Recognition and control of virus infections

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

The activities contributing to this objective examine the underlying basis behind the induction and effector phases of immune responses from pathogen recognition through to virus elimination and the formation of memory responses. These complex and interdependent events can now be explored at a resolution that was previously impossible, owing to recent advances in high throughput screening methods, recombinant technologies and imaging techniques. The immune responses of the three key species studied at Pirbright (cattle, pigs and chickens) will all be examined at the molecular and cellular level during natural viral infection and vaccination studies. This will include the use of inbred and transgenic chickens, as well as our inbred pigs and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) homozygous cattle. As these species are the natural viral hosts, our studies have the potential to immediately inform strategies that improve the duration and broaden the efficacy of current vaccines as well as underpin the rational design of the next generation of vaccines.
Viruses have evolved an array of strategies to favourably influence host responses after infection. After cell entry, viruses influence innate and adaptive responses by interfering with multiple intracellular and intercellular pathways, for example proteins of many viruses inhibit specific immune recognition mechanisms. Our work in the natural hosts using well characterised and recombinant viruses will establish how different viruses can alter both immune activation and regulation pathways.
T and B cells are the major effector cells of the adaptive immune system being able to distinguish between self and pathogens, mount a specific response and reside after the infection to provide immunological memory. Vaccines remain by far the best method to control viral diseases. Consequently T and B cell receptor diversity and their protective roles are a major component of research activities at Pirbright during infection and vaccination.
Decades of existing work with influenza and human immunodeficiency viruses has demonstrated that even antigenically variable viruses possess conserved, broadly neutralising antibody eliciting epitopes, but that they are weakly immunogenic. Many of the viruses studied at Pirbright possess regions of high antigenic variability and dominant epitopes that don’t induce broadly neutralising antibody responses. However, it is now clear that sub dominant epitopes and cross-reactive epitopes exist with enormous potential to inform vaccine antigen engineering to boost immunogenicity. Among potential candidate vaccine antigens for each pathogen only a minority induce protective immunity. Therefore, the identification of protective B and T cell antigens and epitopes is crucial for vaccine development and for evaluation of their immunogenicity and efficacy. We will identify and characterise T and B cell antigens and epitopes derived from a range of veterinary species and their viral pathogens, focussing on identification of conserved antigenic targets that may provide broad cross-protection.
The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines is both quantitatively and qualitatively dependent upon the delivery system used. We will evaluate delivery platforms including virus-like particles (VLP), empty capsids, nanocarriers, viral vectors or live attenuated viruses to improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. The combination of vaccine vector technology and targeted delivery of antigen-antibody fusions will facilitate delivery of protective antigens and induce robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity against target viruses.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The current BBSRC-funded Institute Strategic Programme Topic "Recognition and control of virus infections" has been active for just under 48 months. This topic has four objectives which all aim to improve the control of high consequence livestock diseases.
Contents:
Objective 1 Establish the influence of viral infection on immune pathways
• Influence of IBDV on immune pathways
• Impact of IFITM proteins on IBV
• Marek's disease and cellular metabolism
• Influenza A viruses bind to human complement Factor H (FH) protein.
• Towards the development of a live attenuated African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine
• SARS-CoV-2 and the unfolded protein response in cells
Objective 2 Measure the contribution of T cells and B cells to immunity
• Development of a Nipah virus vaccine
• Contribution of CD8+ T cells to immunity against Peste-des-petite-ruminants virus (PPRV):
• Contribution of specific peptide-restricted CD4+ T cells to immunity against FMDV:
• Towards the development of a subunit African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine
• Identification of a mucosal-associated invariant T cell population in cattle
• Ruminant antibody repertoire
• Genomic annotation
• Linking genomic variation with gene expression
• Sequencing and bioinformatics methods
Objective 3 Identify cross-strain reactive epitopes
• Cross-protective antibodies to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV
• Cross-neutralising antibodies to influenza virus
• Characterization of cross-reactive mAbs to FMDV
Objective 4 Determine if targeted delivery improves vaccine efficacy
• Improving vaccines for foot and mouth disease virus
• Targeted antigen delivery vaccine for avian influenza
• Harnessing mucosal immunity for protection against influenza
• Strategies combining systemic and local respiratory immunisation against influenza virus
• Development of porcine mAbs to pH1N1
• Evaluating the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccine candidates

Objective 1 Establish the influence of viral infection on immune pathways
• Influence of IBDV on immune pathways: We have discovered that a very virulent (vv) strain of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) induces less antiviral Type I IFN responses than an attenuated cell-culture adapted vaccine strain of IBDV and a classical field strain of IBDV, consistent with the vv virus being able to inhibit antiviral responses to a greater extent than other strains. We find the same to be true in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we have discovered that the viral VP4 gene is key in determining this differential type I IFN response.
• Impact of IFITM proteins on IBV: We have established that chicken interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are potent restriction factors for avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro. We confirmed a differential innate response following infection with distinct IBV strains and believe that our data provide new insights into the possible role of chIFITMs in early IBV infection.
• Marek's disease and cellular metabolism: We have generated reagents and developed one of the key assays required for analysis of effects of Marek's disease virus on metabolism of avian primary cells. These methods allowed us to generate significant new knowledge on the role of metabolism in replication and spread of avian alphaherpesviruses in avian cells.
• Influenza A viruses bind to human complement Factor H (FH) protein. We have identified that binding of influenza virus HA protein to FH delays or inhibits entry of the virus into cells. This entry defect is strain specific and relates to the exact footprint of binding on the HA surface. However, if entry does occur then the presence of FH enhances virus protein expression and infectious outputs from cells.
• Towards the development of a live attenuated African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine: Individual or multiple genes were deleted from a virulent strain of ASFV, and the impact of their loss on virus replication in vitro and in vivo was studied. This provided information about how the virus manipulates host innate immune pathways in macrophages and pigs. Two genes were identified that were important for virus virulence. The deletion of these genes correlated with increased expression of mRNAs for several interferon stimulated genes. Strains of ASFV lacking these genes were attenuated and offered varying levels of protection against virulent virus challenge in pigs. Analysis of serological markers identified anti-inflammatory proteins, including IL10 and IL1 receptor antagonist, as negative correlates of protection.
• SARS-CoV-2 and the unfolded protein response in cells. We have collaborated with Nerea Irigoyen at University of Cambridge to investigate the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to manipulate the unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. We performed in vitro assays with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of different inhibitors of the UPR to evaluate which parts of the pathway may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication.

Objective 2 Measure the contribution of T cells and B cells to immunity
• Development of a Nipah virus vaccine: We have demonstrated that delivery of glycoproteins from the Nipah virus utilising a recombinant herpes virus vector (bovine herpesvirus-4; BoHV-4) stimulated potent T cell responses in pigs. These responses were far superior to those stimulated using other vaccine delivery systems, including other viral vectors e.g. adenovirus and canarypox virus. We have secured additional funding from two animal health companies to support the evaluation of BoHV-4 for the delivery of vaccine antigens from African swine fever virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses. These are two key diseases for which vaccines are lacking or suboptimal, and, for which we believe cell-mediated immunity plays an important role.
• Contribution of CD8+ T cells to immunity against Peste-des-petite-ruminants virus (PPRV): We investigated the importance of CD8 T cells as correlate of protection for PPRV following vaccination with the only currently commercially available live -attenuated vaccine. We demonstrated that following challenge with a moderately virulent virus strain CD8 T cells were not essential to maintain clinical protection following immunisation.
• Contribution of specific peptide-restricted CD4+ T cells to immunity against FMDV: We have developed MHC II tetramers, immunological tools that can be used to detect and quantify antigen specific CD4+ T cells in vaccinated or infected cattle with defined MHC serotypes. Tetramers representing three MHC serotypes (A14, A18 and A31) of The Pirbright Institute's (MHC)-defined cattle herd have been made. To date, experiments have used the A18 MHC II tetramer and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MHC-matched cattle vaccinated against FMD (O serotype). Importantly, we have identified peptide-restricted CD4+ T cells that recognise antigens in the FMDV structural proteins. We have also characterised the phenotype of these T cells for receptor and cytokine expression, and quantified them ex vivo, by flow cytometry. A manuscript is in preparation and will shortly be submitted for review.
• Towards the development of a subunit African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine: We have characterised the types of T-cells that respond to ASFV and, more specifically, to individual viral proteins. We have also identified ASFV proteins that induce CD4 and CD8 cells. This increases our knowledge of the nature of the T-cell response against this complex virus and will be used as the basis for developing viral-vectored subunit vaccines. The antigens were identified from animals that were immunised with a naturally attenuated genotype I isolate and therefore represent cross-protective antigens that could protect against a number of different ASFV genotypes. We have also shown that different ASFV vaccines can induce different types of T-cell responses and this information will be used to guide subunit vaccine design.
• Identification of a mucosal-associated invariant T cell population in cattle: We identified a mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT cell) population in cattle utilising MR1 tetramers and high-throughput TCR sequencing. MAIT cells in milk increased in frequency in cows with mastitis and following challenge with virulent Mycobacterium bovis, blood MAIT cells expressed higher levels of perforin. Very few MAIT cells were identified in pigs suggesting that other cell subsets (???T or NK cells) may perform their function.
• Ruminant antibody repertoire: We have completely assembled and annotated the antibody genes within the goat genome. This enabled us to dissect the fine specificity of the protective immune response to vaccination and infection. This data has also enabled us to describe the molecular basis behind antibody light chain bias across ruminants to help describe individual immune responses. Through collaboration with the USDA we have now assembled and annotated the T and B cell genes in a further six new genomes. This is underpinning studies where the impact of variation at the genomic level is altering the circulating antibody response which may impact the efficacy of vaccination. Using historical germ-free samples we have used a deep transcriptomics approach to quantify the almost complete reliance on environmental antigens to creating antibody diversity in cattle. This may present new opportunities to tailor antibody repertoire development to maximise protection.
• Genomic annotation: Both germline variation and somatic recombination have been studied in parallel to attempt to link these different aspects of immunogenetic variation. Through our collaboration with the USDA-ARS assembling and annotating new livestock genomes, we have characterised the lack of germline diversity in cattle antibody loci which now enables us to study the mechanisms generating circulating antibody repertoire diversity and the impact of vaccination versus infection. These genomes have provided enough confidence to build and test a specific SNP reference panel that allows highly polymorphic immune genes to be interrogated as part of genome wide association studies for the first time. These will be applied to several cohorts of animals displaying differential disease resistance.
• Linking genomic variation with gene expression: Partly funded through a BBSRC GCRF Tools and Resources grant we have adapted our genomic DNA capture methods to pull down complex immune-related gene clusters. This sequencing data from multiple individuals captures population level genomic diversity enabling us to correlate immune responses with haplotypes that vary in gene content. Linked to this, we have designed and implemented a new bioinformatic pipeline that allows RNAseq mapping over repetitive immune complexes. This allows us to interrogate immune-related gene expression based on the likely gene content of that individual animal, a significant advance as the underlying genomic variation can be substantial.
• Sequencing and bioinformatics methods have been developed to study single B cells and the antibody repertoire in cattle, pigs and chickens. With the capability of the immunological toolbox this is creating enormous opportunities to study pathogen specific protective responses and compare the responses between different vaccines.
Objective 3 Identify cross-strain reactive epitopes
• Cross-protective antibodies to porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV): We have developed a genetic programming methodology which has enabled the conversion of memory B cells from pigs experimentally challenged with heterologous PRRSV strains into proliferating antibody-secreting cells in culture. Supernatants from these cells contained PRRSV-specific antibodies. This experimental system will be further exploited to produce a panel of PRRSV-specific mAbs, which will contribute both to our understanding of the antibody response to PRRSV and allow epitopes to be resolved that may ultimately guide the design of immunogens to induce cross-protective immunity.
• Cross-neutralising antibodies to influenza virus: Our studies have identified a key amino acid residue (217) in the surface glycoprotein (hemagglutinin) of that mediate major antigenic change in the low pathogenicity H7N9 avian influenza viruses infecting poultry and humans in China. These findings have important implications for selection of candidate vaccine virus strains for induction cross-protective immunity.
• Characterization of cross-reactive mAbs to FMDV: We have identified a universally conserved epitope on the FMDV capsid. Antibodies recognising this epitope are not neutralising in vitro but can form an immune complex with the virus as evidenced by enhanced binding and uptake of virus into Fc-receptor bearing cells. Fc-mediated antiviral functions of antibodies against such entirely conserved epitopes may provide novel approaches for inducing broadly effective protective responses.
Objective 4 Determine if targeted delivery improves vaccine efficacy
• Improving vaccines for foot and mouth disease virus: Chemically inactivated, oil adjuvanted FMD vaccines are a critical element in FMD control in developing countries. Although these vaccines are effective in pigs and ruminants, protective immunity is not reached quickly, is short-lived (~3 months) and is serotype- and sometimes strain-specific. We investigated toll-like receptor (TLR) III adjuvants in cattle for serotype O FMD vaccine to determine if they stimulated a longer duration of immunity. Cattle were studied for 7.5 months post-vaccination. Enhanced humoral and cellular responses (CD8+) were observed by incorporating TLR III adjuvant in FMD vaccine, as well as increased duration of immunity in comparison to the conventional oil adjuvant vaccine.
• Targeted antigen delivery vaccine for avian influenza: Vaccination is a key tool to reduce the impact of viral diseases on poultry such as infection with avian influenza viruses (AIV). Many of the current poultry vaccines do not provide optimal protection. To address this challenge, we have developed a novel "targeted antigen delivery vaccine" (TADV) technology that selectively target vaccine antigens to chicken antigen presenting cells (APCs), resulting in potentiation of vaccine efficacy. The TADV vaccine formulation induced faster and stronger immune responses in vaccinated chickens compared with compared to the untargeted counterpart or the currently in-used conventional killed virus vaccines.
• Harnessing mucosal immunity for protection against influenza: We used in vivo scintigraphy in our well established pig influenza challenge model to examine the distribution of large and small droplets, delivered to the respiratory tract using nebulisers or a mucosal atomisation device. We have also analysed in detail the distribution of antigen specific cells throughout the respiratory tract after 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza infection.
• Strategies combining systemic and local respiratory immunisation against influenza virus are more effective than either alone: Our studies have shown that local immunisation alone, although inducing a very powerful local T cell response and local antibody, does not reduce virus shedding and has only a weak effect on lung pathology. These data indicate that results obtained in mice and ferrets may not adequately predict the efficacy of immunization regimes in a large natural host animal model, the pig, and by implication humans.
• Development of porcine mAbs to pH1N1: To test candidate mAbs and delivery platforms for antibody therapy we established a reproducible pig influenza challenge model and identified a protective haemagglutinin (HA) specific human mAb, 2-12C, which can be used as standard to benchmark other mAbs and delivery platforms. However longer term investigation of human mAbs in pigs is compromised by development of anti-human Ig responses. To overcome this, we have developed porcine mAbs to pH1N1. We showed that these mAbs recognise the same immunodominant HA epitopes targeted by humans. Most notably one of these sites was not recognised by ferret sera routinely used to monitor virus evolution and inform decisions about annual influenza vaccines. These results indicate that the pig is a valuable model for understanding how best to apply mAbs as therapy and for monitoring antigenic drift of human influenza viruses.
• Evaluating the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccine candidates: ISP supported vaccinology and porcine immunology was a significant factor in enabling us to rapidly deploy the pig as a pre-clinical model to evaluate the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccine candidates. We have successfully completed five vaccine studies. The vaccine candidates we have evaluated include the University of Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, the University of Oxford's virus-like particle displaying the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD-SpyVLP), and Imperial College's lipid nanoparticle encapsulated self-amplifying RNA.
Exploitation Route In what ways might the outcomes of this funding be taken forward and put to use by others?
• Vaccines
o SARS-CoV-2: Demonstration of the immunogenicity of RBD-SpyVLP in pigs supported its approval for testing in clinical trials. The immunogenicity data of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in pigs was included in the pre-clinical dossier submitted to regulators (e.g., European Medicines Agency) and supported the successful Marketing Authorisation application.
o New vaccine candidates: Development and characterisation of new vaccines have been or will be taken forward in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies. For example, the outputs of the project to develop a live attenuated ASFV vaccine have been used to establish collaborations and gain funding from an international veterinary vaccine company and an NGO that promotes development of veterinary vaccines for livestock farmers in low and middle income countries. This will facilitate development to market of vaccines against African swine fever virus, which will protect the global pork industry and improve food security.
• Models
o Gene mapping and expression pipelines: The potential for our gene mapping and expression pipelines to be incorporated into whole genome analysis is being discussed with UK and international partners. Adoption will depend on integration as well as expanding the overall proof of concept.
o Pig model of human disease: The pig is becoming increasingly recognised as a reliable and useful model for selection of vaccines and therapeutics for human influenza. Its utility for other respiratory infections has been recognised in the testing of vaccine candidates for SARS-CoV-2 by The Pirbright Institute.
o Babraham pigs: The immune response in the inbred Babraham pig following pH1N1 was comparable to that of outbred animals. The ability to utilize these two swine models together with the availability of fine grain immunologic tools in Babraham pigs will provide unparalleled power to study immunity to influenza and other pathogens.
• Novel antivirals:
o Knowledge of the impact of Marek's disease on avian cell metabolism could lead to the development of novel antiviral compounds which could be potentially used in veterinary medicine to control pathogens.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description The vaccine candidates evaluated in the pig model at The Pirbright Institute include the University of Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. The immunogenicity data of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in pigs was included in the pre-clinical dossier submitted to regulators (e.g., European Medicines Agency) and supported the successful Marketing Authorisation application. The rapid approval of this vaccine for widespread use in the UK and other countries has been linked with a reduction in cases of COVID-19 and thus has reduced the impact of the pandemic. This has substantial economic and societal impacts.
First Year Of Impact 2020
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Cultural,Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Advice to DEFRA
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Provided advice and report on activities related to African swine fever virus to DEFRA. Took part in planning for Desktop Exercise for planning response to and ASF outbreak in the UK
 
Description Annual Report to OIE on Activities
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Report of advice, training and diagnosis of African swine fever virus given internationally to OIE (World Animal Health Organisation)
 
Description Contributed to Chief Medical Officers report- Genomics section
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6310...
 
