Viral Persistence

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

There is no single mechanism adopted by viruses to establish a persistent infection, and the propensity for persistence can vary between closely related viral serotypes. Therefore, studying the natural hosts has enormous advantages over model species for dissecting the detailed molecular processes and pathways involved. The suite of biological mechanisms leading to persistence can be complex and the outcome of infection can vary depending on minor variation in the virus, host or indeed other environmental influences. Consequently insights into the entire process of viral pathogenesis leading to persistence is crucial to both identify targets for disease control and in making sure that any interventions are not likely to exacerbate disease. These studies build on the established, integrated and systems approach to animal infection studies that is a unique strength of the work undertaken at Pirbright. The studies in this topic is particularly closely linked to the ‘recognition and control of virus infections’ topic where the host innate and adaptive immune responses have failed to clear an infection.
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) has developed multiple mechanisms for evading clearance by the host for and persisting. Avian hosts have adapted by initiating a balanced immune response that does not cause untoward tissue damage, but restricts virus replication to tolerable levels. Understanding this dynamic equilibrium is challenging, but very important to develop innovative intervention control strategies. African buffalo can become persistently infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) creating a virus reservoir that influences viral evolution and transmission to cattle. Understanding the process of persistence will be an important component of any future eradication programme in Africa and could identify opportunities to control this disease in cattle. Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) strains are poor inducers of type I interferon (IFN) both in vitro and in vivo. PRRSV antagonises the production of type I IFN by infected cells in order to facilitate viral replication and persistence. Indeed, replication of the virus in porcine alveolar macrophages can be controlled by IFN-a treatment.

Publications

10 25 50

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Reddy VRAP (2019) Interactions of Chicken Programmed Cell Death 1 (PD-1) and PD-1 Ligand-1 (PD-L1). in Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

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Nair V (2020) Non-Coding RNAs

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Chen Y (2017) PD-L1/PD-1 Pathway Blockade Reverses Dysfunction of Circulating CEA-Specific T Cells in Pancreatic Cancer Patients. in Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

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Baron MD (2018) Recent advances in viral vectors in veterinary vaccinology. in Current opinion in virology

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Nair V (2018) Spotlight on avian pathology: Marek's disease in Avian Pathology

 
Description The key findings from the studies on persistent infections of three viruses viz. Marek's disease virus (MDV) in poultry, porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs, and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in ruminants:

1. MDV latency in tumour cell lines is maintained by epigenetic mechanisms: During latency MDV expresses only a limited set of genes which are kept transcriptionally active with boundaries maintained using specific insulator sequences. We have determined global changes in the methylation of the viral/host promoters by determining the first chicken global DNA methylome of oncogenic virus-transformed cancer cells.

2. CRISPR/Cas9-based in situ gene editing for examining the determinants of MDV persistence: We have developed CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing tools in situ in MDV-transformed cancer cell lines to identify the determinants that contribute the maintenance of latency as well as reactivation of MDV to lytic replication. Using this approach, we have shown that MDV-encoded pp38, is not essential or a determinant of latency-to-lytic switch. Currently, we are exploring the effect of activation of pp38 on MDV persistence using a CRISPRa (activation) approach.

3. COX-2-PGE2 pathway is important in MDV persistence: Activation of COX-2/PGE2 pathway, essential for MDV replication, can modulate both innate and adaptive immunity against MDV replication, influencing latency.

4. Examining the role of T cells in resistance/susceptibility to MDV: We have generated reagents to examine antigen-specific T cell cytokines and cytotoxic markers. MDV-specific T cells isolated from genetically susceptible, but not resistant, chickens express high levels of IL-10, a suppressive cytokine. In contrast, T cells from resistant chickens expressed low levels of IL-10 but higher levels of granzyme B, which is associated with cytotoxic T cell function.

5. PRRSV non-structural proteins show multiple interactions with host proteins: Using yeast-two-hybrid screens with PRRSV-1 NSP1 and a porcine alveolar macrophage library, we have identified a number of interacting proteins associated with IFN signalling, the NF-?B pathway, ubiquitination and nuclear transport, suggesting their roles in pathogenesis and persistence of PRRSV.

6. Follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centre are important in FMDV persistence and immune responses in a mouse model: The importance of FDCs in FMDV persistence was demonstrated as virus decreased significantly when FDC were depleted with recombinant lymphotoxin beta receptor immunoglobulin fusion protein (LTßR-Ig). Moreover, LTß-deficient mice that lacked FDC and normal intact splenic marginal zone, failed to trap and retain FMDV in the germinal centres, failed to generate neutralising antibodies to FMDV and showed impaired FMDV-specific antibody responses.

7. African buffaloes are not a major source of new FMDV variants: African buffaloes are efficient carriers of FMDV and it has been proposed that new virus variants are produced in carrier buffalo that may spread to livestock populations. We have shown that despite an accumulation of low frequency sequence variants over time, there is no evidence of significant antigenic variation, suggesting that carrier buffalo are unlikely to be a major source of new variants. Our studies also showed that antibody escape does not contribute to the persistent infections in buffaloes.
Exploitation Route 1. MDV immune responses: Our studies demonstrating the IFN-?-producing cells indicated their role in the protection against MD, showing their potential for vaccine development. As does the increased expression of granzyme B and reduced IL-10 expression in genetically resistant birds. Immunological assays of T cell responses could be utilised to study T cell responses to other infections and vaccines in chickens. Similarly, identification of the COX-2/PGE2 pathway in MD pathogenesis could be explored in developing novel control methods.
2. CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing for studying MDV biology: Development of these technologies will help in better understanding of virus-host interactions and development of recombinant vaccines. For example, for a deeper understanding of the host/viral factors that are essential to maintain MDV latency, we are currently using two strategies. (1) Targeted CRISPR-based base editing of the promoters of selected genes (e.g. viral gene pp38 and host gene CD30) to examine the role of DNA methylation in maintaining latency (2) global CRISPR-based dropout screening of Cas9-expressing MDV-transformed cells to identify critical genes that are involved in latency and lytic switch.

3. Identification of the role of FDCs in persistence of FMDV in mouse model: We have utilized a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb 4B2) raised against mouse complement receptor (CR) 2/CR1 to block these receptors on FDC in BALB/c mice infected with FMDV. In pilot studies, we have demonstrated that mAb 4B2 can block the binding of FMDV to FDC demonstrating a specific interaction between the virus and these FDC receptors. These studies will help in the design of vaccines to induce long-term immunity and understand the role of "carrier" animals in the maintenance and spread of infection in wildlife and livestock populations.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description The UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases (CERAD) was established as a network to work together to help find solutions to the problems with avian diseases in the UK and China. CERAD has significantly grown in terms of numbers of academic institutions joining CERAD (https://www.uk-china-cerad.org/). Various innovative research findings have been used to secure additional joint research funds on areas such as virus pathogenesis, host-virus interactions and virus persistence in diseases such as Marek's disease and avian leukosis. CERAD has won 7 joint grants, published 14 joint research papers, signed 4 joint agreements, organised 5 conferences and supported 9 exchange visits. Translation of the research outputs include the development of improved diagnostics and innovative vaccines against avian diseases. Some of the novel recombinant vaccines against avian diseases are currently being evaluated for commercial use to protect against major avian diseases. The success of the project has been acknowledged when it was shortlisted for the Newton Prize 2019 for China (https://www.newtonfund.ac.uk/news/latest-news/2019-newton-prize-shortlist-announced/). The importance of CERAD was also recently covered by CGTN (https://newseu.cgtn.com/news/2020-01-28/British-and-Chinese-scientists-join-forces-to-fight-avian-diseases-NBCaLdnfCo/index.html).
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Contributing to the chapter on Marek's disease for the OIE Terrestrial Manual
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The contribution to the Terrestrial Manual on the recent advances in the diagnosis and control of Marek's disease will impact on improved and better control of the disease to reduce losses and improved food security
URL http://www.oie.int/
 
