Structured Emulsions and Interfaces

Lead Research Organisation: Institute of Food Research
Department Name: Contracts

Abstract

The rising incidence of obesity demands that rational strategies be developed to reduce dietary fat and energy intake. We will facilitate the development of such strategies by investigating in vitro some key interfacial and colloidal mechanisms underlying the physicochemical behaviour of emulsified fats which may influence the perception of fats in emulsions and the digestion of fats in the GI tract. This will include the interactions with saliva in the mouth, interfacial mechanisms which control emulsion rheology (texture) and the interfacial processes which control lipid digestion. The new knowledge we will gain will enable new strategies to be developed to control dietary fat intake, for example by manipulation of interfacial behaviour to affect lipolysis which may then impact on satiety. We will achieve this by addressing the following objectives:
1. Describe the interfacial and molecular interaction processes responsible for the formation of the salivary mucous film, and identify structural changes resulting from interaction with food components.
2. Identify key colloidal and interfacial mechanisms in vitro that underpin the complex rheological properties of emulsions.
3. Define the key interfacial mechanisms that control the digestion of emulsions and subsequent transport of lipids and lipid soluble nutrients.

Publications

10 25 50

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Mandalari G (2013) Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion. in Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)

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Mulet-Cabero A (2020) Dairy structures and physiological responses: a matter of gastric digestion in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

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Okubanjo SS (2019) Droplet-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions Protect Unsaturated Lipids from Oxidation. in Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

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Ash A (2013) Effect of calcium ions on in vitro pellicle formation from parotid and whole saliva. in Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces

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Maldonado-Valderrama J (2010) Effect of gastric conditions on ß-lactoglobulin interfacial networks: influence of the oil phase on protein structure. in Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids

 
Description The ability of bile salts to facilitate the digestion of fats was found to be dependent on the molecular structure of the bile salts. This affected the way they interacted with fats and solubilised the products of fat digestion and allow3d them to be adsorbed. Interfering with this process could allow us to develop foods that slowed down the digestion of fat in order to prolong appetite and thus allow individuals to manage food intake and weight gain.
The structure and composition of bile salt micelles was found to be important for the digestion and absorption of fat soluble nutrients such as the flavanol quercetin, which is thought to have a range of health benefits. The interaction of quercetin with the micelles also controlled the uptake of quercetin into intestinal epithelial cells, and thus could affect bioavailability. Since then the research has moved onto more complex systems to understand the influence of other components such as phytosterols and dietary fibre on lipid digestion and bile salt handling in the gut. We have shown that the soluble dietary fibre can induce flocculation in emulsions and that more complex forms of the whole oat tissue which includes both soluble and insoluble fibre can slow down lipid digestion (Grundy et al. (2017) J. Funct. Food 38, 378-388). This highlights the contribution of the structural complexity of these ingredients to functionality, and further emphasises the importance of further research to understand the mechanisms underpinning the synergies between the different components and health impact.
This is helping us to understand the mechanistic basis by which such foods can reduce hyperlipidaemia, prolong appetite and reduce serum cholesterol levels
Exploitation Route The results will be taken forward into future research to understand the poor bioavailability of other lipophilic nutrients, like phytosterols, which are known to reduce cholesterol. We will also look at how other food components such as dietary fibre affect fat digestion, which could also explain their ability to reduce cholesterol levels and control appetite.
The research has led to numerous grant proposals and projects, particularly with industry, where the research has generated interest in how to design foods with appetite supressing properties.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description This work has led onto other grant applications looking into more general aspects of food structure digestion, and broader, fundamental studies of bile salt structure/function. The work on saliva has led to a successful; studentship, and two industrial funded projects worth ca £200k. Further grants have also been obtained from BBSRC through the DRINC and the Priming Food Partnerships initiatives in collaboration with academic partners (Imperial and Kings College London, Nottingham University) and involving food companies (Nestle, PepsiCo, Unilever, Iglo). Total research grants resulting from this project have totalled approximately £1m. The grant has also fed into recent GCRF applications, helping to develop links with Thailand, Mexico and Kenya. Research from this grant has also led to two further PhD studentships, one funded entirely by industry and the other through a BBSRC industry CTP.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description BBSRC DRINC
Amount £675,219 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N02110X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description BBSRC Priming Food Partnerships
Amount £278,060 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P023924/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2017 
End 12/2018
 