Description Contribution to Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer UK (2017), Genomics Chapter 9.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Contribution to a POSTnote on 'Reducing UK Antibiotic Use in Animals'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Deputy Chair of BBSRC grant Committee A
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact As chair of the committee I influence the decision on grant funding which have effect on animal and human health and food security
 
Description Development and Evaluation of PPR DIVA vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease, severely affects small ruminants in almost 70 countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It causes USD 1.5 to 2 billion in losses each year in regions that are home to over 80% of the world's sheep and goats and to more than 330 million of the world's poorest people, many of whom depend on them for their livelihoods. The estimated current expenditure on PPR vaccination ranges between USD 270 and 380 million. The annual impact of PPR alone may be valued at between USD 1.45 and 2.1 billion per year. Approximately a third of the global financial burden of PPR is borne by Africa, with a further quarter borne by South Asia. This burden will be removed with the successful eradication of PPR. The undiscounted costs for a fifteen-year Global control Strategy of FAO and OIE are between USD 7.6 and 9.1 billion, with the first five years costing between USD 2.5 and 3.1 billion. (http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4460e.pdf). PPR is currently controlled by vaccination using mainly two live attenuated PPRV vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96). However, the current vaccines and serological tests are unable to enable Differentiation between naturally Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). This factor precludes meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn reducing the efficiency of control programmes. Therefore, it is almost impossible to assess the quality and efficacy of existing PPR vaccines without knowing whether positive animals are vaccinated or naturally infected. Unlike rinderpest, where cattle and buffalo were primary hosts, in PPR, new crops (about 30-40%) of lambs and kids are produced every year and are the most susceptible population to bring back new PPR outbreaks6&7. Therefore, it is likely that the cycle of vaccinations and PPR outbreaks will continue until and unless we reach the stage of 80-90% herd immunity. Therefore, development of a marker vaccine and associated DIVA diagnostics will enable the assessment of vaccine efficacy which is essential for any successful vaccination campaign. https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-peste-des-petits-ruminant The availability of a recombinant PPRV vaccine with a proven functionality is a prerequisite for the development of novel vaccines that may enable the development of DIVA tools for PPRV diagnostics. In the DBT-BBSRC FADH BB/L004801/1 grant we have rescued Sungri 96 and Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strains. Both the vaccine strains were rescued from respective synthetic c-DNA clones with mutations in the variable part of C terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) gene similar to Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) to enable negative marker DIVA vaccines. These two DIVA vaccines along with parental vaccines have been recently tested in a pilot studies in goats. Both the DIVA and parent vaccines provided safety, stability and protection for vaccinated goats whereas the control animals were clinically infected. Patent applications have been made to protect these DIVA vaccines. Agreements are being done with vaccine industries for the licensing and commercialisation.
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2018/09/pirbright-collaboration-provides-tools-peste-des-...
 
Description Enhancing the duration of Immunity by adding the TLR III adjuvant to the current FMDV vaccine formulation
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact We have demonstrated that addition of TLR III agonist to the existing FMD vaccine formulation, the duration of immunity could be enhanced from 3 to 6 months. There the biannual vaccination practised in endemic country will have no window for the infection.
 
Description Facilitated the transfer of molecular technology for the capacity building of the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) peste des petits ruminants (PPR) laboratory.19-25.01.2020
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Facilitated the transfer of molecular technology for the capacity building of the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) peste des petits ruminants (PPR) laboratory.19-25.01.2020. The PPR virus infected samples can be diagnosed now at SUA, Tanzania without sending to Pirbright or CIRAD reference laboratories. This will enhance the capacity building of SUA and help immensely in the ongoing PPR eradication.
 
Description Human Infection Challenge Models for Vaccination
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Longer duration immunity for FMD vaccine with TLR adjuvant-Conducted screening of 8 adjuvants with FMD vaccine in cattle and analyse the samples originated from the experiments. 4 selected adjuvants were tested in cattle at the Pirbright Institute and TLR III adjuvant was found as the best one. Under Follow on grant 12 cattle were vaccinated with existing vaccine with oil adjuvant and 12 cattle were vaccinated with oil and TLR III adjuvants. The protective immununity was assessed from the virus neutralizing antibody status. By 6 months post-vaccination only 17% of cattle were having protective antibodies (1:45 dilution) in conventional vaccine group whereas 80% cattle were having protective neutralizing titer (1:45) in TLR adjuvanted group. Therefore it is clear that adding TLR adjuvant one can increase the duration of immunity up to 6 months.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Lumpy Skin Disease Control Strategy for Great Britain
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Member of the British Society for Immunology Forum
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The BSI is very active in lobbying MPs and Government on subjects to do with clinical immunology and immunisations.
URL https://www.immunology.org/
 
Description OIE Global Network of African swine fever diagnostic labs
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Participated in discussions to establish an OIE Global Network of African swine fever virus diagnostic laboratories and became a member of the organizing committee
 
Description Organised seminar series on Sequencing, Virus Evolution and Molecular Biology at Pirbright (with Luca Ferretti and Graham Freimanis)
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description PPR DIVA Vaccine development . FAO/OIE in the meeting proceedings in December, 2018 recorded the future use of DIVA vaccine in the ongoing PPR eradication programme. This will be useful at least at the end phase of eradication to differentiate between vaccination and infection.As such few industries have contacted us to have the DIVA vaccine strains for commercialisation. Also some of the endemic countries are keen to have the strain for testing the DIVA vaccines in endemic settings.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
 
Description Press release on threat of PPR to Europe
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact We have press released in May 2018 and the PPR out break, first in Europe main land, Happened in June-July 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2017/05/peste-des-petits-ruminants-neglected-disease-whic...
 
Description Quantifying Levels of Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Virus in Excretions from Experimentally Infected Goats and Its Importance for Nascent PPR Eradication Programme
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
Impact This publication highlight the sample types to be used in the PPR eradication programme to detect the viral genome. Therefore without invasive sampling nasal swabs can be taken from the body of the infected animal for the detection of viral nucleotides. Also this publication highlight the pick period of virus excretion which shows the most probale period of virus transmission to the in contact animals. The manuscript has been sent to FAP and PPR secretariat and received well appreciation that the work will be helpful for eradication programme.
 
Description Training MSc students
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Delivered a new training session to MSc students teaching viral quantification assays. This lead to a greater understanding of laboratory techniques and academic research.
 
Description "Vaccines for Global Epidemics: A Nipah virus vaccine to eliminate porcine reservoirs and safeguard human health"
Amount £2,348,798 (GBP)
Funding ID 971555 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Active and passive Immunity induced by aerosols
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R506448/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 08/2021
 
Description Antigenic characterisation of infectious bursal disease virus to improve vaccination strategies and vaccine design
Amount £450,685 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S014594/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2019 
End 12/2021
 
Description Assessing the functionality of avian BST2 as a viral restriction factor.
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2021 
End 09/2025
 
Description Assessment of the immunogenicity of bovine herpesvirus 4-based vectors delivering Nipah virus glycoproteins in swine
Amount £41,895 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 02/2019 
End 04/2019
 
Description BBSRC IAA'
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S506680/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 04/2020
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE (iCASE)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE (iCASE) Studentship: Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells.
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE (iCASE) studentship programme Oxford Interdisciplinary Bioscience Doctoral Training Partnership
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description BBSRC International Partnering Awards
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 07/2021
 
Description BBSRC Newton Fund Swine and Poultry Research Initiative
Amount £865,623 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R01275X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description BBSRC Responsive Mode IPA
Amount £302,086 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R002606/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description BBSRC Responsive Mode funding
Amount £595,574 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R008833/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Description BBSRC iCASE) Studentship: Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells.
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2022
 
Description BBSRC responsive mode funding
Amount £356,484 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T005173/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 12/2021
 
Description Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and University of Oxford joint Doctoral Training Project
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 08/2022
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board PhD studentship
Amount £76,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Egg Marketing Board 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Broad and effective protection against influenza achieved by viral vectored vaccines
Amount £1,607,691 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S037160/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 04/2022
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID LKCS-2019- 665 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 10/2022
 
Description Defining the circadian clock in chicken cells and its impact upon viral replication
Amount £4,500 (GBP)
Organisation The Houghton Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 11/2020
 
Description Development of next generation vaccine technology inducing rapid and strong immunity through targeted delivery of antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £473,080 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T013087/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 05/2023
 
Description Development of novel universal influenza vaccines
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2020
 
Description Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Evaluation of CD4+ T-cell responses to vaccination with next generation FMD vaccines using Tetramer-guided epitope mapping of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid
Amount £18,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IEVI808400 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Description Evalution of a stable liquid formulation of the PPR vaccine in sheep and goats
Amount £225,638 (GBP)
Funding ID IAH-R67A1151A1 
Organisation GALVmed 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2020 
End 07/2021
 
Description FLI- TPI joint PhD studentships Avian influenza immunology markers.
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country Germany
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2022
 
Description Identification and evaluation of swine mAbs in pig influenza challenge model
Amount $599,944 (USD)
Funding ID OPP1201470 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Description In vitro evaluation of peptide-based immune checkpoint inhibitors as potential molecular adjuvants for improved PRRS vaccines
Amount £4,921 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description Internal Seed Fund- Development of an IBDV diagnostic test that can differentiate infected from vaccinated animals, for use in surveillance.
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2019 
End 02/2020
 
Description Investigating the feasibility of adapting a direct PCR diagnostics approach to in-field animal testing
Amount £864,356 (GBP)
Funding ID 104623 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 04/2020
 
Description Japan Partnering Award
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2021
 
Description LVIF
Amount $1,500,000 (CAD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Description Market research and technical feasibility of a bivalent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome / Nipah virus vaccine
Amount £10,880 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description NC3Rs Research Project Grant
Amount £436,339 (GBP)
Funding ID NC/R001138/1 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2019
 
Description Newton Fund: The Researcher Links Travel Grants from British Council
Amount £35,400 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative
Amount £841,995 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012679/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative. Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry.
Amount £497,995 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012679/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Newton Institutional Links grant
Amount £269,123 (GBP)
Funding ID 261727271 
Organisation Newton Fund 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Description Next generation peste-des-petits ruminats (PPR) vaccines that differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) - proof of concept in sheep
Amount £158,845 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T004096/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Description Novel Mucosal T cells in immunity to swine influenza
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Novel Mucosal T cells in immunity to swine influenza 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2020
 
Description Passive and active immunity in the porcine influenza model
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 01/2021
 
Description Pathfinder BB/R012431/1 Grant holder: Dr Mark Fife. Grant title: chIFITM knockdown/knockout technology as a platform technology for increased vaccine yields in SPF Eggs.
Amount £12,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012431/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Pirbright Institute Agri-Food Technology Seed Fund: Production of prototype lateral flow device (LFD) for detection/ diagnosis of H7 avian influenza virus infection in birds and humans. Value £30,000.
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 11/2018
 
Description Pirbright Institute Flexible Talent Mobility Account
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S507945/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Pirbright Institute PhD studentship
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 08/2022
 
Description Quadrivalent foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine technology
Amount $1,474,103 (USD)
Funding ID INV-003628 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 08/2019 
End 02/2022
 
Description Recombinant pseudorabies virus as a multivalent vectored vaccine platform for emerging and endemic porcine diseases
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2020 
End 09/2024
 
Description Reducing the Economic and Zoonotic Impact of Avian Influenza (REZIAI): delivering novel vaccines and diagnostics from laboratory to the field.
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S013792/1 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description SFS-10-2017 - Research and approaches for emerging diseases and pests in plants and terrestrial livestock: Addressing the dual emerging threats of African Swine Fever and Lumpy Skin Disease in Europe (DEFEND)
Amount € 5,986,250 (EUR)
Funding ID 773701 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 06/2018 
End 05/2023
 
Description SOMAmer technology to diagnose coronavirus infection: veterinary and zoonotic implications
Amount £1 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2021 
End 09/2025
 
Description Seed Catalyst Award
Amount £25,527 (GBP)
Funding ID ISCF-TFPSA-Pirbright 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 02/2019
 
Description Smart biomimetic nanomaterials for novel treatment and prevention of viral infection
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Description The Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £640,473 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Description The Pirbright Institute Flexible Talent Mobility Account Innovation Fellowship
Amount £19,636 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2020 
End 10/2020
 
Description The Pirbright Livestock Antibody Hub
Amount $5,500,000 (USD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 11/2019 
End 11/2024
 
Description The Pirbright Livestock Antibody Hub
Amount $5,530,900 (USD)
Funding ID INV-003007 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2024
 
Description The Pirbright Livestock Antibody Hub
Amount NU$ 5,500,000 (UYU)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 09/2019 
End 08/2024
 
Description The genetic and functional analysis of variation in innate immune genes associated with restriction of influenza virus for chicken lines
Amount £422,383 (GBP)
Organisation Aviagen Group 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 01/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Description Towards a novel multivalent poultry vaccine: Development of a recombinant infectious bursal disease vectored vaccine encoding conserved B- and T- cell epitopes from infectious bronchitis virus
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Houghton Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 11/2020
 
Description Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2021 
End 04/2025
 
Description iCASE studentship: Production and assessment of antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Title A ligation and restriction enzyme independent cloning technique: an alternative to conventional methods for cloning hard-to-clone gene segments in the influenza reverse genetics system 
Description we developed an easy and efficient ligation and restriction enzyme independent (LREI) cloning method for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000 vector. The method involves amplification of megaprimers followed by PCR amplification of megaprimers using a bait plasmid, DpnI digestion and transformation. ligation and restriction enzyme independent (LREI) cloning method represents an alternative strategy for cloning influenza gene segments that have internal restriction sites for the enzymes used in reverse genetics. Further, the problem of genetic instability in bacteria can be alleviated by growing recombinant bacterial cultures at a lower temperature. This technique can be applied to clone any influenza gene segment using universal primers, which would help in the rapid generation of influenza viruses and facilitate influenza research and vaccine development. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method will help in the rapid generation of reverse genetic base influenza viruses and facilitate influenza research and vaccine development. 
URL https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-020-01358-2
 
Title An ex vivo IBDV infection model using a chicken primary B cell culture system 
Description Recently, it has become possible to culture chicken primary B cells in vitro in the presence of a soluble construct of chicken CD40L that was made at The Pirbright Institute. We have demonstrated that these chicken primary B cells can be infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). This system will be validated and expanded to other B cell tropic viruses in order to replace the use of infected chickens in research, in an NC3Rs funded grant. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Using this system, we have determined that chicken primary B cells respond to IBDV infection by inducing Type I IFN responses. However, the induction is more pronounced in cells infected with an attenuated strain compared to a very virulent strain. This is consistent with the very virulent strain down-regulating antiviral responses to a greater extent than other strains which may, in part, explain its enhanced virulence. We also observed a reduction in the expression of key genes involved in B cell proliferation and activation following IBDV infection which was only possible by using the primary B cell culture system. 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=broadbent+dulwich
 
Title Appropriate FMD vaccine strains for East Africa and South East Asia and new adjuvants for FMD vaccines that provide longer duration immunity 
Description We have identifies appropriate Vaccine strains for Serotyoe O and A for East Africa and for South east Asia which are published now. Additionally we have identified potent and safe adjuvants which has been tested in cattle and provides longer duration immunity. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Governments of East Africa and Regional OIE centre at South East Asia and vaccine producers are aware about the strains and adjuvants. 
 
Title Benifit of addition of TLR III to existing FMD vaccine 
Description We have demonstrated that TLR III adjuvants along with existing oil adjuvants provides longer duration immunity. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This will fulfill the lacuna of short living immunity of FMD inactivated vaccines 
 
Title Comprehensive analysis of genetic variants across immune loci in indigenous breeds. 
Description The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family comprises a class of restriction factors widely characterised in humans for their potent antiviral activity. Their biological activity is well documented in several animal species, but their genetic variation and biological mechanism is less well understood, particularly in avian species. Here we report the complete sequence of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus IFITM locus from a wide variety of chicken breeds to examine the detailed pattern of genetic variation of the locus on chromosome 5, including the flanking genes ATHL1 and B4GALNT4. We have generated chIFITM sequences from commercial breeds (supermarket-derived chicken breasts), ancient bone samples, indigenous chickens from Nigeria (Nsukka) and Ethiopia, European breeds and inbred chicken lines from The Pirbright Institute, totalling of 211 chickens. Through mapping of genetic variants to the latest chIFITM consensus sequence our data reveal that the chIFITM locus does not show structural variation in the locus across the populations analysed, despite spanning diverse breeds from different geographic locations. However, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in functionally important regions of the proteins within certain groups of chickens were detected, in particular the European breeds and indigenous birds from Ethiopia and Nigeria. In addition, we also found that two out of four SNVs located in the chIFITM1 (Ser36 and Arg77) and chIFITM3 (Val103) proteins were simultaneously under positive selection. Together these data suggest that IFITM genetic variation may contribute to the capacities of different chicken populations to resist viral infection. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This paper is currently in press in. BMC Genomics. 
 