Description Organised seminar series on Sequencing, Virus Evolution and Molecular Biology at Pirbright (with Luca Ferretti and Graham Freimanis)
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Participation in the Management of the Oxford DTP
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact As part of the Management committee of the Oxford-Pirbright-Oxford Brookes-Diamond doctorate Training Partnership, contributed to the success of the DTP in meeting the objectives, recruitment and review
URL http://www.biodtp.ox.ac.uk/
 
Description Taught course on introductory bioinformatics to PhD students at Pirbright
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Dissecting the molecular pathways of MDV oncoprotein Meq for understanding pathogenesis and aid vaccine development
Amount £440,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007896/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description In vitro evaluation of peptide-based immune checkpoint inhibitors as potential molecular adjuvants for improved PRRS vaccines
Amount £4,921 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description Microbiology Society Travel Grant
Amount £233 (GBP)
Organisation Microbiology Society 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 04/2018
 
Description Newton Fund: The Researcher Links Travel Grants from British Council
Amount £35,400 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Recombinant pseudorabies virus as a multivalent vectored vaccine platform for emerging and endemic porcine diseases
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2020 
End 09/2024
 
Description The Pirbright Institute PhD Studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description UK-China partnership on Global Food Security: Combating avian tumor diseases for sustainable poultry proudction
Amount £382,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007632/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Title CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing of avian herpesvirus vectors to develop novel recombinant vaccines 
Description Development of recombinant herpesvirus vaccines are usually achieved by classical homologous recombination methods. The advent of new genome editing tools has enabled its application on avian herpesvirus vaccine strains to develop new recombinant vaccines potentially capable of expressing protective antigens from multiple pathogens 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The major impact will be in the generation of novel vaccines that can simultaneously protect against multiple avian diseases 
URL http://www.poultryworld.net/Health/Articles/2016/12/Is-GM-technology-the-future-of-poultry-vaccines-...
 
Title Generation of feather follicle stem cells 
Description Methods for generation and expansion of feather follicle epithelial stem cells are developed within Avian Immunology group. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Feather follicle stem cells can be used to examine Marek's disease virus replication in vitro. 
 
Title Generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and analyses of their infection by foot-and-mouth disease virus 
Description CD14+ cells were selected. Day 4 monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) were generated by positive selection using CD14 magnetic beads and LS columns, followed by differentiation by culturing in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Both non-cell culture adapted and cell culture adapted FMDV were used in this study. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy (IFM) was used to investigate internalisation of FMDV and immune complexed (IC) FMDV at 1-6 hours post infection (hpi) and also to investigate the uptake pathways utilised by non-cell culture and cell culture adapted FMDV in the presence of different pharmacological inhibitors. Western blot, IFM and quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyse viral replication at 0-6, 8, 16 and 24 hpi. Plaque assays were used to investigate the yields of live virus produced in moDC at 0, 4, 8 and 24 hpi. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the changes in IL-12 and IL-10 secretion following FMDV infection at 2, 4 and 6 hpi. MxCAT ELISA was used to investigate the secretion of IFN at different times post infection. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These methods were used to generate MODC and characterise their interaction with FMDV. They are currently being incorporated into a manuscript for peer review and provide a workflow to analyse FMDV infections of other dendritic cell types. 
 
Title FMDV LIMS and webtools 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics (IBB) group has been supplying state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools to the World Reference Labs for the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus. All tools revolve around a database of genomic sequences and metadata for FMDV samples. Some tools allow members of the lab to enter, process and annotate new data into the database, generating several kinds of reports. Other web-based tools (the "FMDV Toolbox") allow external users to query the database in several ways. Bioinformatics workflows are hosted on the IBB cluster, and have been implemented as REST web services so as to be decoupled from the web interface. The web interface is currently being redeveloped with the help of a specialised company. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The reports generated by our system are used to inform FMDV policy-makers both within the UK and in the rest of the world. External users can compare their sequences to those contained in the database, and get useful biological insights. 
URL https://mallorn.pirbright.ac.uk/FMDVToolbox
 
Title Genome browser for MDV infected chicken cells 
Description The database integrates and makes available the results of the bioinformatics analysis of several experiments involving high-throughput sequencing of chicken cells infected by several viruses (mainly Marek's Disease Virus) generated within the Avian Viral Disease group at the Pirbright Institute. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The genome browser allows the researchers to meaningfully mine and integrate the large amount of data produced by their experiments, guiding subsequent experimental hypothesis-driven validation in the lab. 
 