Description Industry
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Organisation Nestlé Research Center 
Sector Private
Country Switzerland
Start 06/2015 
End 05/2017
 
Description Mondelez CTP
Amount £105,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2022
 
Description Quorn Studentship
Amount £105,000 (GBP)
Organisation Marlow Foods 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2021
 
Description Alan Mackie - University of Leeds 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Jointly supervised PhD studentship and joint contributions to papers
Collaborator Contribution Jointly supervised PhD studentship and joint contributions to papers
Impact Mulet-Cabero, A. I., A. R. Mackie, P. J. Wilde, M. A. Fenelon and A. Brodkorb (2019). "Structural mechanism and kinetics of in vitro gastric digestion are affected by process-induced changes in bovine milk." Food Hydrocolloids 86: 172-183. Ana-Isabel Mulet-Cabero: PhD student completed successfully, University of East Anglia, December 2018. Thesis title: Effect of Dairy Structures on Gastric Behaviour and Nutrient Digestion Kinetics using a Semi-Dynamic Model
Start Year 2017
 
Description CIAL Madrid 
Organisation Autonomous University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosted a visiting PhD student studying the digestibility and functional properties of pectin extracted from sunflower heads. Trained and supervised the student during a 3 month visit to QIB, contributed to submission of manuscript.
Collaborator Contribution The student performed in vitro digestions and rheological measurements on samples of sunflower head pectin to understand the role of processing on functionality.
Impact Munoz-Almagro, N., F. Rico-Rodriguez, P. J. Wilde, A. Montilla and M. Villamiel (2018). "Structural and technological characterization of pectin extracted with sodium citrate and nitric acid from sunflower heads." Electrophoresis 39(15): 1984-1992. Plus one more paper in preparation
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dr Frederic Prothon 
Organisation Swedish Oat Fiber AB
PI Contribution Our research gave some mechanistic explanations on the positive effect of some oat products on lipid metabolism.
Collaborator Contribution He provide some oat oils and oat bran.
Impact We presented our data to various conferences and a manuscript is in preparation.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mondelez 
Organisation Mondelez International
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The research capabilities were discussed with Mondelez and potential projects for their CTP allocation were discussed. A project was developed and ultimately funded in 2017. The PhD student will start in April 2018
Collaborator Contribution The hold a BBSRC CTP award, and they helped develop the studentship project with us on determining the mechanisms underpinning the health benefits of fibre.
Impact A PhD studentship was funded through the Mondelez CTP award, due to start in April 2018
Start Year 2016
 
Description Quorn 
Organisation Marlow Foods
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research was discussed in the context of the business of Marlow Foods (Quorn) to understand the mechanisms underpinning the digestion and bioavailability of proteins, fibre and other nutrients from Quorn products. After negotiations, Marlow Foods agreed to fund a PhD studentship to study these aspects.
Collaborator Contribution Marlow Foods brought the problem in terms of a lack of a mechanistic understanding of the health benefits of Quorn. They contributed financially to the project by fully funding a PhD student (plus an additional student with Imperial College London).
Impact The studentship only started in January 2018, so it is too early to say.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Riddet Institute 
Organisation Massey University
Department Riddet Institute
Country New Zealand 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-supervising a student (Sewuese Okubanjo) based at the Riddet in New Zealand. Have provided advice and guidance on the course and outcomes of the project.
Collaborator Contribution The work has been based in New Zealand and publications arising from the project will be initiated by the Riddet team, with my input.
Impact Droplet-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions Protect Unsaturated Lipids from Oxidation. Sewuese S. Okubanjo, Simon M. Loveday, Aiqian Ye, Peter J. Wilde and Harjinder Singh. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. In press DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b02871
Start Year 2015
 