Title Detection of HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Description Assay for detection of recombinant HVT expressing HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This new method will help to detect recombinant HVT vaccine expressing HA antigen in infected cell. 
 
Title Developed assays for evaluation of antigen specific memory chicken T cells 
Description An in vitro model for generation of effector cells from memory T cells for chicken T cells were developed 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This method will enable scientists working on poultry vaccines and immune response to pathogens to assess memory T cell responses in chickens. 
 
Title Development of assay for assessing antigen-specific T cell responses in chickens 
Description An in vitro assay were developed to generate effector memory T cells from memory T cells (cultured ELISPOT assay for chicken T cells) 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Enables scientists to assess memory T cell responses induced by poultry vaccines 
 
Title Development of tetramers to study immune responses in pigs 
Description The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It is also an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. We addressed this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory pathogens. 
 
Title Generation of cell-free virus using feather follicle stem cells 
Description An in vitro model for generation and purification of cell-free virus using feather follicule stem cells 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Cell lines could be used to generate cell free vaccines against Marek's disease virus 
 
Title Generation of feather follicle stem cells 
Description Methods for generation and expansion of feather follicle epithelial stem cells are developed within Avian Immunology group. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Feather follicle stem cells can be used to examine Marek's disease virus replication in vitro. 
 
Title Generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and analyses of their infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus 
Description CD14+ cells were selected. Day 4 monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) were generated by positive selection using CD14 magnetic beads and LS columns, followed by differentiation by culturing in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Both non-cell culture adapted and cell culture adapted FMDV were used in this study. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM) was used to investigate internalisation of FMDV and immune complexed (IC) FMDV at 1-6 hours post infection (hpi) and also to investigate the uptake pathways utilised by non-cell culture and cell culture adapted FMDV in the presence of different pharmacological inhibitors. Western blot, IFM and quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyse viral replication at 0-6, 8, 16 and 24 hpi. Plaque assays were used to investigate the yields of live virus produced in moDC at 0, 4, 8 and 24 hpi. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the changes in IL-12 and IL-10 secretion following FMDV infection at 2, 4 and 6 hpi. MxCAT ELISA was used to investigate the secretion of IFN at different times post infection. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These methods were used to generate MODC and characterise their interaction with FMDV. They are currently being incorporated into a manuscript for peer review and provide a workflow to analyse FMDV infections of other dendritic cell types. 
 
Title Genome enrichement with long read sequencing 
Description We have developed the Nimblegen-Roche SeqCapEZ probes based pull down method to work with genomic DNA fragments up to 6kb in length with PacBio sequencing. This is being used for de novo assembly of variable regions 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are now involved with industry to refine this protocol further with less input DNA and high multiplex capability. 
 
Title IBDV Reverse Genetics System 
Description We have developed a reverse genetics system for IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have used the reverse genetics system to generate recombinant IBDVs and chimeric recombinant IBDVs that contain genes from classical and very virulent strains of IBDV in the background of a cell culture adapted attenuated strain. This will enable us to study the effect of individual virus genes on pathogenicity. 
 
Title IBDV titration in chicken B cells by TCID50 to replace IBDV titration in chicken embryos by EID50 
Description The titer of IBDV has traditionally been determined by infecting embryos, humanely culling them at embryonic day 18 and then observing the number that show growth abnormalities due to virus. As this goes beyond 2/3 gestation (14 embryonic days), this falls under Home Office Legislation. We demonstrated that the immortalised B cell line, DT40, could be used to titrate IBDV instead, replacing the use of embryos. This is being written up into a manuscript currently. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact we have already replaced the use of embryos in our research. Once this has been published and is in the public domain, we anticipate this will lead to more replacement in the field, 
 
Title Identified the best sampling material for the PPR virus genome detection 
Description Quantifying the DNA from all the body fluids of PPR virus infected goats we demonstrated that non-invasive nasal samples are the best material for the genome detection as virus appears as early as 2 days post infection before any clinical signs appear and the virus detection linger for this sample type than any other sample. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact As we have shown the best sample type for the detection of PPR virus, we have not to do many sample analysis which save the money and effort during the eradication programme. 
 
Title Method for sequencing of ASFV (African Swine Fever Virus) based on long reads 
Description The ASFV genome is repetitive, due to the presence of families of genes that are present in multiple copies (>10). As a result, sequencing based on short reads only would not be able to reconstruct the genome in its entirety. In addition, good quality full genome sequencing of ASFV is complicated by persistence contamination with fragments of host DNA. We are developing a novel protocol that will allow the sequencing of the virus using long-read technologies (PacBio or Oxford Nanopore). Probe-capture libraries have been designed to mitigate the problem of host contamination by selectively purifying viral DNA from a wide range of different ASFV genotypes. Protocols are being developed to prepare high quality high molecular weight viral DNA from different sample types suitable for generating sequencing libraries for long-read sequencing. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact More than 100 samples from 18 different LMIC countries have been identified and collated for sequencing with the new protocol. They will be added to the web-portal for transboundary pathogens which is currently being developed thanks to BBSRC funding. 
 
Title Optimisation of chicken kidney cell culture preparation 
Description We have optimised the method of extracting kidneys and preparing chicken kidney (CK) cell cultures from chickens. CK cells are used for in vitro assays to study avian viruses, in particular infectious bronchitis virus. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This has increased the yield of viable cells and the quality of the cell cultures. We can now obtain the number of cells we require using fewer chicken kidneys, therefore requiring fewer chickens to be culled. This is an important development for the 3Rs. We hope to publish this method for others' information. 
 
Title Scintigraphy of the respiratory tract in pigs 
Description We have used in vivo scintigraphy in pigs to characterize the distribution of large and small droplets, delivered to the respiratory tract using nebulisers or a mucosal atomisation device. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Scintigraphy and the tools we have developed to analyse the specificity and function of tissue resident memory cells will allow the effects of localised distribution of antigen in the respiratory tract to be studied and established the pig as a useful model for investigating optimal targeting of vaccines for respiratory disease. 
 
Title Stable chicken cell lines overexpressing chicken IFITM1,2 and 3 
Description In collaboration with Mark Fife, we have produced chicken stable cell lines overexpressing chicken IFITM1,2, 3 and a mutant chicken IFITM3 lacking palmitoylation sites. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These cell lines will be used to evaluate the effect of the IFITM proteins on the replication of different viruses, including IBDV. 
 
Title The application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system in the generation of bivalent duck enteritis virus vaccine against avian influenza virus 
Description We developed integrated non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)- clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system and Cre-Lox system for generating recombinant Duck enteritis virus (DEV)as vectored vaccines against the avian influenza virus (AIV). This is an efficient and rapid method for generation of a recombinant DEV-AIV vaccine. The vaccine provide protection of ducks from AIV and DEV and enable differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) approach. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Increased research collaboration and research funding from Industry 
URL http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/2/81
 
Title UniMMap- a pipeline for mapping RNAseq data over repetitive immune complexes. 
Description To exploit the abundance of available short read sequencing data we have developed a pipeline that uses mappability to accurately measure transcription over repetitive gene complexes. This methods uses known haplotypes to examine regions of uniqueness, and then the RNAseq data from the individual to train the method to be species or individual specific. This is particularly important over gene complexes that contain genes involved in the immune system, that are often highly similar in sequence but can have profoundly different functions. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact the immediate impact will be adding fine resolution data to livestock gene expression atlas projects lead by the FAANG consortium. Further impact will be arising as this method is published and we apply it to numerous existing datasets the are publically avaialable as well as generated at Pirbright and by our collaborators. 
 
Title Use of reverse genetics to develop PPR DIVA vaccines 
Description Reverse genetics technique has been established for PPR virus in our laboratory. As PPR vaccine is a live attenuated virus, it is not possible to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) in existing antibody assays. However using reverse genetics technique we have manipulated/mutated residues in the full-length cDNA of virus and rescued the live attenuated vaccine strain which worked as a DIVA vaccine. Using this technique a GFP ( Green fluorescent protein) has been introduced into the virulent PPR virus that helped to follow the virus in the infected goats. Similarly using this technique we have modified the existing live attenuated viruses ( Nigeria 75/1) and Sungri 96/1) in to recombinant marker vaccines that enables to differentiate between infection and vaccination ( DIVA). So we have demonstrated that reverse genetics tool can be used to study the pathogenesis and to develop the marker vaccines. This technique can be adapted for other negative strand viruses to design the DIVA vaccines. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact PPR DIVA vaccine developed that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. This will be helpful to know the efficacy of vaccine by knowing the presence antibodies in animal is due to vaccination or infection. This will reduce the eradication time and will facilitate to declare freedom of diseases as soon as Possible without long waiting period. 
 
Title chimeric IBDVs 
Description Andrew Broadbent has engineered chimeric IBDVs expressing individual genes from a very virulent strain in the backbone of an attenuated strain. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These chimeric strains can be used to define viral determinants of virulence. 
 
Title in vitro model of IBDV antigenic drift in chicken B cells 
Description IBDV vaccines do not induce sterilising immunity, meaning vaccinated birds can become infected with field strains. As for other viruses, it is thought that vaccine-induced immune selection pressure drives the evolution of antigenic drift variants that accumulate amino acid changes in the hypervariable region of the capsid, which may lead to vaccine failures. However, antigenic drift has not been studied in any detail for IBDV, and there is therefore a paucity of information regarding how plastic the capsid is, how quickly mutations arise and become fixed in the virus population, or whether some are more dominant than others. One way of studying this is to vaccinate chickens with sub-protective doses and then challenge them with field strains of IBDV and then sequence the resulting viruses that emerge. To replace the use of birds in these experiments, we have developed an in vitro model of antigenic drift by serially passaging a field strain, F5270, in the immortalised chicken B cell line, DT40, in the presence of sub-neutralising concentrations of vaccine-induced antibodies to better characterise changes in the capsid. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact In our model, amino acid mutations arose in the hypervariable region of the IBDV capsid at the same sites previously observed in field studies, validating our model. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mutations arose early, by only 5 passages in chicken B cells, which subsequently became fixed by 10 passages. We are now doing next generation sequencing to better characterise the plasticity of the capsid. 
 
Title in vitro quantification of anti-IBDV neutralising antibodies using chicken B cells 
Description Typically, the titre of neutralising antibodies generated by a field strain of IBDV is quantified by determining the ability of the serum to neutralise the infectivity of a cell- culture adapted strain of IBDV into immortalised fibroblast cells. The reason for this is that field strains do not typically infect immortalised fibroblast cells and have a tropism limited to B lymphocytes. However, this technique may not quantify the correct titre against the field strain in question as it relies on cross-reactivity of the serum to the cell-culture adapted strain. We have developed an in vitro neutralisation assay using the immortalised B cell line, DT40, in order to quantify the titre of neutralising antibodies against field strains of IBDV. As cytopathic effect is not observed in lymphocytes, this assay relies on immunostaining with antibodies against IBDV to determine the endpoint. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This technique enables us to more accurately quantify the titre of antibodies against field strains of IBDV. 
 
Title method for identification of lung Tissue resident memory cells in pigs 
Description Recent overwhelming evidence indicates the importance of local tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) in protective immunity. Most work on TRM has been performed in mice and the TRM defined as inaccessible to intravenously administered anti-T cell antibody. However there are very few data on TRM in large animals. For the first time we have defined TRM in the pig influenza model. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The identification of TRM and their robust protective capacity in site-specific infection has provided a new paradigm by which to assess T cell-mediated responses and an important new target for vaccine design. Since swine are an economically important species, are used as a large animal model for human infection and play a key role in the emergence of novel and potentially zoonotic influenza viruses, the identification of TRM in pigs will allow us to study their role in immunity to swine influenza.and how best to induce them by immunisation. 
 
Title tetracysteine-tagged IBDV 
Description Andrew Broadbent has engineered a tetracysteine (TC)-tagged IBDV that can be used in live cell imaging and co-infection studies with the split-GFP IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This tool, combined with the split-GFP IBDV, will enable us to study co-infection, super-infection exclusion, and the intracellular requirements for viral reassortment. 
 
Title E-MTAB-5947- Transcription profiling by array of differential gene expression in chicken primary B cells infected ex vivo with attenuated and very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) 
Description Microarray data submitted to ArrayExpress from chicken primary B cells infected with a very virulent and attenuated strain of IBDV. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This is the first ever microarray data of chicken primary B cells infected with IBDV and will be of use to other researchers in the area of B cell biology or IBDV virology 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-MTAB-5947/
 
Title Method to predict vaccine matching in-silico 
Description Every time a novel viral strain emerges, it is essential to know whether existing vaccines are effective against it. Several lab techniques are available in order to do so, the most widespread one arguably being VNT (virus neutralisation test). However VNT is expensive, difficult to implement and not very reproducible due to batch effects. Being able to reliably predict VNT-derived antibody titres with the computer would be a game changer in the field. We have developed an in-silico model based on machine learning that is able to effectively predict VNT outcomes out of sequencing data. We have shown that the method performs well for FMDV and also, apparently, for influenza. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are currently in the process of validating and optimising the method. If preliminary results are confirmed, the method could be put to good use in a number of fields, and become the basis for a more effective policy making when managing and controlling devastating livestock diseases such as FMDV. 
 
Title South-African buffalo FMDV sequences 
Description We have sequenced FMDV buffalo samples originated from a EEID project entitled: Persistence of a Highly Contagious Pathogen: Ecological and Evolutionary Mechanisms in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus. This project aims to understand why a highly contagious pathogen such as FMDV, which induces a rapid host immunity and depletes the supply of susceptible host, is able to persist in isolated buffalo populations and thus avoid auto-extinction. The centre piece of the project is a cohort study which involves an established FMDV-positive breeding herd of ca. 70 buffalo in a 900-hectare enclosure surrounded by double game fencing housing buffalo in isolation from other herds in the Kruger National Park (South Africa). The entire herd is being monitored for three years (animals are sampled every 2 months (serum, tonsil swabs, probang) to trace FMDV transmission events, allowing us to define FMD infection dynamics across the susceptible calf cohorts and amongst adults. So far, FMDV genomes from 101 samples have been deep sequenced by illumina. Samples from the last year captures are currently being analysed and virus is currently being isolated. The second experiment is an experimental study, which involves a group of naïve buffalo experimentally infected with either a SAT-1, SAT-2 or SAT-3 virus. The infected buffalo were then allowed to mingle with susceptible animals and transmission of FMDV to naïve animals was monitored during the acute infection but also from persistently infected animals. So far, FMDV genomes from 48 samples obtained at days 2, 30 and 160 of the experiment have been deep sequenced. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The samples sequenced come from South Africa, which is an LMIC, While FMDV infection in cattle is very well studied, the mechanisms of persistence in buffalo, which is thought to be the natural reservoir of the infection, are not well understood. Such understanding would be essential to inform better policies to understand and manage FMDV, which is an economically important scourge of cloven hooved animals in LMICs. All the sequences will be made available on the Transboundary Portal which is being developed at Pirbright. 
 
Title Viral assembly pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust viral assemblies out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, assembling of viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; uneven coverage due to low-quality material or the genomic material of the virus being RNA; the viral nucleic acid being almost lost in the background of nucleic acid of the host. Our pipeline overcomes most of those problems, and is even able to detect different viral strains being present together in the same sample. It can also be used on metagenomic environmental samples. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title Viral variant calling pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust variant calling for viral sequences out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, calling variant for viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; very high genome coverage, which slows down most existing variant callers; the presence of a potentially very high number of different haplotypes for RNA viruses, which is an unusual scenario in variant calling. Our fast and sensitive Bayesian pipeline overcomes most of those problems. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title WRL FMDV sequences for transboundary portal 
Description We have generated a collection of sequences of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) from samples collected by the FMDV World Reference Laboratory at Pirbright. Those full-genome sequences sample a number of recent exotic strains across different regions/countries of the world, focusing mainly on LMICs in North Africa, Middle East and South East Asia. The main represented FMDV types are O and A. Part of the sequences have already been made available through GenBank -- all will be soon downloadable from the Transboundary Portal which is being developed at Pirbright. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Knowledge of the sequenced strains is essential to inform policy for FMDV control in the LMIC countries where the samples were collected. That chimes very well with the GCRF focus of the project. At a more global scale, knowledge of the features and sequence evolution of the virus in time and across different countries is essential in order to accurately model its behaviour. In general FMDV is a scourge of cloven-hoofed animals, and controlling it better is essential in order to alleviate the huge economic toll claimed by the virus in LMICs. 
 
