keystone Symposium (New Mexico) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentations and discussion at international conference enabled wider recognition of our work and has resulted in new collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Participation at Royal Highland Show Edinburgh 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of the TSE research activity of the Roslin Institute/Neurobiology Division. Demonstration of simple experiments to children and adults to elucidate the impact of TSE disease in livestock and human health. Answered general questions regarding Roslin research and scientific careers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2016
 
Description Press Interview on Americal BASE case for Science News (online article) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press interview with Science News on recent identification of a case of atypical BSE in the USA
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Protein sheds insight into spread of vCJD to the brain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Press release describing our study published in PLoS Pathogens: http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1002402
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-15988283
 
Description Roslin Institute Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Each year we run an activity designed to engage the public and introduce them to the work we do on TSE diseases, protein misfolding and neurodegeneration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
 
Description Roslin Institute public open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Science games for children. Questions from well informed children and more questions from their parents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Roslin Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Institute Open Day to engage general public in our projects and broader research activities in the Institute. Visitors reported interest in learning about our work and why animals are necessary for some aspects of mediacl research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
 
Description Roslin Open Days (Midlothian Science Festival) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of "Beastly Brain" exhibit, with games, activities and displays to demonstrate how proteins can misfold to cause brain diseases, such as Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and Alzhemier's Disease, and stimulate interest in neuroscience generally.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Routes into Employment 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Opportunity for S2 pupils to interact with people working in STEM related jobs. Each group given 3 minutes to question each different STEM Ambassador about how they use science in their work. Aim to interest pupils in science before selecting their subjects for 3rd year.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Roslin Institute event at the Royal Highland Show. Activities designed to raise awareness of the research performed at Roslin and its impact with the general public, farmers, vets, industry etc.. 3 day event supported by several staff members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
 
Description Royal Highland Show 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Roslin Institute event at the Royal Highland Show. Activities designed to raise awareness of the research performed at Roslin and its impact with the general public, farmers, vets, industry etc.. 3 day event supported by several staff members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School visit to the institute Neurobiology workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School visit to the institute. neurobiology workshop.Discussed careers in science and going to University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Science Insights - Dryden Farm visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 40 secondary school students from 25 schools across the local region visited Dryden Farm (Roslin Institute's farm animal research facility) as part of Science Insights, a week-long programme of talks, tours, and research taster sessions hosted by University of Edinburgh. The visit focussed on the use of animals in research, and I hosted a visit and short presentation/Q&A session on the Roslin Scrapie Flock. Feedback from the students was very positive, and demonstrated that many of them had really engaged with the ethical issues of using animals in experiments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Science Insights Researcher Shadowing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Science Insights is an annual work experience programme (launched in 2014) designed to give 5th year high school pupils from Edinburgh and the Lothian region (from 25 different schools in 2016) a real insight into the work and life of research scientists. 40 high school pupils spent one week of their summer holidays following a varied programme of activities, gaining a real insight into research in biological sciences. Activities with my group involved an introducing participants to brain neuroanatomy, as well as hands-on practical experience of sectioning tissue, basic histology and microscopy. Feedback from the students was extremely positive and they were really engaged .The programme was described as 'interesting, enjoyable, worthwhile, educational, informative, fun, challenging, insightful, fascinating and helpful' by the participants. Several of the participants expressed the programme positively influenced their decision to undertake a science/medical degree at university.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.scienceinsights.ed.ac.uk/
 
Description Science Insights Work Experience Programme. Hosted 2 female school pupils for 'researcher shadowing' in my laboratory. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Science Insights Work Experience Programme (Roslin Institute). Hosted 2 female school pupils for 'researcher shadowing' in my laboratory.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Science museum video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Andrew Gill appeared in a video at the National Science Museum talking about the benefits of being a biochemist
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Scientific Writing Workshop at the Young Microbiologists Symposium, Dundee, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The journal PLoS Pathogens invited me to host a scientific writing workshop aimed at junior research scientists such as new post-docs or PhD students
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.lifesci.dundee.ac.uk/other/yms/
 
Description Symposium organiser/chair at BNA Festival of Neuroscience 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Organised and chaired a symposium at BNA conference - led to revised opinions on topic under discussion among presenters and audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Talk to Haddington U3A 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a talk entitled "transmissible Alzheimers?" to a local branch of the U3A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Union University Insight to Roslin Research and Public Engagement Activity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Discussion over what science I do and how I got into science, tailored to the students home country (USA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Video Interview for Science Direct 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Video interview about Quantitative Fluorescent Western Blotting for Protein Analysis in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.selectscience.net/SelectScience-TV/Videos/Quantitative-Fluorescent-Western-Blotting-for-P...
 
Description Visit to Iowa State University to give talk and discuss my research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On October 8th 2018 I gave a talk to approx. 100 post-graduate students at Iowa State University in the Immunology and Neurobiology research programmes. I also attended small workshop group sessions with the students to discuss my science and also give career advice etc.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018