Description Teagasc 
Organisation Teagasc
Department Teagasc Food Research Centre
Country Ireland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Joint supervision of 2 Walsh Fellowship PhD studentships, funded by Teagasc, and hosted partly at QIB and partly at Teagasc Food research Centres (1). Miss Ana-Isabel Mulet-Cabero supervised by Dr Andre Brodkorb at the Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland (2). Mr Rares-Ionut Birsan, supervised by Dr Dilip Rai at The Ashtown Food Research Centre, Dublin, Ireland
Collaborator Contribution Joint supervision of PhD students, hosted student while placed in Teagasc for 3.5 years in total between the two students
Impact Mulet-Cabero, A. I., A. R. Mackie, P. J. Wilde, M. A. Fenelon and A. Brodkorb (2019). "Structural mechanism and kinetics of in vitro gastric digestion are affected by process-induced changes in bovine milk." Food Hydrocolloids 86: 172-183. Ana-Isabel Mulet-Cabero: PhD student completed successfully, University of East Anglia, December 2018. Thesis title: Effect of Dairy Structures on Gastric Behaviour and Nutrient Digestion Kinetics using a Semi-Dynamic Model
Start Year 2014
 
Description University of Valencia - Prof M.J. Lagarda and Dr G. Garcia-Llatas 
Organisation University of Valencia
Department Faculty of Pharmacy
PI Contribution We have a manuscript in preparation and presented the work at 2 conferences.
Collaborator Contribution The group in Valencia taught us how to perform phytosterol analysis using GC.
Impact We have a manuscript in preparation and presented the work at 2 conferences.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Zhejiang University of Technology, China 
Organisation Zhejiang University of Technology
PI Contribution We hosted Dr Jianhua Liu as a visiting scientist in my group for one year between August 2016 and August 2017, he received training in colloidal techniques and in vitro digestion methodologies.
Collaborator Contribution Jianhua investigated the functionality of fish oil emulsions during his visit and wrote up two papers, one of which has been recently published
Impact Liu, J. H., W. L. Liu, L. J. Salt, M. J. Ridout, Y. T. Ding and P. J. Wilde (2019). "Fish Oil Emulsions Stabilized with Caseinate Glycated by Dextran: Physicochemical Stability and Gastrointestinal Fate." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 67(1): 452-462.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Mail on Sunday article on fake foods 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Commented on a range of food myths that the article was trying to get a more balanced scientific view of, including the issue of coconut oil and health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-6450123/How-fake-food-news-putting-risk.html
 
Description Norwich Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participated in Heroes of Food Research, highlighting the important role of human volunteers in dietary intervention studies. Discussed with the public the role and their contributions. Particularly our research involving saliva.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation to Norwich Research Park Diet and Health Tea Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of the food structure research to the Norwich Research Park Diet and Health Tea Club. This group is formed of researchers and clinicians from the Norwich Research Park, to disseminate and communicate developments in diet and health research and to foster collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Public lecture to local members of the University of the Third Age 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture organised for members of the University of the third age held at Quadram Institute, Norwich to disseminate and inform of the research activities and outputs of the Institute in the area of food structure and health.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Public lecture to the North Norfolk National Trust Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public lecture to the North Norfolk National Trust society to communicate some of the research activities of the Institute as part of our outreach activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Summer Science Day, Halesworth 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Doleman J. F., Armah C. N., Kroon P., Wilde P., Mackie A., Vallins A.(2015) Heroes of Food Research: Summer Science Day at The Cut, Halesworth 
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description You tube video Food structure, colloid and digestion 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact You tube video describing the research done in the group to inform the wider public about the scope and impacts of our research and also to provide information to industry and other stakeholders who may want to collaborate
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7aMpnps4-Q