Title Zimbabwe FMDV sequences 
Description Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an acute vesicular disease in domestic cloven-hooved animals. However, in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) clinical disease is rarely observed and following infection virus is persistently carried in the oesophageal-pharyngeal area of the upper respiratory tract. During the 1990s oesophageal-pharyngeal scrapings were collected from free-living African buffalo in multiple herds in six different geographic areas of Zimbabwe. We sequenced over 140 FMD viruses each belonging to one of the Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes (SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3) from primary bovine thyroid cells. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This dataset has been generated from samples collected in Zimbabwe, which is a low-income country. Those viral sequences will be essential to help elucidating the nature of persistent FMDV infection in African buffalo, which is supposed to be the main virus reservoir in vivo. As the samples track viral infection and evolution over several years and across a number of different herds in different national parks and conservatories, the dataset will also inform better animal management and conservation. A better understanding of FMDV persistence would also be essential to mitigate the economic burden generated by the disease, which is a scourge of cloven-hoofed animals in LMICs. All the sequences will be made available through the Transboundary Pathogen portal that is being developed at Pirbright. 
 
Description ASFV Structure 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared samples for analysis
Collaborator Contribution Electron tomographic analysis of the samples we provided.
Impact None as yet.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Adjuvants study-FMD vaccine at Indian Immunologicals 
Organisation Indian Immunologicals Ltd
Country India 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Conducted screening of 8 adjuvants with FMD vaccine in cattle and analyse the samples originated from the experiments. 4 selected adjuvants were tested in cattle at the Pirbright Institute and TLR III adjuvant was found as the best one. Under Follow on grant 12 cattle were vaccinated with existing vaccine with oil adjuvant and 12 cattle were vaccinated with oil and TLR III adjuvants. The protective immununity was assessed from the virus neutralizing antibody status. By 6 months post-vaccination only 17% of cattle were having protective antibodies (1:45 dilution) in conventional vaccine group whereas 80% cattle were having protective neutralizing titer (1:45) in TLR adjuvanted group. Therefore it is clear that adding TLR adjuvant one can increase the duration of immunity up to 6 months.
Collaborator Contribution Facilitate the animal experiments at their High containment
Impact Conducted screening of 8 adjuvants with FMD vaccine in cattle and analyse the samples originated from the experiments. 4 selected adjuvants were tested in cattle at the Pirbright Institute and TLR III adjuvant was found as the best one. Under Follow on grant 12 cattle were vaccinated with existing vaccine with oil adjuvant and 12 cattle were vaccinated with oil and TLR III adjuvants. The protective immununity was assessed from the virus neutralizing antibody status. By 6 months post-vaccination only 17% of cattle were having protective antibodies (1:45 dilution) in conventional vaccine group whereas 80% cattle were having protective neutralizing titer (1:45) in TLR adjuvanted group. Therefore it is clear that adding TLR adjuvant one can increase the duration of immunity up to 6 months.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Aerosol delivery of vaccines and therapeutics 
Organisation Aerogen
Country Ireland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed the pig influenza model which is a natural host pathogen system
Collaborator Contribution Provided expertise and equipment for aerosol delivery
Impact Successfully delivered vaccines by aerosol
Start Year 2015
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution 1. Conducted challenge experiments in goats to study pathogenicity. 2. Developed NGS technology to sequence PPR whole genome.
Collaborator Contribution FLI has conducted transmission study between different species ( Goats, pig, camel). For the first time they showed that pigs are clinically infected by PPR virus.
Impact Joint Publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Anopheles reannotation 
Organisation Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG)
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided RNA-sequencing data (produced by Jaroslaw Krzywinski and analysed by us)
Collaborator Contribution Using the data to produce a reannotation of Anopheles Gambiae
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Aviagen 
Organisation Aviagen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Influenza virus expertise in poultry.
Collaborator Contribution Sharing of commercial poultry breed resources
Impact We have a sponsored PhD studentship to commence Oct 2021 agreed.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents. (2) Provision of training to PhD students and postdoctoral Scientist (3) Critical review of experimental data and manuscripts.
Impact (1) Joint funding: BBSRC Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative (2018-2021). Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Value: £497,995.93. UK Co-Is: Prof John McCauley (Crick Institute), Dr Richard Reeve (University of Glasgow). Collaborators from China: Dr Yipeng Sun, Prof Jinhua Liu and Dr Juan Pu (China Agricultural University), Prof Yongqing Li (Beijing Academy of Agriculture and forestry Sciences), Dr Wenfei Zhu (National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC).
Start Year 2007
 
Description BBSRC - Oxford University iCASE Studentship (October 2019- September 2023). Production and assessment of antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry production 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration between The Pirbright Institute (UK), Oxford University (UK) and industrial partners in Italy. This project will conceived and developed bu MI. The PhD student (Holly Everest) in my group is investigating the antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry production.
Collaborator Contribution The partners in Italy will produce and purify natural antiviral molecules effective against avian influenza and other poultry viruses.
Impact This project started in January 2020.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Bridget Penman 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department School of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genetic data and diversity measures of MHC and associated receptors to inform the modelling efforts to elucidate which selection pressures are the main drivers for the types of diversity we see in extant species.
Collaborator Contribution They are experts in mathmatical modelling and will provide data to help explain genetic diversity in cattle.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Cattle antibody bindinig to bovine respiratory syncytial virus- Peter Kwong 
Organisation National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution By studying the role of the light chain in cattle antibody binding, we have made a panel of recombinant antibodies against bovine respiratory syncytial virus that differ in their light chain pairing. This has show that the light chain has a structural role rather than direct binding to the pathogen. We are now making crystal structures of these antibodies in complex with the pathogen, which is being supplied by Peter Kwong at NIAID. We are making the recombinant antibodies and resolving their structure in complex with the antigen.
Collaborator Contribution Peter Kwong is supplying us with pathogen material and the ability to express more antigen. In the future they will also help interpret the results.
Impact Crytal structures of antibodies bound to epitopes on the major antigenic protein of bRSV. A deeper understanding of the role that the light chain plays in determining antigen specificity.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Challenge of transgenic chickens with influenza viruses 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Section of Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have challenged transgenic chickens with recombinant avian influenza viruses to determine outcome; infectivity, transmission, pathogenicity, dissemination within host. We also processed the samples generated from these animal experiments at The Pirbright Institute.
Collaborator Contribution Imperial College (Wendy Barclay and Mike Skinner) generated recombinant avian influenza viruses for challenge.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in the successful award of a joint grant with imperial college aiming to carry out challenge experiments on novel transgenic chickens to facilitate control of avian influenza virus in the poultry population. BB/S007911/1 - Investigating the role of ANP32A in the replication of avian Influenza virus
Start Year 2018
 
Description Collaboration on the development of intranasal live-attenuated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 
Organisation Lancaster University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Contributed reagents to tests the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an intranasal live-attenuated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in preclinical animal models including mice and hamster.
Collaborator Contribution The partners undertook most of the work to complete the study detailed in the publication entitled "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an intranasal live-attenuated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in preclinical animal models". https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.08.425974v1 Abstract of publication. The global deployment of an effective and safe vaccine is currently a public health priority to curtail the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we evaluated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based intranasal vectored-vaccine in mice and hamsters for its immunogenicity, safety and protective efficacy in challenge studies with SARS-CoV-2. The recombinant (r)NDV-S vaccine expressing spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 administrated via intranasal route in mice induced high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG2a antibodies and T cell-mediated immunity. Hamsters vaccinated with two doses of vaccine showed complete protection from clinical disease including lung infection, inflammation, and pathological lesions after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Importantly, a single or double dose of intranasal rNDV-S vaccine completely blocked SARS-CoV-2 shedding in nasal turbinate and lungs within 4 days of vaccine administration in hamsters. Taken together, intranasal administration of rNDV-S has the potential to control infection at the site of inoculation, which should prevent both the clinical disease and transmission to halt the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Impact The partnership resulted in a joint publication. "Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an intranasal live-attenuated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in preclinical animal models". https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.01.08.425974v1 Abstract of publication. The global deployment of an effective and safe vaccine is currently a public health priority to curtail the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we evaluated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based intranasal vectored-vaccine in mice and hamsters for its immunogenicity, safety and protective efficacy in challenge studies with SARS-CoV-2. The recombinant (r)NDV-S vaccine expressing spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 administrated via intranasal route in mice induced high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG2a antibodies and T cell-mediated immunity. Hamsters vaccinated with two doses of vaccine showed complete protection from clinical disease including lung infection, inflammation, and pathological lesions after the SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Importantly, a single or double dose of intranasal rNDV-S vaccine completely blocked SARS-CoV-2 shedding in nasal turbinate and lungs within 4 days of vaccine administration in hamsters. Taken together, intranasal administration of rNDV-S has the potential to control infection at the site of inoculation, which should prevent both the clinical disease and transmission to halt the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments with SARS-CoV-2 to investigate the host response to infection in vitro.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have led the research and we have a manuscript currently under review.
Impact Information on the host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed in vitro experiments with infectious bronchitis virus, contributed to data analysis, preparation of manuscripts and discussed further funding opportunities.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have analysed viral transcription and translation, and host gene expression after infection of host cells with infectious bronchitis virus, prepared manuscripts and discussed further funding opportunities.
Impact Dinan, A., Keep, S., Bickerton, E., Britton, P., Firth, A. and Brierley, I. (2019) Comparative analysis of gene expression in virulent and attenuated strains of infectious bronchitis virus at sub-codon resolution. J. Virol. 93(18) e00714-19.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaborative project between The Pirbright Institute, UK and Miyazaki University, Japan 
Organisation University of Miyazaki
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of expertise in foot-and-mouth virus research; use of high containment facilities to perform experiments
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in tetramer production, analysis and provided financially towards a travel bursary.
Impact The protection afforded by most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines depends to a large extent on humoral immunity, dictating the need to characterise the underlying mechanisms that mediate antibody production. To address this, we have developed novel major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) class II tetramers to identify antigen specific CD4+ T-cells that are present following vaccination against FMD. To date, we have used a MHC II tetramer (MHC serotype: A18) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MHC-matched cattle vaccinated against FMD (O serotype). Importantly, we have identified CD4+ T-cells that recognise 15 epitopes (identified from 137 peptides) in the FMDV structural proteins; one in VP1, five in VP2, six in VP3 and three in VP4. This work will further our understanding of the repertoire of capsid epitopes recognised by the host's immune response following FMD vaccination and facilitate the identification of new correlates of protection. A first manuscript is in the final stages of preparation and will be submitted shortly.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaborative studentship PPRV 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department School of Veterinary Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Practical laboratory work and in vivo animal studies carried out
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual input in scientific remit of studentship, training of student, use of facilities and lab
Impact DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01471-18 Thesis: The immune response to live, attenuated peste des petits ruminants virus vaccines
Start Year 2014
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I develop a research project proposal in which we are investigating how evolutionary changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus modulate virus fitness and virulence in chickens. This PhD studentship project was funded by Commonwealth scholarship commission for 3 years.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating Partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College is a co-supervisor of the PhD student Thusitha Karunarathna. she provide necessary guidance to achieve prescribed objectives of this project.
Impact The project is at its initial stage.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Cost effectiveness of interventions for the control of avian Influenza virus infections in poultry in Pakistan. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Capacity building, provision of training, sharing research samples and methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Field data on prevalence of influenza viruses in poultry production systems .
Impact 1. Mapping of the broiler production industry and trade patterns in Pakistan presented by Hassaan bin Aslam (PhD student)
Start Year 2016
 
Description Cost effectiveness of interventions for the control of avian Influenza virus infections in poultry in Pakistan. 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Department Department of Microbiology
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Capacity building, provision of training, sharing research samples and methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Field data on prevalence of influenza viruses in poultry production systems .
Impact 1. Mapping of the broiler production industry and trade patterns in Pakistan presented by Hassaan bin Aslam (PhD student)
Start Year 2016
 
Description DNA encoded monoclonal antibodies. 
Organisation INOVIO Pharmaceuticals
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have established the pig influenza model to test monoclonal antibody delivery platforms.
Collaborator Contribution Inovio provided the DNA encoded antibodies.
Impact Joint manuscript submitted
Start Year 2018
 
Description Development of a bivalent PRRS/Nipah virus vaccine 
Organisation National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV and Nipah virus vaccine research
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in genetically engineering PRRSV
Impact Too early.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department School of Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation National Agricultural Research Centre
Country Pakistan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam (OUCRU)
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of tetramers in the Babraham pig model 
Organisation Cardiff University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developed the aerosol delivery method of vaccine and provided material (spleen, BAL and blood) from inbred animals (Babraham pigs) following immunisation with the candidate universal vaccine, S-FLU.
Collaborator Contribution Developed porcine influenza specific class I tetramers and provided the epitope map of Babrahams S-Flu responses to NP, M1, M2, PB1 and PB2 that could be presented by SLA-1 or SLA-2 Grew pig T cell clones for the first time in 30 years.
Impact Multidisciplinary - immunology, virology, protein chemistry. Paper not yet published
Start Year 2014
 
Description Distributed Bio - Gates foundation funding - universal influenza vaccine 
Organisation Distributed Bio.
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Pirbright has provided expert advice to the design of adjuvant and challenge studies in appropriate animal models for human influenza vaccine trials. Pirbright is facilitating these studies in line with UK home office requirements and good scientific practice.
Collaborator Contribution Distributed Bio have developed a novel vaccine that is hoped to be a candidate for a human universal influenza virus vaccine.
Impact Funding from Bill and Melinda Gates foundation as part of the Grand challenges - Universal vaccine for influenza for the animal studies involving Pirbright and Distributed Bio
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Alex Schock, APHA - Detemining the prevalence and sequences of IBDV in vaccinated chicken flocks in the UK 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We will determine whether samples are positive for IBDV. If they are positive, we will amplify the hypervariable region of the capsid by PCR and send for Sanger Sequencing
Collaborator Contribution APHA will obtain samples from Veterinary Practices and perform histology.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Pirbright Internal Seed Award, £10,000)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Carol Cardona, University of Minnesota- avian influenza virus challenge of IBDV or mock-infected chickens 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will challenge birds that have been exposed to IBDV, or mock exposed, with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon HPAI infection in chickens.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Cardona's group will challenge birds that have been exposed to IBDV, or mock exposed, with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon LPAI infection in chickens.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Caroline Denesvere 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Department INRA Loire Valley Centre
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Worked together to establish a collaboration on development of feather follicular stem cell lines as a platform for the generation of cell-free vaccine against Marek's disease virus.
Collaborator Contribution Provided expertise on cell free Marek's disease and microscopic evaluation of cells generating the virus.
Impact Generation of data leading to a successful BBSRC IPA grant application
Start Year 2020
 
Description Dr David Welchman, APHA -Detemining the prevalence and sequences of IBDV in vaccinated chicken flocks in the UK 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We wiil determine whether samples are positive for IBDV. If they are positive, we will amplify the hypervariable region of the capsid by PCR and send for Sanger Sequencing
Collaborator Contribution APHA will obtain samples from Veterinary Practices and perform histology.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Pirbright Internal Seed Award, £10,000)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Finn Grey, The Roslin Institute- Identifying genes essential for the replicaiton of IBDV and IBV in vitro 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will conduct a CRISPR screen and identify genes that are essential for IBDV replication
Collaborator Contribution Finn Grey's group will aid in the CRISPR screen
Impact we have been successful in obtaining a PhD studentship
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Helena Maier, The Pirbright Institute - Identifying genes essential for the replicaiton of IBDV and IBV in vitro 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will conduct a CRISPR screen and identify genes that are essential for IBDV replication
Collaborator Contribution Helena Maier's group will aid in the CRISPR screen and identify genes that are essential for IBV replication
Impact We have been successful in obtaining a PhD studentship
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Holly Shelton, The Pirbright Institute- avian influenza virus challenge of IBDV or mock-infected chickens 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will expose birds to IBDV, compared to mock controls
Collaborator Contribution Holly will train my group in conducting studies with avian influenza viruses and, together, we will challenge birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon HPAI infection in chickens.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Liam Morrison 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis is single cattle B cell antibody sequences
Collaborator Contribution Single cattle B cell antibody sequences
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Lyndsay Fry 
Organisation Washington State University
Department Washington State University Spokane
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Single B cell sorting and antibody sequencing, developing a new methods for Theileria sp.
Collaborator Contribution Providing funding and the samples from immunised animals. We have also engineered an antibody to aid in the sorting of cattle B cells
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Michael Skinner, Imperial College London 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Primary Care and Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We aim to compare the host transcriptional response of primary chicken B cells infected with different strains of IBDV of varying virulence. We have the specialist reagents and expertise in house that are required to culture primary chicken B cells, and we have access to different strains of IBDV.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Michael Skinner and his team at Imperial College London have the expertise and facilities to generate and analyse RNA-Seq data in order to determine host transcriptional responses. This is required in order to complete the aim of the project.
Impact Further funding: PhD studentship (£102,800) - Dr Andrew Broadbent at The Pirbright Institute and Dr Michael Skinner at Imperial College London are joint supervisors for a PhD student working on this project. Further Funding: Houghton Trust (£8,000)- Dr Andrew Broadbent was awarded a Houghton Trust Small Research Grant to contribute to this project. Further funding: NC3Rs (Grant Ref: NC/R001138/1)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Dr Rachel Edgar, Imperial College London- defining the circadian clock in chicken cells and how this impacts upon viral replication 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution we will supply sequences of chicken clock genes and chicken cells and challenge synchronised chicken cells with IBDV and perform in vivo experiments
Collaborator Contribution Dr Edagr's group will synchronise chicken cells and characterise the oscillatory expression of chicken clock genes.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Houghton Trust, £4,500)
Start Year 2019
 
