Studentship: Antigenic relationships diagnostic assays and structural studies of BTV outer capsid protein VP2 of BTV serotypes 1 to 26

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

IAH Studentship: The outer-capsid protein VP2 of bluetongue virus is the primary determinant of serotype and a target for neutralising antibodies that are generated during infection. Variations in VP2 are therefore of major importance for bluetongue diagnosis, epidemiology studies and vaccine development.
The specificity of neutralising antibodies generated during bluetongue virus infection or vaccination, demonstrates the existence of type-specific epitopes (on VP2), that provide a basis for development of rapid, next generation assays to identify antibody-type-specificity. Such assays would be of considerable utility to Blue Tongue Virus (BTV) reference laboratories (including the NVRL at Pirbright). However, the cross-reactivity observed after multiple inoculations or infections with different BTV types also indicates the existence of other cross-reactive neutralising epitopes, that might form a basis for the development of cross-reactive sub-unit vaccines.
The Lomonossoff group at John Innes (UEA) has transiently-expressed animal virus proteins (including BTV VP2) quickly and easily in plants, retaining their immunological properties. The relevant gene was inserted into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector and using the technique of “agro-infiltration” the construct was introduced into plants. The rapidity of expression coupled to the high yield means that it is possible to express multiple proteins in a short time frame.
The expressed VP2 proteins will be used to test different reference and experimental antisera, to explore relationships between the different BTV types using luminex or Magpix platforms. The project will also generate modified or truncated proteins to identify cross-reactive or type specific neutralising epitopes. These reagents and an improved understanding at the molecular level of BTV serotype determinants and cross reactivity.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The outer capsid protein VP2 of multiple BTV serotypes was expressed using a rapid technology in tobacco plants. The resulting proteins are soluble and in native conformation, allowing them to be used to generate neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated animals. These materials not only have potential as subunit vaccine candidates but also provide valuable data concerning the relationships and cross-reactions of these viruses. Vaccination challenge studies in IFNAR-/- mice have shown that the plant expressed VP2 proteins of BTV-4 and BTV-8 generate serotype specific protective immune responses after vaccination.
Exploitation Route The data generated has potential to inform the development of better and more effective cross-reactive vaccines for BTV. However, there is also some evidence to indicate that VP2 vaccination can lead to an increase in Viraemia after challenge with a heterologous BTV serotype. This may be an important factor in vaccine development.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" (PALE-Blu)
Amount € 6,300,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 727393-2 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 06/2016 
End 11/2020
 
Title Pale-Blu Web pages 
Description The PALE-Blu Web pages provide multiple data-sets concerning the distribution of arthropod vector species, the environment livestock and disease movement and distribution, Bluetongue epidemiology and research, as well as listing novel research papers and findings of the PALE-Blu consortium. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The PALE-Blu Website serves the partners in THE EU PALE-Blu consortium grant to provide information and access to research data and outcomes, concerning virus epidemiology, vaccinology and other aspect of their work concerning this important viral disease of livestock. The site also provides access to multiple data-sets concerning the environment, vector distribution, microbiomes, and ecosystems, most notably within Europe. 
URL https://www.paleblu.eu/
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD)
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Complutense University of Madrid
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Hassan II Agronomic and Veterinary Institute
Country Morocco 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Institute of Experimental Zooprophylactic ' Abruzzo and Molise "G. Caporale"
Country Italy 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Kafkas University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Kimron Veterinary Institute
Country Israel 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation National Veterinary Institute
Country Sweden 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Pasteur Institute, Tunis
Country Tunisia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Senegalese Institute of Agricultural Research
Country Senegal 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation University Libre Bruxelles (Université Libre de Bruxelles ULB)
Country Belgium 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department MRC - University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Veterinary School of Alfort
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016
 