Description EBI Culicoides genome project 
Organisation EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL - EBI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Performed experiments and provided material for Sequencing and genome build of the Culicoides genome project
Collaborator Contribution Sequencing and genome build for Culicoides genome project.
Impact Publication and public release of genome data for Culicoides genome project
Start Year 2013
 
Description Efficacy of a candidate universal influenza vaccine, S-FLU. 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Radcliffe Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Tested the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate universal influenza vaccine, S-FLU, in pigs. For the first time we demonstrated that S-FLU when administered by aerosol can reduce viral load in nasal swabs and lung in pigs after influenza virus challenge. We have shown that the most efficient way to administer this vaccine is by aerosol.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Alain Townsend has developed the S-FLU vaccine.
Impact The most efficient way to induce immune response in the lung is after aerosol delivery of LAIV vaccines in pigs. The most efficient way to induce cross-protective immunity is by aerosol delivery of S-FLU to the lungs of pigs
Start Year 2014
 
Description Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Department of Zoology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells ( PhD student training.
Collaborator Contribution Training of next generation of Scientists (PhD student training).
Impact Training of next generation of Scientists (PhD student training).
Start Year 2017
 
Description Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine candidate immunogenicity in pigs 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in evaluating vaccine immunogenicity in pigs
Collaborator Contribution Provided COVID-19 vaccine candidates
Impact Joint publication on the evaluation of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00221-3). Data included in in the pre-clinical dossier submitted to regulators (e.g., European Medicines Agency) and supported the successful Marketing Authorisation application.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine candidate immunogenicity in pigs 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in evaluating vaccine immunogenicity in pigs
Collaborator Contribution Provided COVID-19 vaccine candidates
Impact Joint publication on the evaluation of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) (https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00221-3). Data included in in the pre-clinical dossier submitted to regulators (e.g., European Medicines Agency) and supported the successful Marketing Authorisation application.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Evaluation of a PRRSV-vectored Nipah virus vaccine 
Organisation National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in porcine immunology/vaccinology, inc. PRRSV and Nipah
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in PRRSV reverse genetics
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Evaluation of artificial cell membranes for delivery of PRRSV antigens 
Organisation ACM Biolabs
Country Singapore 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Ability to evaluate the immunogenicity of artificial cell membranes (ACMs) for delivery of PRRSV antigens
Collaborator Contribution To use their patented platform technology to produce a panel of ACMs embedded with different PRRSV envelope proteins
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Evaluation of bovine herpesvirus-4 as a vaccine vector for pigs 
Organisation University of Parma
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in porcine vaccinology/immunology
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in the generation of recombinant bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4) vectors expressing heterologous antigens
Impact We demonstrated that immunisation of pigs with recombinant BoHV-4 vectors expressing Nipah virus glycoproteins are highly immunogenic in pigs. Most promising and as hypothesised, were the potent CD4 and CD8 T cell responses which were an order of greater than those induced by other viral vaccine vectors. These data have led to the external funding of projects by two companies to evaluate BoHV-4 vectors in the context of other porcine diseases.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Evaluation of immune checkpoint inhibitors as molecular adjuvants for improved PRRSV vaccines 
Organisation Leidos
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV immunology
Collaborator Contribution Patented immune checkpoint inhibitors
Impact No yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Evaluation of mRNA vectored vaccines in pigs 
Organisation University of Pennsylvania
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in porcine immunology/vaccinology
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in mRNA vaccines
Impact We evaluated in pigs the immunogenicity an mRNA vector encoding a Nipah virus glycoprotein. This vaccine formulation induced high virus neutralising antibody titres (comparable with protein subunit in adjuvant) and T cell responses (comparable with viral vectors). We also utilised mRNA immunised pigs to isolate Nipah virus neutralising monoclonal antibodies.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Evaluation of porcine cytomegalovirus as a viral vaccine vector 
Organisation University of Plymouth
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution PRRSV model and vaccine candidate antigens. Expertise in porcine T cell immunology
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in exploiting herpesviruses as vaccine vectors
Impact not yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Evaluation of solid dose vaccines for livestock 
Organisation Enesi Pharma
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV and vaccine evaluation
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in vaccine formulation
Impact Multidisciplinary collaboration between formulation scientist and viral immunologists.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Evaluation of the efficacy of antiviral nanoparticles (AVNPs) against PRRSV 
Organisation University of Hertfordshire
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV and in vitro model to assess efficacy of AVNPs
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in materials science
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Evaluation of virus-imprinted polymers as synthetic neutralisng antibodies 
Organisation University of Central Lancashire
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Model viruses and systems to evaluate the ability of molecularly-imprinted polymers to neutralise virus infectivity
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in molecularly-imprinted polymers
Impact Wellcome Trust Seed Award
Start Year 2015
 
Description Factor H and influenza virus 
Organisation Brunel University London
Department Brunel Arts
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our research team are hosting a PhD student from Brunel University to facilitate the investigation of any interaction between influenza virus and complement factor H. We are providing reagents, expertise in handling influenza virus and advice on the scientific hypothesis of the research programme.
Collaborator Contribution Brunel university initiated the project and provided reagents including antibodies and methods for purification human co-factor H protein. They also provide funding for this PhD studentship.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Gene expression signatures in lungs after delivery of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In order to test candidate mAbs and delivery platforms, we have established a reproducible and robust pig influenza challenge model and identified a protective human HA1 specific mAb, 2-12C, which can be used as a standard to benchmark other mAb candidates and delivery platforms. We provided NIH with lung tissues from the 2-12C treated animals to analyse the gene signatures associated with protection
Collaborator Contribution The NIH collaborators will test the gene expression in the lungs of 2-12C treated pigs and compare to mouse and ferret gene signatures. NIH team sequenced the virus after 2-12C treatment to determine if viral escape variants were generated.
Impact Joint manuscript submitted
Start Year 2019
 
Description Genetic mapping of vector competence in Culicoides sonorensis. 
Organisation EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL - EBI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The primary deliverable of this project will be the elucidation of the genetic basis of vector competence of C. sonorensis for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). It will also generate the first accurately annotated genome of a Culicoides species worldwide.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Horizon Discovery Ltd Cambridge Research Park, United Kingdom 
Organisation Horizon Discovery Group plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Verify IFITM knock-out cell by qPCR and immuno-blotting. Verification of further knock-out cell lines by DNA sequencing, immuno-blotting and qPCR Cell infection with Avian Influenza Viruses Assess the viral titre of cells infected with Influenza Viruses in K/O and wildtype cells. Quantitative analysis of viral infection in IFITM K/O cells Demonstrate increased AIV viral titres at lab scale and estimation of what this may equate to with respect to vaccine dose yields. Analysis of IFITM K/O cell lines permissivity to a range of additional animal viruses (Relevant to the LVIF). Milestone 7: Demonstrate permissivity increased and viral titres for a range of LVIF relevant viruses in the edited cell lines.
Collaborator Contribution Develop a CRISPR/cas9 gene editing system to specifically target the chIFITM locus in avian cell culture
Impact Grant funding
Start Year 2017
 
Description ILRI Research Collaboration (Kenya, March 2017) 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Exchange of ideas and samples for indigenous breeds of livestock
Collaborator Contribution Contributed samples for analysis.
Impact Analysis of indigenous breed genomic sequences for Immune function genes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Impact Submission of proposal entitled "Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design" to the "One Health Approaches to Accelerate Vaccine Development" call that forms part of the UK government's commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA) in October 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design. 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Impact Submission of proposal entitled "Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design" to the "One Health Approaches to Accelerate Vaccine Development" call that forms part of the UK government's commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA) in October 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of genetic markers in the haemagglutinin glycoprotein critical for antigenic activity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution d provision of reagents and virus samples.
Collaborator Contribution Technical training to PhD students and use of research facilities
Impact (1) Talk: Avian influenza virus evolution: immune escape, increase in zoonotic potential and fitness in poultry. Presented at "Prevention and Control Techniques for Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Poultry", 27th 29th August 2017, Beijing, China. (2) Impact of avian influenza virus evolution on antigenicity and zoonotic infection potential. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan on 23rd August 2017. (3). Molecular determinants of H9N2 avian influenza virus influencing antigenicity and receptor binding. Presented at CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. 31st August - 1st September 2017 at the Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. (4) Overview of ongoing research on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom. Presented as at International poultry Stakeholders work on poultry biosecurity in Sri Lanka from 26th February to 3rd March 2017. (5). Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. Presented as invited seminar speaker at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19th October 2016.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Identification of genetic markers in the haemagglutinin glycoprotein critical for antigenic activity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Section of Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution d provision of reagents and virus samples.
Collaborator Contribution Technical training to PhD students and use of research facilities
Impact (1) Talk: Avian influenza virus evolution: immune escape, increase in zoonotic potential and fitness in poultry. Presented at "Prevention and Control Techniques for Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Poultry", 27th 29th August 2017, Beijing, China. (2) Impact of avian influenza virus evolution on antigenicity and zoonotic infection potential. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan on 23rd August 2017. (3). Molecular determinants of H9N2 avian influenza virus influencing antigenicity and receptor binding. Presented at CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. 31st August - 1st September 2017 at the Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. (4) Overview of ongoing research on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom. Presented as at International poultry Stakeholders work on poultry biosecurity in Sri Lanka from 26th February to 3rd March 2017. (5). Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. Presented as invited seminar speaker at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19th October 2016.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Identification of sows with antibodies broadly neutralising PRRSV 
Organisation University of Lleida
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV immunology
Collaborator Contribution Access to large numbers of sows routinely vaccinated and exposed to PRRSV
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Immunogenicity study of the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e) proteins of the avian influenza viruses displayed on nodavirus-like particles. 
Organisation Putra Malaysia University
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution provided training and protocols for the development of subunit vaccines against avian influenza viruses
Collaborator Contribution increased interaction with partners and exchange of data on field outbreaks
Impact Joint publication entitled: Virus-like particle vaccines: A prospective panacea against an avian influenza panzootic. Vaccines 8 (4), 694
Start Year 2020
 
Description Influenza and co-factor H protein 
Organisation Leibniz Association
Department Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are screening influenza virus interaction with co-factor H proteins to determine the interaction interface.
Collaborator Contribution Christine Skerka has provided fragment factor H peptides to facilitate our mapping studies of the interaction surface with influenza viruses.
Impact No outcomes as yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Interferon stimulated genes 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosted meetings and carried out preliminary experiments
Collaborator Contribution Contributed reagents and expertise
Impact Preliminary data was used to support an MSc project. This has since led to a publication and a PhD project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department Veterinary Basic Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The overarching aims of the proposed research are to improve controls against H5 subtype of avian influenza viruses infecting poultry by investigating underlying mechanisms that define how vaccines renders effectiveness and develop novel approaches enhancing the effectiveness of H5 avian influenza vaccines. We recently generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognise a variety of different clades of H5 viruses. Propagation of AIV in eggs or cultured cells together with mAbs drives virus to escape from mAbs neutralisation activity. These classical virus neutralization assays (VN) followed by HA gene sequence analysis allowed us to defined the role of amino acid substitutions that are associated with evasion of antibody neutralization through emergence of antigenic variants and failure of vaccine efficacy.
Collaborator Contribution provided intellectual input for achieving prescribed objectives of this work.
Impact Talk entitled "Molecular determinants for antigenicity and vaccine efficacy of avian influenza viruses" was presented at Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop " Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies against Emerging and re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens" at Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines, 4-7 February 2019.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We developed research programme to characterise diversity of antigenic epitopes induce protective immunity in chickens against H5 subtypes of avian influenza viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College provide advise to on cartography programme to visualize the antigenic similarity or difference among different strains of influenza viruses.
Impact The work under this collaborative determined the antigenic differences among different clades of H5 avian influenza viruses circulating in birds. This project is multi-disciplinary. our laboratory mainly work on virology and immunology part of the project and we seek help on computer modeling part from the collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Investigating the role of the SH protein of RSV in the duration of immunity 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided initial data supporting the hypothesis that the small hydrophobic protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus regulates the host's immune response by modulating the transcription factors NF-kB and STAT1 in bovine cells
Collaborator Contribution Based on our results, Imperial has began investigating the role of the small hydrophobic protein of human respiratory syncytial virus on human cells.
Impact Publication in progress titled "Regulation of the B cell activating factor BAFF by the small hydrophobic protein of respiratory syncytial virus".
Start Year 2017
 
Description JS - Production of monoclonal antibodies that recognise FMDV VP4 from mouse spleens 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution VLPs displaying the N-terminal 15 amino acids of FMDV were designed and produced at The Pirbright Institute and then mice were immunised with them. The spleens of the immunised mice were harvested and splenocytes stored. The response to the VP4 sequence was checked by ELISA and the mouse with the best response was selected to send the splenocytes for monoclonal production.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators took the splenocytes obtained from the mouse experiments and carried out the fusions. They then screened the supernatants for positive wells that detected the VP4 sequence.
Impact Positive wells have been identified indicating some monoclonals that are specific for VP4 have been generated. These will be further screened for ability to recognise virus and to neutralise infection.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Janet Daly & Stephen Dunham- PI3K pathway and influenza 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Preliminary data was produced by Pirbright using reverse genetics of avian influenza viruses to secure a 50:50 funded PhD studentship that will commence in October 2020 entitled "Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks".
Collaborator Contribution Preliminary data was produced by University of Nottingham using PI3K p85 subunit pulldowns to secure a 50:50 funded PhD studentship that will commence in October 2020 entitled "Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks".
Impact Funding for a PhD studentship entitled "Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks".
Start Year 2019
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Department Department of Microbiology
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Morphological differences of Influenza A viruses 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of reagents and Research methods.(2) training of PhD students and Postdoctoral Scientists (3) use of research facilities
Impact Research output were presented at Avian Influenza A virus budding morphology: spherical or filamentous? presented at The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) Riga, Latvia. 10 to 13 September 2017 (2) .Budding morphology of avian influenza A viruses. Microbiology Society, annual Conference 2017, 306 April, EICC, Edinburggh, UK
Start Year 2016
 
Description Mucosally Associated Invariant T cells (MAIT) in pig influenza model 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Identified MAIT cells in pig Influenza model. Provide samples from infected and immunised protected animals
Collaborator Contribution Provide expertise in characterising MAIT: development of tetramer; Zell scanner technology allowing high resolution studies of cell phenotype and functions
Impact Joint PhD studentship with Paul Klenerman, University of Oxford
Start Year 2016
 
Description Nanoparticulate antigen delivery systems 
Organisation University College Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Expertise in disease models, vaccine antigens and immune response evaluation
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in nanoparticulate formulations
Impact Several joint publications
Start Year 2012
 
Description Next-generation PRRSV vaccines 
Organisation Eco Animal Health Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Know how in terms of genetically manipulating PRRSV and evaluating PRRSV vaccines.
Collaborator Contribution Financial contribution and know how in terms of developing a commercial vaccine.
Impact Too early.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Next-generation PRRSV vaccines 
Organisation Huvepharma
Country Bulgaria 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV virology and immunology
Collaborator Contribution Funding
Impact Too early, project ongoing.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Novel PRRS and swine influenza vaccines 
Organisation National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRS immunology and vaccine evaluation.
Collaborator Contribution Novel vaccine strains and SE Asian field strains
Impact Collaborative grant proposal funded under the BBSRC Newton Fund UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative
Start Year 2017
 
Description PRRS and Influenza co-nfection studies 
Organisation Government of Thailand
Department National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright team of 4 scientists with expertise in immunology and animal care visited Thailand in July 2018 to train Thai colleagues to perform animal experiments (Chiang Mai) and analyse immune responses by ELISPOT and Flow cytometry (Bangkok). This provided Thailand with trained personnel and expertise in testing vaccines in pigs. As a result of the joint work, the Chiang Mai animal facility is currently being renovated. Development of such an animal facility will promote the production and testing of more vaccines by Thai scientists.
Collaborator Contribution Our Thai colleagues provided us with local Thai PRRS and Influenza virus strains which we use in our co-infection studies.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Partnering with National Taiwan University 
Organisation National Taiwan University
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and submitted an application for a BBSRC-Taiwan Partnering Award to study "Assembly of Recombinant Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Determination of Antigenic Sites that Confer Hemagglutination Activity".
Collaborator Contribution The partners conceived the project and got in contact about submitting an application for funding together.
Impact An application has been made for a BBSRC-Taiwan Partnering Award in November 2018.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Paul Digard - The Roslin Insititute 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We generated constructs that express PB1-F2 from a variety of avian influenza strains in eukaryotic expression plasmids. We generated Chimera PB1-F2 expression plasmids where the C-terminus of the PB1-F2 are switched between strains. Using these plasmids we have determined the localization and antagonist activity toward the IFN beta signaling pathway and NF-kb signaling pathway in human and chicken cells. We have therefore provided reagents and intellectual input to the collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have used these plasmids in there well defined stability assays to determine sequence specific effects on this characteristic. Intellectual input and expertise in a particular assay were made by these collaborators.
Impact We have successfully published some of this work; "The cellular localization of avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein alters the magnitude of IFN2 promoter and NF?B-dependent promoter antagonism in chicken cells." doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001220. We have an ongoing joint PhD studentship in this area. This collaboration remains current and active.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Professor Benedikt Kaufer 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing knowledge and methodologies.
Collaborator Contribution Providing reagents and methodologies to perform experiments.
Impact Two publications from this collaboration: Gurung A, Kamble N, Kaufer BB, Pathan A, Shahriar Behboudi. Association of Marek's Disease induced immunosuppression with activation of a novel regulatory T cells in chickens, PLoS Pathogens, 2017, 13 (12), e1006745. Boodhoo N, Kamble N, Kaufer BB, Shahriar Behboudi. Replication of Marek's disease virus is dependent on de novo synthesis of fatty acid and Prostaglandin E2. J Virol. 2019 Apr 10
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Helen Sang,The Roslin Institute - GFP1-10 expressing transgenic chickens 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have developed IBDV tagged to GFP11
Collaborator Contribution Helen Sang's group at the Roslin Institute have developed transcgenic chicken lines that constitutively express GFP1-10 in every cell.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/S014594/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Jim Kaufman 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided information on CD4 T cell epitopes derived from Marek's disease virus
Collaborator Contribution Provided knowledge and information on assessing peptide binding to chicken MHC molecules
Impact Generation of data leading to understanding correlate of protection against Marek's disease virus.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Oliver Pybus, University of Oxford / Royal Veterinary College - IBDV-like viruses in wild bird populations 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My group will characterise the immunosuppressive potential of IBDV-like viruses from wild bird populations
Collaborator Contribution Oliver Pybus' group have screened a wild bird population by metagenomics shotgun sequencing to determine the prevalence of IBDV-like viruses and correlate their presence with the abundance and diversity of viral sequences identified for other viruses.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Shayan Sharif, University of Guelph, Canada 
Organisation University of Guelph
Department Department of Pathobiology
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration between my team and Professor Sharif lead to new finding in Avian immunology, specifically in understanding the effects of nutrients on antigen presenting cells and T cells of chicken. We took the lead in studying the effects of some nutrients (Vitamin D) on the function of chicken T cells, performed most of the experiments in our laboratory. Meanwhile, we participated in studying the effects of Vitamin D on antigen presenting cells of chicken by performing some key experiments because we had access to some specific reagents (monoclonal antibodies) recognizing molecules expressed on chicken antigen presenting cells.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Sharif team took the lead in studying the effects of Vitamin D on antigen presenting cells of chicken, and contributed to experimental plan for studying the effects on chicken T cells.
Impact Two publications in 2015 and 2016: 1. Nitish Boodhoo, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi. 1a,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 Modulates Avian T Lymphocyte Functions without Inducing CTL Unresponsiveness. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 24;11(2):e0150134 2. Bahram Shojadoost, Shahriar Behboudi, Villanueva AI, Jennifer Brisbin, Ali Ashkar, Shayan Sharif. Vitamin D3 modulates the function of chicken macrophages. Res. Vet. Sci. 2015 June, 100: 45-51
Start Year 2019
 
Description Provision of PRRSV field strains 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Experimental heterologous PRRSV challenge model to assess the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Model to assess dendritic cell tropism of PRRS viruses
Collaborator Contribution Provision of PRRSV-1 and -2 field strains
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Provision of PRRSV field strains 
Organisation Kansas State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experimental heterologous PRRSV challenge model to assess the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Model to assess dendritic cell tropism of PRRS viruses
Collaborator Contribution Provision of PRRSV-1 and -2 field strains
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Pseudoparticles of influenza for interaction studies with co-factor H 
Organisation University of Kent
Department Medway School of Pharmacy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We have screened the interaction between influenza pseudotype particles that only contain the surface HA protein from influenza viruses for interaction with human co-factor H protein. We have screen pseudotype particles of multiple influenza subtypes.
Collaborator Contribution Nigel Temperton of the viral Pseudotype Unit at the School of Pharmacy provided influenza virus pseudotype particles of multiple subtypes to allow us to screen for interaction with co-factor H protein.
Impact No outcomes yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Re-annotation of Marek's Disease Virus 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are using bioinformatics analysis of high-throughput sequencing data in order to provide a better annotation of the genome of Marek's Disease Virus
Collaborator Contribution Our partners are sharing their extensive expertise of the genomics of MDV, and performing experimental validations
Impact No output yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Reporter PRRS viruses 
Organisation Kansas State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A new application for recombinant reporter PRRS viruses i.e. to use them as a high throughput screen for neutralizing (monoclonal) antibodies. Use as tools to assess the tropism of PRRSV for dendritic cell subsets and the functional consequences.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of plasmids encoding GFP-expressing PRRSV-1 and -2.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Research Collaboration with Nigeria (23rd - 28th January 2017) 
Organisation University of Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of rare breed indigenous chicken in Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution Helped with sampling and background information of the breed.
Impact Analysis is ongoing.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Retroviral-mediated genetic programming of porcine memory B cells 
Organisation AIMM Therapeutics
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provided a novel 'model' system to test their technology to isolate novel monoclonal antibodies
Collaborator Contribution To provide their patented platform technology to genetically program porcine memory B cells to enable the isolation of memory B cells
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Suresh Kuchipudi and Janet Daly 
Organisation Penn State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have hosted a co-supervised PhD student twice at The Pirbright Institute. During these visits we have helped with viral infection of primary cells for analysis of PI3K pathway perturbations and generated new GM influenza viruses to help to understand if the difference in PI3K pathway activity observed between two different avian influenza viruses in avian cells was a result of difference in the NS1 protein. In addition we have provided support to the student regarding the future directions of the project and writing up and presentation of the material. Therefore we have provided reagents, practical expertise and intellectual input.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have provided access to data generated in their laboratories and intellectual input to the project.
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1038/srep17999
Start Year 2016
 
Description Suresh Kuchipudi and Janet Daly 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have hosted a co-supervised PhD student twice at The Pirbright Institute. During these visits we have helped with viral infection of primary cells for analysis of PI3K pathway perturbations and generated new GM influenza viruses to help to understand if the difference in PI3K pathway activity observed between two different avian influenza viruses in avian cells was a result of difference in the NS1 protein. In addition we have provided support to the student regarding the future directions of the project and writing up and presentation of the material. Therefore we have provided reagents, practical expertise and intellectual input.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have provided access to data generated in their laboratories and intellectual input to the project.
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1038/srep17999
Start Year 2016
 
Description Swine haplotyping 
Organisation Gift Of Life
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Prepared and shipped samples
Collaborator Contribution Sample analysis
Impact Data generation. Not multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2016
 
Description T folicullar helper cells in the pig influenza model 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Nuffield Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide material from influenza infected/vaccinated protected and unprotected animals.
Collaborator Contribution Seph Borrow from Oxford University provide antibodies and advice as to how to identify and charcterise the TFH cells.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Test of broadly neutralising antibodies in pig influenza model 
Organisation Humabs Biomed SA
Country Switzerland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Tested the therapeutic use of broadly neutralizing antibodies in pig influenza model
Collaborator Contribution Provided the antibodies
Impact Manuscript published
Start Year 2015
 
Description The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The focus of the research is to achieve sustainable global intensification of poultry meat and egg production whilst reducing risks to human and animal health and welfare. We are undertaking research to investigate the diversity of avian influenza viruses prevalent in poultry and wild birds in south east Asia.
Collaborator Contribution Royal Veterinary College, London is leading this GCRF One Health Poultry Hub. The project will address the need to meet rising demand for poultry meat and eggs in developing countries, while minimising risk to international public health. Population growth is driving global demand for poultry, meat and egg production; this unfortunately creates conditions in which animal diseases can spread to humans ('zoonoses'). These include bacterial food poisoning and strains with avian influenza with epidemic or pandemic potential. The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub will adopt a 'One Health' approach to the issue of combatting animal-to-human diseases by bringing together a team of laboratory, clinical, veterinary and social scientists. This team will test and evaluate novel interventions. The need for safe poultry production is most urgent in South and South East Asia, so the RVC and its partners will then use their local networks in these regions to put its positive research to immediate use.
Impact Development of international interdisciplinary partnership of 55 investigators from 13 countries to address the emerging global challenges of food security and public health associated with intensification of poultry production.
Start Year 2018
 
Description The Pirbright "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Me and my team established collaboration in the "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded ($5.5 million) by the from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Focus of our partnership is to develop techniques and capacity to analyse immune cells (B cells) of cattle, poultry and pigs that produce virus neutralizing antibodies. This research will support rational development of next generation of vaccines and to explore antibody-based passive immunization approaches for treatment and prophylaxis of infectious viral diseases affecting livestock and humans. Our initial focus is to target major animal viral pathogens that cause severe losses within Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) animal production systems including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).
Collaborator Contribution This is a collaborative project and partners are providing help in provision of reagents and techniques for analysis of diversity of B cells repertoire that produce infleunza virus-specific antibodies, single cell sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. This project will further strengthen our on-going research collaborations with many research groups in academia as well as with animal health industry (Zoetis, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Merck, CEVA, Jovac, YeBio, ILRI, Galvmed, The Roslin Institute, HuMabs, AbCellera and Distributed Bio) to take the research outputs from laboratory to the field. The outputs of research will be improved vaccines and diagnostics enabling to reduce the impact of infectious diseases on farm animals, which offer substantial direct and indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits to the UK and rest of the world.
Impact Development of passive immunization approaches against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry (project incited in January 2020).
Start Year 2020
 
Description The effect of the microbiota on immunity to swine infleunza 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We wish to establish the gut and nasal microbiome in normal healthy pigs and how this is affected by influenza infection. We have collected gut samples from pigs at different stages of infection, as well as nasal swabs which we will provide to our collaborators in Surrey.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators in Surrey will perform the sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to determine the microbial communities present in the samples.
Impact No outcomes yet - we are in the process of analysing the samples.
Start Year 2017
 
Description The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a Joint studentship project funded by The Pirbright Institute and The Roslin Institute. We identiifed molecular markers that are responsible for increase in virus pathogenicity and transmission.
Collaborator Contribution The Roslin Institute contributed both intellectually and by proving research training, samples and regents to achieve the prescribed objectives this project.
Impact 1. Oral Presentation Title: Identification of segment 3 sequence polymorphisms which alter shut off activity and pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in vivo. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard and Munir Iqbal. Global Alliance for Research Into Avian Diseases (GARAD). January 17th to 19th 2018. Fortuna Hotel, Lang Ha Street, Hanoi, VietNam 2. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. UK- China CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. August 31st - 1st September 2017. The Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. 3. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Microbiology Society Annual Conference. April 3rd-6th 2017. Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC), Edinburgh, UK. 4. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Focused Meeting 2016: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses. September 27th-29th 2016. Charles Darwin House, London, UK. 5. Oral Presentation title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. UK -Taiwan BBSRC Partnering Award workshop: Improving Control of influenza viruses. 26th-27th April 2016. Taipei, Taiwan. 6. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2016; virus Workshop: Negative strand RNA Viruses. 21st-24th March 2016. Arena and Convention Centre, Liverpool, UK. 7. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. 7th Orthomyxovirus research conference. 16th-18th September 2015. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 8. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Edinburgh Infectious Diseases Annual Symposium. 20th May 2015. Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, UK.
Start Year 2014
 
Description USDA Culicoides 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department National Animal Disease Center
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Combined data for Culicoides genome project to enable publication in high impact journal.
Collaborator Contribution Transcriptomics data for vector competence analysis and genome build.
Impact Combined data for Culicoides genome project to enable publication in high impact journal.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation China Agricultural University (CAU)
Department College of Veterinary Medicine
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC)
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Undertake joint research work to investigate to identify the molecular determinants that are critical for enhancing potency and efficacy of vaccines, as well as those that are associated with heightened zoonotic risk.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents and research facilities
Impact Published joint paper (1)ian Xu, Xixi Zhang, Shuanghai Zhou, Junjun Shen,Dawei Yang, Jing Wu, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua E. Sealy, Munir Iqbal&Yongqing Li (2017). A DNA aptamer efficiently inhibits the infectivity of Bovine herpesvirus 1 by blocking viral entry. Scientific Reports. 7: 11796. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10070-1. (2) Jian Xu, Jing Wu, Houjun He, Junjun Shena, Dawei Yang, Xixi Zhang, Xiaoyang Li, Meiling Li, Xiufen Huang, Joshua Sealy, Munir Iqbal & Yongqing Li (2017). Bovine single chain Fv antibody inhibits bovine herpesvirus-1 infectivity by targeting viral glycoprotein D. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8566-0. (2)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Agricultural Research Centre
Department Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute
Country Egypt 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department MSk Lab
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Suez Canal University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Department International Research Center for Infectious Diseases
Country Japan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Zagazig University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Use of fluorescent virions to isolate PRRSV-specific porcine B cells 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Deployment of a novel technology to facilitate isolation of PRRSV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies
Collaborator Contribution Provision of a method to fluorescently tag purified virions to label PRRSV-specific B cells
Impact None to report to date
Start Year 2016
 
Description Vaccinia 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Generated and analysed DNA- and RNA-sequencing data from vaccinia samples with bespoke in-house pipelines
Collaborator Contribution Generated DNA and RNA vaccinia samples
Impact The collaboration aims to better understand the interaction between vaccina virus and its host(s), through the use of modern high-throughput techniques. No outputs yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Wilhelm Gerner 
Organisation University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our lab hosted Dr Gerner who brought samples for RNA-seq. My lab planned and executed the sequencing and is contributing to the analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Gerner did all the animal work and cell sorting to produce the samples reading for RNA-seq
Impact None as yet, analysis is ongoing
Start Year 2019
 
Title Chicken IFITMs 
Description The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). 
IP Reference WO2014195692 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). This patent has enabled us to leverage funding for continued work.
 
Description Talk Presented at 2nd International Congress of Veterinary Microbiology, 16th -19th October 2018. Sherwood Breezes Resort-Lara, Antalya, Turkey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed improving prevention and control of viral diseases of poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Challenges for Poultry Industry". Organised by Fakieh Poultry at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2nd -3rd December 2018, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders". Title: Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop discussed the economic impacts and prevention strategies against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production and zoonotic infections.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2. Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders" at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research Project outcomes These include presenting research data for vaccine seed strains with emergent field avian influenza variants; The zoonotic risk posed by emerging avian influenza viruses circulating in the wild birds and poultry. Impact of virus evolution on vaccine efficacy and persistence in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description A talk at a symposium entitled: Using the 3Rs to support good science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk at a Symposium held at The Pirbright Institute entitled: "Using the 3Rs to support good science". The talk was entitled: "A chicken primary B cell culture model to study the pathogenesis and improve the control of immunosuppressive viruses of poultry"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description A talk at the British Poultry Diseases Group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Poultry Diseases Group meet quarterly and is comprised of representatives from private veterinary practices, vaccine and pharmaceutical industries, and the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). I gave a talk at one of the meetings outlining my research to date and future directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description AB Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S., 2015. PI3K/AKT signalling during infectious bronchitis virus infection. Food Security: Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry, British Council Research Links Workshop, Istanbul, Turkey (Oral presentation)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Animal Health Investment Forum. Panel Discussion on African swine fever 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Panel discussion on African swine fever impact and control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Article and Video in AP press on African swine fever risk to pygmy hogs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview and video recording for AP press on risks of African swine fever virus to critically endangered pygmy hogs in Assam India
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Article in The Scientist Magazine following interview with Katya Zimmer (June 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Journalist with The Scientist Magazine for a News Article concerning Race to Build ASFV vaccine in response to outbreaks in China/Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/scientists-race-to-build-vaccine-for-african-swine-fever-...
 
Description Ash Manor School challenge week workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact For this event, 60 students were rotating around a series of science workshops as part of their challenge week based on a selected theme of their choice. Giulia and Phoebe contributed together with other people from our Institute in delivering the workshop about microbiology, hence student were actively interested in the topic.
They organised activities that could be performed in small groups such as teaching pupils about the importance of hand hygiene using our UV Equipment, seeing live mosquitoes through a microscope, learning about flu using our Flu Fighters- H&N Selector and trying to take swabs from a model chicken using Flu Fighters- Henrietta the Chicken.
The students were very interested in all the activities and actively participating, and they were asking many questions related to viruses, animal diseases, zoonotic diseases and microbiology in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Ash Manor Science Workshops; general science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Ash Manor Science Workshops
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Ash Manor school challenge week science workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Provide information on research activity at The Pirbright Institute and informing on pathogens infecting farmed animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Avian influenza viruses can combine two techniques to evade vaccine immunity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A study by researchers at The Pirbright Institute reveals more clues about how avian influenza viruses can evade vaccine immunity, aiding their spread in the field. The findings are published in Emerging Microbes and Infections.

Influenza viruses are able to mutate, which can enable them to evade immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination. Influenza viruses have four main ways of duping the immune system so that they can continue to infect and spread between birds. Pirbright scientists investigated two of these to further understand how the H9N2 avian influenza virus can change its genetic makeup to overcome poultry vaccines.