Description PALE-Blu H20:20 grant "Understanding pathogen, livestock, environment interactions involving bluetongue virus" 
Organisation Wageningen University & Research
Department Plant Research International
Country Netherlands 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Peter Mertens is coordinator of the PALE-Blu H20:20 consortium. My group is also directly involved in most of the work packages that are included in the grant.
Collaborator Contribution Bluetongue is an economically important disease that since 1998 has invaded Europe, particularly southern and central countries. These changes are thought to be linked to climate change and appear unlikely to be reversed. The disease causes caused economic losses due to fatalities in livestock (>25% in sheep), loss of reproductive performance and milk/meat production, and restrictions in animal movements and trade. The PALE-Blu Project brings together 19 different Partner organisations in fifteen countries to generate data concerning the distribution and interaction of genetic variants of the bluetongue virus with insect vector and host populations to inform control and prevention strategies The project will analyse interactions between different virus strains, insect vectors and vertebrate hosts at the population, individual and molecular levels., Transmission mechanisms will be analysed to inform the ways in which risks can be evaluated, modelled and mitigated. In particular the project will identify and map different virus and vector populations and the environmental factors that determine their incidence and distribution to understand how genetic variations can determine transmission of different BTV serotype / strains in different regions. Databases will be created to help in the global identification of different BTV variants based on sequence analyses. The project will develop diagnostic assays to maintain and improve current diagnostic and surveillance capabilities. These will specifically include the recently identified 'novel' serotypes (BTV-25 upwards) to ensure that they can also be rapidly and sensitively detected. The project will seek to generate additional cell lines for European and Africa Culicoides species for further studies of transmission mechanisms and differences between different vector populations / species. Cross reactive antigens and epitopes will be identified for different BTV serotypes to develop safe multivalent or cross-reactive vaccines against different BTV serotypes The project will develop and maintain communication and project management through websites periodic meetings and publications / presentations to both scientific and lay audiences. BTV sequences have been collected, annotated and curated and introduced into the BTV-GLUE website. The beta version of the BTV-GLUE dataset is available via a public web server (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk). We are currently inserting an automated genotyping tool for all segments. A comprehensive database of Culicoides vector abundance, covering most of Europe and neighbouring countries, has been generated to define epizones with different insect vector populations. Livestock maps (cattle, sheep, and goats) updated to reflect 2010 have helped define epizones based on ecoclimatic data. Diagnostic tools for the novel BTV serotypes, as well as multiplexed assay systems are being developed and evaluated Primary cell lines for additional Culicoides species, have been developed and will be maintained in order to develop continuos cell lines. Rescued mono-reassortant BTV strains have been generated to explore the molecular basis for contact transmission and insect vector transmission as well as and other viral properties, including interactions with the innate immune response and inhibition by interferon. Antiviral activity of statin derivatives and calcium channel inhibitors, will be further explored Project outputs and data are being and will continue to be disseminated through one or more of the four websites that have been established or associated with the project: http://www.paleblu.eu/ : the general project website, which provides project details, presentations, publications and deliverables This includes the kick off project meeting in Glasgow 2017: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2017-09-06-MeetingReportFor1stPALE-BluMeetingCVRGlasgow-LR%20update.pdf and the 2nd meeting in Rabat 2018: http://www.paleblu.eu/system/files/2019-01/2018-09-19-20-2ndPALE-BluMeetingMorocco.pdf http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home : the project website which hosts datacentric software package which includes sequence data, genome annotations and bioinformatic analysis tools. See WP1 above https://www.edenextdata.com/: the project spatial data archive, see also WP3 above. http://mapserver.izs.it/gis_oiemaps/: a site which displays global BTV distributions. A newly developed haploid embryonic stem cell library, is being used to characterize cellular genes and pathways essential for productive BTV-8 infection.
Impact The BTV Glue database (http://btv.glue.cvr.ac.uk/#/home) Publications are in preparations from the PALE-Blu consortium Scientific meetings have been organised in Glasgow, Rabat and Brussels.
Start Year 2016