One of the methods the virus can use is to alter one of its surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA), which enables the virus to enter the cell and replicate. HA is also a common target for the immune system's antibodies, which block the virus from binding to cell receptors. By changing just one or two protein components, HA can latch on far more tightly to the cell, preventing antibodies from stopping the virus. However, this can come at a cost, as particularly strong binding can prevent effective replication.

The other method scientists investigated is how H9N2 viruses disguise themselves by adding sugar chains to the surface of their HA proteins. This can block antibodies from binding, but also has varying fitness outcomes for the influenza virus. The researchers found that the location of the sugar chain on HA could determine how effectively the virus replicated.

They also demonstrated that the two evasive techniques could either compliment or act against each other - if an influenza virus had gained mutations that enable it to bind more strongly to cells, a sugar chain in the right position could restore its ability to replicate effectively. In contrast, weakly binding influenza viruses do not benefit from HA sugar additions, which instead reduce the virus's ability to replicate.

Professor Munir Iqbal, head of the Avian Influenza Group at Pirbright said, "We can use this knowledge to develop new vaccines that will help antibodies to recognise how the flu virus can change. This will provide protection to birds even as the virus evolves. We can also use this information to understand how viruses survive in poultry despite vaccination and monitor new adaptions that may appear in the field."

This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) and the British Council with support from the Newton Fund.

Article: Sealy, J. E., Peacock, T. P., Sadeyen, J. R., Chang, P., Everest, H. J., Bhat, S., Iqbal, M. (2020). Adsorptive mutation and N-linked glycosylation modulate influenza virus antigenicity and fitness. Emerging Microbes & Infections, advance online publication, 12 November 2020, doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1850180

[SOURCE: The Pirbright Institute]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.star-idaz.net/2020/12/avian-influenza-viruses-can-combine-two-techniques-to-evade-vaccin...
 
Description BBC World Service Science Programme "Science in Action" Broadcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was an broadcast with BBC World Service Science in Action Programme to inform the public about the current African swine fever situation and provide information on pathogenesis mechanisms of transmission and our research on vaccine development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p002vsn
 
Description BBSRC Partnering Seminar, University of Liverpool, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk presented entitled " Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses". The research data shared with the colleagues working to reduce the impact of avian infectious diseases on poultry production. The discussion led to more collaboration and work together, acquiring reagents and protocols for further research and development activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BSI (Britsh Society of Immunology) forum meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings of BSI forum. Discussed how to raise awareness amongst the general public for immunisation against SARS-CoV2. Discussed the Government strategy for giving Pfizer vaccine 12 weeks apart and requested evidence from JCVI justifying this immunisation regime.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description BSI webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented a webinar hosted by the British Society for Immunology entitled "BSI Coronavirus webinar: What can we learn from the animal coronaviruses?", which sparked questions and discussions afterwards. I have since been contacted to establish new collaborations with people in the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Big Band Science Event- AH, ER, LVC, MdP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Big Bang Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Big Bang Near Me is a programme of regional and local Big Bang Fairs that take place all across the UK. Together with The Big Bang UK Young Scientists & Engineers Fair and The Big Bang Competition, it forms part of the wider Big Bang programme, bringing science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) to life for young people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://nearme.thebigbangfair.co.uk/about/
 
Description Big Bang SE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blenheim High School Fair - DB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Team members attended sessions at a local high school with secondary school children and those in the 6th form to talk about paths into scientific careers, sharing their experiences of working at The Pirbright Institute. Approximately 300 students attended and it stimulated increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Bluetongue in wildlife workshop - presentation on "Bluetongue virus in deer (and other wildlife) - pathogenesis and immune responses" July 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This workshop brought together policy makers, veterinary advisers and scientist to share information and discuss the role of wildlife for important Culicoides-borne viruses of ruminants. Gave 15 minutes presentation on "Bluetongue virus in deer (and other wildlife) - pathogenesis and immune responses"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Broadcast on African swine fever on BBC wolrd service "The Food Chain" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC World Service "The Food Chain" on African swine fever virus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p05xhflj
 
Description CABI_Research activity of Avian Immunology Group at The Pirbright Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Release of research activity within Avian Immunology group at The Pirbright Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Centre of excellence for research on avian diseases (CERAD) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to present my work at the UK-China Centre of excellence for research on avian diseases (CERAD) meeting attended by researchers from UK, China and Thailand. There was lots of discussion about the research and future directions, including potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chair of organising Committee for Wellcome Trust-Animal Genetics and Diseases 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This meeting brought together specialists working on the interface between genomics, genetic engineering and infectious disease with the aims of improving animal and human health and welfare.

Scientific sessions included:
Genetics of immune responses and disease resistance
Genetically engineered livestock (including genome editing)
Quantitative genetics and epigenetics applied to disease
Epidemiology and pathogen evolution
Bioinformatics, comparative and functional genomics
Precision medicine of animal companions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/events/item.aspx?e=635&dm_i=2SUU,HOGH,4R4AW1,...
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Attended the Cheltenham Science Festival and presented "Pandemic Live" an interactive debate on the spread of viruses in livestock. The audience were guided through the decision making processes that accompany an outbreak of an exotic livestock disease outbreak.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kate Dulwich participated in an outreach activity at the Cheltenham Science Festival from 07-09 Jun 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival- AH, ER, JC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Present at the Pirbright stand to discuss science with the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cheltenham Science festival - LB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact National science festival which Team members attended to demonstrate to the public how scientists at The Pirbright Institute can work to contain and control viral outbreaks. Over 500 people accessed the information and this stimulated increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. Presented at as PI of the ZELS project at ZELS grant holders and Stakeholders meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam 23th-24th January 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement and dissemination of research outcome to representatives of research funding bodies such as Department for International Development (DFID), Medical Research Council (MRC) and the researchers working on different research projects funded by BBSRC under Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Coronavirus lecture MSc students (Surrey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A lecture was presented on the replication, cellular interactions and pathogenesis of coronaviruses to 15-20 MSc students from University of Surrey. The students were engaged and interested, answering and asking questions during the session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2018
 
Description Deimante Lukosaityte: Microbiology Society conference 2019. Poster presentation: Chicken protection against H9N2 virus by passive immunization 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques for development of next generation of vaccines against viral diseases affecting animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Delivered a lead talk at Indian Association of Vetrinary Microbiology and Immunology ( IAVMI) at IVRI, Bareilly on PPR and FMD control by vaccination- February 6-7th, 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a lead talk at Indian Association of Vetrinary Microbiology and Immunology ( IAVMI) at IVRI, Bareilly on PPR and FMD control by vaccination- February 6-7th, 2020. Further attended the panel meeting with FMD vaccine producers and FMD scientists at PDFMD and IVRI Bangalore to recommend Govt of India for the future control of FMD. Suggested boosting of the first dose FMDV vaccinated animals which will stimulate the immunity up to the second biannual vaccination to avoid any window for infection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Delivered a lead talk on FMD vaccine and chaired a scientific session at Indian Veterinary Association at New Delhi ( 25.7.19-28.07.19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a lead talk on FMD vaccine and chaired a scientific session at Indian Veterinary Association at New Delhi ( 25.7.19-28.07.19).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.indianveterinaryassociation.in/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/...
 
Description Delivered a talk on PPR DIVA vaccine at EU Epizone meeting in Berlin-25.8.19-28-08.19 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a talk on PPR DIVA vaccine at EU Epizone meeting in Berlin-25.8.19-28-08.19
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Demonstrating Mathematics (Angita Shrestha) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Angita Shrestha (PhD student within Avian Influenza group) provided help in a Maths session to the new Oxford Doctoral Training Porgramme (DTP) cohort.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Determinants of antigenicity of H9 Avian Influenza Viruses. UK-China Swine and Poultry Workshop.17-18 June 2019, The Pirbright Institute, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond (TT) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Diamond Light Source Open Day - explaining to general public the importance of structural biology and microscopy for understanding viruses and designing improved vaccines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond Light Source Open day - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public open day for Diamond Light Source, which Pirbright attended as a user of the facility to showcase research being performed at Pirbgith in collaboration with Diamond. There was a lot of interest in the fundamental research and sicussion about future plans and how it fit with the facility at Diamond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 300 people visited our stand at the open day, in which we described the importance of our work for food security and public health. Children from all ages were involved and learned about viruses and played with the huge virus particle that we had produced. One of the major impact was that we described to several people why we work on some viruses that we do not have them in the UK, and the importance of the work for the UK and UK economy and public health was explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.diamond.ac.uk/Public/VisitUs.html
 
Description Encouraging women into science and engineering STEM. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact MH Visited Warwick School, Redhill to talk to secondary students about careers in STEM. A very positive outcome and well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Engineered Recombinant Single Chain Variable Fragment of Monoclonal Antibody Provides Protection to Chickens Infected with H9N2 Avian Influenza. Presented by Deimante Lukosaityte at Influenza Update meeting 4th - 15th December 2020: The University of Liverpool (online meeting) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk describes a technique for the development of immunotherapy to protect poultry from Infectious diseases such as avian influenza viruses. The talk provided evidence that recombinant antibodies can provide passive immunity to protect chickens from avian influenza. Several mAbs generated from mice hybridomas targeting hemagglutinin (HA) of H9N2 virus were converted into single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies. Recombinant scFvs were purified from insect cell culture supernatants and showed it could retain neutralization capacity against H9N2 virus in vitro. To test therapeutic scFv efficacy in vivo we selected two of the recombinantly produced scFv antibodies for prophylaxis and treatment of chickens infected with H9N2 UDL-01 virus. Intranasally treated birds showed reduced disease manifestation and virus shedding. These results indicate that antibody therapy could be beneficial for the provision of rapid treatment for reducing disease impacts in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/researchinstitutes/iii/cvr/events/influenza/
 
Description Evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus under immune pressure. Presented at 10th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, 15th - 18th April 2018, The Grand Hotel, Brighton, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of the workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. In addition, the activity hopes provide information about the emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description Expert group meeting for PPR eradication at head quarters of WHO, Vienna, Austria, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In the FAO/PPR eradication meeting satya has presented work on PPR epidemiology and diagnosis. The talk was designed for the stakeholders and policy make to make aware on important points that are required for eradication of PPR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description FLI - presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of current research to the FLI - Germany to build collaborations 19/20 November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Farnborough College of Technology Career day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The aim of this event was to give Y13 students direct access to local potential employers who are prepared to invest in training and developing their employees via recognised apprenticeships, formal additional qualifications or in-house training, together with information on when and how they can apply. Additionally the exhibition was open for all the 3,700 college students to attend throughout the day with their families. Giulia was in charge of The Pirbright Institute stand with various activities for visitors to take part in and she was explaining our science to the students and the general public, career opportunities and training options. During the day working on the stand Giulia could speak with many children and adults about her work at Pirbright and what The Pirbright Institute is, stimulating public interest in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Farnborough futures careers event - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The careers event aimed to introduce the range of careers available at Pirbright. In addition I discussed my own career progression and highlighted the range of possible careers that I could have entered. Finally, I discussed some details of the research with interested students. The students had a wide range of backgrounds and career aims but were interested to hear about the Institute and the sort of work opportunities available. Several of them planned to follow up by investigating future job opportunities at Pirbright.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description GFRA scientific meeting, Thailand 29-31/10/2019 Poster presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster title: EVALUATION OF CD4+ T-CELL RESPONSES TO VACCINATION WITH NEXT GENERATION FMD VACCINES USING TETRAMER-GUIDED EPITOPE MAPPING OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS CAPSID
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetic engineering speeds up poultry vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Researchers report the rapid generation of a bivalent vaccine against Marek's disease and avian influenza

Scientists at The Pirbright Institute have used genetic engineering to develop a vaccine that protects birds against both Marek's disease and avian influenza. They say the process is faster and more efficient compared to previous methods, which will allow poultry vaccine producers to rapidly update vaccine strains in order to keep up with virus evolution.

In a study published in the journal Vaccines, the team used the gene editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 to insert an avian influenza gene into the turkey herpesvirus (HVT) that is used in Marek's disease vaccines. The gene codes for haemagglutinin (HA), an influenza protein that is key for virus entry into host cells and is therefore an important target of the host immune response to block infection.

"HVT is already widely used in vaccines against Marek's disease and can be administered to eggs, enabling automated delivery and providing birds with protection from the day they hatch. The additional HA gene we have incorporated will be expressed by HVT when it replicates in host cells, meaning that a single dose of vaccine induces immunity against both viruses", explained Professor Munir Iqbal, Head of the Avian Influenza group at Pirbright.

"The genetic engineering process we have developed using CRISPR/Cas9 is far quicker and more efficient than previous technologies, as well as being very consistent and accurate. These attributes are essential for providing fast and reliable vaccine production to protect poultry", Prof Iqbal added.

Mutations can occur with high frequency in HA proteins, enabling influenza viruses to evade immunity generated by vaccines. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to create new vaccines will help tackle evolving viruses by reducing the time it takes manufacturing companies to adapt their vaccine strains to match these mutations, allowing faster responses to outbreaks and providing better protection.

Although this gene editing method is very reliable, a small number of HVT viruses fail to incorporate the HA gene into their own genome effectively. To ensure HA is being expressed in the vaccine, the team exploited the HA protein's ability to bind to molecules on the surface of red blood cells.

Chicken cells infected with the successfully modified HVT virus express HA on their surface which red blood cells attach to, forming a clump that can be visualised using microscopy. This simple test improves the speed at which suitable vaccine candidates can be identified and has a much broader application as it can also be used for other viruses that incorporate proteins which interact with red blood cells.

"Improving how we make vaccines is critical for preventing avian influenza outbreaks. Our work could help reduce the spread of disease between birds and reduce the risk of infection for people who work closely with poultry", Prof Iqbal said. "Now that we have developed a rapid method for generating this modified vaccine, our next steps will be to study the vaccine's effectiveness in field trials."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cabi.org/vetmedresource/news/66612
 
Description Gordon's schools careers Fair-AH 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Provoking interest in a range of science career paths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outcomes to prevent and control of infectious diseases of animals and humans.
- Avian influenza virus evolution and efficacy.
-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Focus of the conference was to improve control against infectious diseases affecting poultry and livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Help provide content for a Russian media outlet 'Veterinary and Life'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I provided comments for an article on the future of veterinary medicines and vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Helping Local Community Wildlife area 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pond Clearing at Fox Corner Wildlife area (Hannah Goldswain)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description High pathogenicity avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 in Europe -Epidemiology and Surveillance. Presented via Webinar, organized by Boehringer Ingelheim, 3rd July 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk entitled; High pathogenicity avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 in Europe -Epidemiology and Surveillance. talk was organized by Boehringer Ingelheim, 3rd July 2020 and presented via Webinar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Holt School Surrey. Bee meadow & A-level outreach Talk. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I discussed the importance of pollinators for biodiversity and food security with the younger students. I also discussed careers in science with A-Level students. There was good interaction and many questions surrounding both topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description How virus tracking can help us prevent future pandemics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact UAR interviewed Professor Munir Iqbal, head of the Avian Influenza group at The Pirbright Institute, https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/users/prof-munir-iqbal.

The Pirbright Institute specialises in the research and diagnosis of livestock viral diseases and viruses that spread from animals to humans.

The Institute is part of an international network that tracks viruses and formulates ways to control and prevent outbreaks, such as creating new vaccines and better diagnostics.

While the Covid-19 pandemic grabs the headlines there are other, potentially more deadly viruses, spreading through the animal kingdom, which may have the capacity to infect humans.

Perhaps the most well-known pandemic agent - before Covid-19 - was the flu virus. The 1918 influenza pandemic, caused by an H1N1 virus of avian origin, was the most severe pandemic in recent history, infecting one-third of the world's population and killing at least 50 million worldwide. These viruses evolve, so every year the world is at risk of a new strain of flu. One related virus that caused the 2009 swine flu pandemic killed over 200,000 people worldwide.

Professor Munir Iqbal heads up the Avian Influenza Virus group at The Pirbright Institute. This group is imitating natural selection and evolution of influenza viruses in the lab. They hope to identify how viruses might change - potentially to be more dangerous. By identifying those changes they can make informed decisions about how to create vaccines against these potential new strains.

A new strain, H7N9, emerged in China in February 2013, infecting both poultry and humans. Since then, there have been over 1500 confirmed human infections from this strain with an estimated 40% fatality rate.

By 2017 the Chinese government had, very rapidly for a new vaccine, implemented a mass vaccination programme against H7N9 in poultry. This was accompanied by a striking reduction in human infection from this virus.

At first this seemed to be good news, but it turns out that suboptimal vaccine practices were creating an evolutionary pressure for the virus to change - to escape the effects of vaccination. As the virus evolved it didn't infect human populations so well, but it became more aggressive in the poultry, even if they had been vaccinated. Iqbal explains,

"At The Pirbright Institute, we study how these viruses evolve to persist in poultry and overcome vaccines, and how mutations impact virus virulence, transmission and, pathogenicity. Ultimately this will give us information on bird-to-human transmission and help develop diagnostic tools and vaccines to better fight the virus."

Disease transmission has to be studied in chickens but disease virulence can be quantified using chicken eggs. 14 day-old fertilised eggs are infected with the virus which then replicate. The faster the virus replicates in the embryo, the more virulent the strain.

"The quantity of virus being produced often equates to the aggressiveness of the disease. Very often viral infection depends on the amount of virus that you come in contact with. One particle might not infect animals or humans, but thousands could. In the same way, a smaller amount of virus might be needed to infect poultry compared to humans. We live alongside loads of virus without getting sick until we come across an amount large enough to cause an infection," explains Iqbal.

By imitating the natural selection process in the lab, the researchers identified the specific mutation that allowed the Chinese H7N9 virus to escape vaccine-induced immunity. They were also able to predict the evolution of influenza viruses. Three mutations that were observed in the lab have since been found in the field in 2019.

"These changes can have a huge impact in terms of virus transmission, virus virulence and virus transfusion across species from avian-to-human, avian-to-avian, or even to different mammalian species," adds Iqbal.

Fortunately for us, these three mutations prevent H7N9 viruses from binding to human cells, but increase their binding, replication and stability in chicken cells and embryos. This means that the strains that had evolved around the vaccination posed a lower threat to humans, but an increased risk to poultry. Mass vaccination of poultry against H7N9 strains in China might have been beneficial to humans, driving virus evolution away from a human pandemic, but it also meant that the evolved viruses posed an even greater threat to poultry.

However, this might not be the case for all strains warns Iqbal. Not all mutations that arise due to vaccine induced evolution, push viral strains away from human infection. In the future, other mutations may have human pandemic potential or be even more deadly to poultry.

Influenza viruses are a particular risk, as they infect a huge range of animals and mutate rapidly, which gives them the capacity to jump species and evade the immune system. They are particularly a cause for concern, because they circulate in livestock such as pigs and poultry which regularly come into close contact with humans.

Using a method that can predict how vaccination may change influenza virus characteristics is potentially valuable for making new vaccines against these fast evolving viruses. These predictions could also provide advanced warning of mutations that could increase likelihood of human infection.

Looking out for these viral mutations in the global health surveillance programme can help in the monitoring for potential threats. This might allow us to get ahead of them, by developing and using new vaccines, before new viral variants have a chance to spread and spiral out of control in a new pandemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/news/research-medical-benefits/how-virus-tracking-can...
 
Description Human Infection Challenge Models Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact HIC-Vac is an international network of researchers who are developing human infection challenge (HIC) studies to accelerate the development of vaccines against pathogens of high global impact. The goal is to foster an engaged and interactive community of international researchers to promote open sharing of knowledge and expertise, generate new ideas, support and share best practice, and form new cross-discipline collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Identification of antigenic epitopes to broaden and enhance the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines. Presented at 6th Animal Vaccines and immune Adjuvant Technologies Salon & Advanced seminar, Shandong-Binzhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy, China, 18-20 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Imagineering Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talked to the general public about Pirbright science and Beekeeping
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Immuno-pathobiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses: looking at how the viruses evolve and persist in poultry. Presented at "Techniques for Healthy Farming and Diseases Prevention & Control of Livestock and Poultry. Beijing, August 13th-15th, 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outputs. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Immunology workshop University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2 hour practical discussion workshop on Immunology of viral infection - regular event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019
 
Description Improving vaccines and diagnostics for Avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at the International Poultry Expo "Poultry Science Conference", Lahore, Pakistan, 13-15 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Inception meeting for a Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Global Research Translation Awards, 12.11.2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Inception meeting for a Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Global Research Translation Awards, 12.11.2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Influenza update meeting (Pengxiang Chang) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact presented work entitled: Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H7N9 virus by in vitro immune escape mutant selection method.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Initiation of a mass vaccination campain ( 2018) in TamilNadu, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists from The Pirbright Institute's Vaccine Differentiation group have recently returned from Chennai in India, where they conducted a mass peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination campaign and awareness programme. They joined scientists from four specialist organisations; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NIAB) and National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI).
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as goat plague, is highly contagious and infects small ruminants such as sheep and goats, causing up to 90% mortality. The disease is prevalent across large parts of Africa, the Middle East, India and China and is estimated to cost between US$1.4 billion and US$2.1 billion globally each year. In 2017, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) introduced a global eradication programme to reduce the devastating impact PPR has on the economy and food security of affected countries.
"Over 40 vets joined our vaccination campaign in the Tanir Kulum village of Tiruvallur District, TaminNadu (close to Chennai), where we administered vaccines to over 400 sheep and goats in a single day. We also ran an awareness camp where we provided farmers and vets alike with expert guidance on diagnosing clinical signs of PPR and what measures they could take to reduce its spread", said Professor Satya Parida from Pirbright, who led the collaborative effort with Dr Dhinakar Raj from TANUVAS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Innovate Guildford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Represented the Pirbright Institute at Innovate Guildford Science Fair
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Innovate Guildford (Angita Shrestha): 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact GENERAL SCIENCE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford - DB & KC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public science event where team members participated on a Pirbright Institute stand which contained activities to help the public understand how scientists can help to contain and control viral outbreaks. Over 500 members of the general public attended which stimulated increased interest in science and research and led to requests for more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford Outreach (12th March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With amazing exhibits, activities, workshops, talks and competitions, it's FREE to attend. Explore the four zones: Engineering, One Health, Digital Media and Future Living, experience interactive performances, hear inspiring speakers (including leading gaming pioneer Peter Molyneux and animal health pioneer Professor Nick Bacon) and take in an amazing atmosphere. Theatre, music and comedy will feature through the day, with everything from how technology might have affected Shakespeare's plays to risky recycling and photographic secrets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.guildford.gov.uk/innovateguildford
 
Description Innovate Guilford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Broadbent gave a talk at 'Innovate Guilford' Festival outlining the work we are doing with Avian Virus Vaccines, including those against IBDV. The aim was to raise public awareness on different avian viruses, and genetically modified vaccines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Innovate Guilford-AH, AA, ER, EL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact General science festival engaging the public in the research undertaken at Pirbright
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Inreview with Daily Telegraph about African swine fever 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with reporter from Daily Telegraph about African swine fever virus and risks to UK farmers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/12/uk-farmers-warned-alert-african-swine-fever-virus-hits-e...
 
Description Inspire Guildford County School Careers Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Giulia and Isobel represented The Pirbright Institute at the career fair at the Guildford College in a context of many other businesses and University representatives. The aim was to show the range of careers that are possible within a range of industries. For this event Giulia was in charge of the Institute stand and could speak about careers in science and the research carried out at The Pirbright Institute. Students were engaging in our activities for promoting interaction and showed a high level of interest for science and research careers requesting more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Interactions between receptor-binding, immune evasion and glycan shielding. Presented by Joshua Sealy at Biophysics and evolution: improving models to predict influenza vaccine effectiveness) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Influenza viruses have an error-prone polymerase complex that facilitates a mutagenic environment. Antigenic mutants swiftly arise from this environment with the capacity to persist in both humans and economically important livestock even in the face of vaccination. Furthermore, influenza viruses can adjust the antigenicity of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein, the primary influenza immunogen, using one of four molecular mechanisms. Two prominent mechanisms are: (1) enhancing binding avidity of HA toward cellular receptors to outcompete antibody binding and (2) amino acid substitutions that introduce an N-linked glycan on HA that sterically block antibody binding. In this paper, we investigate the impact that adsorptive mutation and N-linked glycosylation have on receptor-binding phenotype, virus replicative fitness and antigenicity. We show that in the context of adsorptive mutation that N-linked glycosylation can mitigate virus attenuation. We show that in the absence of adsorptive mutation, N-linked glycosylation can attenuate virus this indicating a cooperative role between adsorptive mutation and N-linked glycosylation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.physicsoflife.org.uk/biophysics-and-evolution.html
 
Description International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Michael presented his research at the 2018 International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference in the US to an audience of avian researchers and representatives form the poultry veterinary vaccine industry. This sparked discussion and potential future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases conference health in Hanoi 17-19 January 2018. Purpose of the conference was to establish global partnerships and links between academic researchers and the poultry industry to improve joined up work in regards to preventing, controlling and
combating avian diseases. The conferences provided a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas around the single theme of exploiting available opportunities to deal with emerging and existing infectious avian diseases in poultry production systems and to safeguard food supplies and human health.
Conference speakers discuused basic, applied and commercial aspects of research on avian diseases including:
• Evolution and Epidemiology of Avian Pathogens
• Host-Pathogen Interactions - Virulence and Pathogenicity
• Pathogen Mechanisms of Immune Evasion
• Next Generation Disease Control Strategies
• Vaccines
• Immunity
• Diagnostics
• Zoonoses and Socio-economic impacts of avian diseases
• Global Research Opportunities and Threats
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theeventsportal.com/GARAD-2018/3/Home
 
Description International Day of Women and Girls in Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a quote as a STEM ambassador about why I think it is important to make sure women and girls have the same opportunities in STEM. This was shared on social media to celebrate International Day of Women and Girls in Science, a UN-led initiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Women's Day video for social media 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Three team members were interviewed about their careers in science for International Women's Day. The videos were posted on Pirbright's website, Facebook and Twitter to celebrate what we love about working in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for national newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from The Telegraph about coronavirus replication and transmission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Associated Press 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from Associated Press about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Associated Press on ASFV vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Associated Press
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://apnews.com/32f84f66ce77415b96c4e90915cce6ee
 
Description Interview with Australian Broadcasting Corporation on African swine fever virus impact and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Australian Broadcasting Corporation about ASFV impact and vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2019-11-01/african-swine-fever-vaccine-development/11645366
 
Description Interview with BBC Radio 4 Inside Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview with BBC Radio 4 Inside Science producers to inform them about African swine fever virus and our research on vaccine development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p05v91jq
 
Description Interview with BBC Radio Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with journalists from BBC Radio Surrey on the breakfast show about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with BuzzFeed News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from BuzzFeed News about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with CNN on African swine fever virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Nina Avramova from CNN International about African swine fever virus generally including transmission mechanisms and control strategies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/02/health/african-swine-fever-europe-china-spread-intl/index.html
 
Description Interview with German Radio on African swine fever virus risks and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio broadcast on German Radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Health for Animals about African swine fever vrius vaccine development and current situation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with journalists from Health for Animals about African swine fever vaccine research published in a newsletter sent to 200 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://healthforanimals.org/resources-and-events/newsletter-repository/17-disease-outbreaks.html?q=...
 
Description Interview with IEG Policay about ASFV vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Interview with Peter Rixon of IEG policy about the prospects for development of vaccines for African swine fever vrius
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://iegvu.agribusinessintelligence.informa.com/CO221819/ASF-outbreak-in-Belgium-highlights-lack-...
 
Description Interview with Journalist with The Scientist Magazine concerning ASFV vaccines and our research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Katya Zimmer Science Journalist with The Scientist Magazine published in July. This lead to follow up interviews for an in depth article on ASFV vaccines for the Scientist Magazine. In addition The Scientist published 4 Infographics images associated with the article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/features/can-a-vaccine-save-the-worlds-pigs-from-african-swine-fever
 
Description Interview with New Scientist Magazine about African swine fever virus spread and vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for an article in New Scientist about impact of African swine fever in Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/2222501-a-quarter-of-all-pigs-have-died-this-year-due-to-africa...
 
Description Interview with United Press about ASFV vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with United Press International on Development of ASFV vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2019/07/12/World-races-to-develop-African-swine-fever-vaccine/671156...
 
Description Interview with journalist and provided input to article on African swine fever vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviews with Katya Zimmer journalist with the Scientist Magazine and help with preparation of figures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/features/can-a-vaccine-save-the-worlds-pigs-from-african-swine-fever--...
 
Description Interviews to discuss COVID vaccine results 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio interviews (BBC Radio Surrey and Oxford), television interview (BBC South Today) and interviews with press to discuss results from our studies evaluating COVID-19 vaccine candidates in pigs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses. Presented by Rebecca Daines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The global poultry industry is under immense strain to meet the demand for food for our ever-increasing population. This forces the need for larger poultry flocks, often with unsatisfactory disease control protocols, providing the perfect scenario for disease spread, in particular avian influenza virus (AIV). The epidemiology of AIV consistently evolves by mutation and re-assortment, encouraging the emergence of new subtypes with the ability to escape current vaccine-induced immune responses. These new subtypes can cause a significant threat to both animal and human health. The most recent report from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) between 2013 and 2018 reported 68 countries and territories affected by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in domestic birds with estimated losses of 122 million birds due to illness or cull. The current circulating subtypes to be of a global public health concern are the H5 and H7 AIV subtypes, having demonstrated the ability to develop zoonotic potential, often driven by the increasing human activities involved to meet resource demand.
Current precautionary control methods predominantly focus on biosecurity and vaccination developed from local circulating strains. Vaccination utilises the strain specific structure of the viral surface proteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, the target of the immune response and also the site of viral binding, to elicit the production of specific antibodies. However, due to constant mutation and reassortment, new strains emerge which are no longer fully-neutralised by the antibodies induced from vaccination as the structure of the antigenic sites of surface proteins are no longer complimentary. The acquired evolutionary mutations can also contribute in enhancing viral fitness, transmissibility and/or host range.

We are investigating the antigenic determinants of the H5 subtypes of AIV to allow a deeper understanding of the pattern of mutations and consequential fitness costs of the viruses which escape from vaccine-induced antibody immune pressure. From the results of this analysis, a recombinant AIV with the haemagglutinin of known sequence can induce an immune response that provides a broader cross-protective immunity to different antigenic divergent strains/clades of H5 AIV. A broader cross-reactive vaccine will impact the poultry industry socio-economically in respect of potentially preventing morbidity and/or mortality of domestic poultry from the H5 AIV infection,

The ultimate aim of our research is for the findings to be put forward as a potential global vaccine candidate and evaluated for its efficacy. To facilitate a wider dissemination and awareness of this project, the findings will be published in relevant veterinary journals and where possible, higher impact journals. Utilising our collaborators in the UK, Pakistan, Vietnam, Egypt and Bangladesh, stakeholders and global corporations such as OIE, World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the improved vaccine would be integrated into endemic countries, primarily targeting those already using vaccination as a method of AIV control in poultry. If the vaccine is successfully integrated into the AIV policy for global control, it will reduce the virus prevalence in the environment, the emergence of antigenically distinct strains, thus minimising the risk of zoonotic transmission and emergence of novel AIV strains with pandemic potential.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited Keynote Presentation on African swine fever and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote presentation at China Animal Breeding and Genetics conference December Guangzhou, attended by more than 2000 delegate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Keynote Speaker International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Ecology, China Mai Thailand 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote talk on progress towards African swin efever virus vaccine development at ISVEE meeting Thailand
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentations at the European PRRS Research Award ceremonies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description Invited Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk titled 'Identification of viral targets of host T cell immunity for development of livestock vaccines' presented at the British Society for Immunology Congress, Brighton, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2017
URL https://www.bsicongress.com/
 
Description Invited Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk titled 'Design and evaluation of biomimetic particulate formulations of viral antigens as veterinary vaccines' presented at VaxInLive 2018 Symposium, Lyon, France.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://clarolineconnect.univ-lyon1.fr/icap_website/view/1228
 
Description Invited Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited talk entitled 'Identification of viral targets of host T cell immunity for development of livestock vaccines' presented at the International Symposium on Human and Veterinary Viruses 2018: From Research to Application, Bangkok, Thailand.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.biotec.or.th/virus-symposium2018/index.php
 
Description Invited as PPR vaccine expert to vaccine producers meeting at Jordan, Amman-organised by OIE and FAO PPR secretariat-13.04.19-17.4.19, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited as PPR vaccine expert to vaccine producers meeting at Jordan, Amman-organised by OIE and FAO PPR secretariat-13.04.19-17.4.19,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited oral presentation at the Shaping Host-Microbiome Interactions to Promote Livestock Health and Productivity Symposium, Bath 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented current understanding on the impact of the gut microbiome on vaccine responsiveness and how this could be influenced.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited presentation: 'Beyond Jenner: The Future of Vaccines', Discovery Day, Dr Jenner House Museum and Gardens 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited by the British Society for Immunology to give a presentation on vaccine research at the 'Beyond Jenner: The Future of Vaccines', Discovery Day, Dr Jenner House Museum and Gardens, Berkeley, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar at INRAE, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar to present our recent and ongoing PRRSV research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited speaker British Society of Veterinary Pathology Annual Meeting 2018, Applied Ruminant Pathology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker on "Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus - recognising the continued threat of Culicoides-borne viruses of ruminants" British Society of Veterinary Pathology Annual Meeting 2018, Applied Ruminant Pathology
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, 29th of September 2018,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bsvp.org/event/applied-ruminant-pathology-disease-investigation-diagnosis-and-surveillan...
 
Description Invited speaker at Imperial College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk on our recent research in swine influenza. Discussions with PIs at Imperial after the talk. Established collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker at St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave presentation on our pig influenza model to colleagues at Imperial College. Established collaboration to evaluate LAIV in pigs and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited speaker at the British VeterinaryPoultry Association 2018 meeting at Boehringer Ingelheim 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was invited to present my research findings at the British Veterinary Poultry Association 2018 meeting, held at Boehringer Ingelheim.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker, Merseyside BSI Affinity group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I described the methods we used to identifyTissue resident memory cells in pigs, which sparked a lively discussion and interest in the technique. As a result I have established two collaborations with colleagues from Liverpool.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker, Surrey University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No