Title Method to predict vaccine matching in-silico 
Description Every time a novel viral strain emerges, it is essential to know whether existing vaccines are effective against it. Several lab techniques are available in order to do so, the most widespread one arguably being VNT (virus neutralisation test). However VNT is expensive, difficult to implement and not very reproducible due to batch effects. Being able to reliably predict VNT-derived antibody titres with the computer would be a game changer in the field. We have developed an in-silico model based on machine learning that is able to effectively predict VNT outcomes out of sequencing data. We have shown that the method performs well for FMDV and also, apparently, for influenza. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We are currently in the process of validating and optimising the method. If preliminary results are confirmed, the method could be put to good use in a number of fields, and become the basis for a more effective policy making when managing and controlling devastating livestock diseases such as FMDV. 
 
Title South-African buffalo FMDV sequences 
Description We have sequenced FMDV buffalo samples originated from a EEID project entitled: Persistence of a Highly Contagious Pathogen: Ecological and Evolutionary Mechanisms in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus. This project aims to understand why a highly contagious pathogen such as FMDV, which induces a rapid host immunity and depletes the supply of susceptible host, is able to persist in isolated buffalo populations and thus avoid auto-extinction. The centre piece of the project is a cohort study which involves an established FMDV-positive breeding herd of ca. 70 buffalo in a 900-hectare enclosure surrounded by double game fencing housing buffalo in isolation from other herds in the Kruger National Park (South Africa). The entire herd is being monitored for three years (animals are sampled every 2 months (serum, tonsil swabs, probang) to trace FMDV transmission events, allowing us to define FMD infection dynamics across the susceptible calf cohorts and amongst adults. So far, FMDV genomes from 101 samples have been deep sequenced by illumina. Samples from the last year captures are currently being analysed and virus is currently being isolated. The second experiment is an experimental study, which involves a group of naïve buffalo experimentally infected with either a SAT-1, SAT-2 or SAT-3 virus. The infected buffalo were then allowed to mingle with susceptible animals and transmission of FMDV to naïve animals was monitored during the acute infection but also from persistently infected animals. So far, FMDV genomes from 48 samples obtained at days 2, 30 and 160 of the experiment have been deep sequenced. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The samples sequenced come from South Africa, which is an LMIC, While FMDV infection in cattle is very well studied, the mechanisms of persistence in buffalo, which is thought to be the natural reservoir of the infection, are not well understood. Such understanding would be essential to inform better policies to understand and manage FMDV, which is an economically important scourge of cloven hooved animals in LMICs. All the sequences will be made available on the Transboundary Portal which is being developed at Pirbright. 
 
Title Viral assembly pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust viral assemblies out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, assembling of viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; uneven coverage due to low-quality material or the genomic material of the virus being RNA; the viral nucleic acid being almost lost in the background of nucleic acid of the host. Our pipeline overcomes most of those problems, and is even able to detect different viral strains being present together in the same sample. It can also be used on metagenomic environmental samples. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title Viral variant calling pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust variant calling for viral sequences out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, calling variant for viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; very high genome coverage, which slows down most existing variant callers; the presence of a potentially very high number of different haplotypes for RNA viruses, which is an unusual scenario in variant calling. Our fast and sensitive Bayesian pipeline overcomes most of those problems. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title Zimbabwe FMDV sequences 
Description Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an acute vesicular disease in domestic cloven-hooved animals. However, in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) clinical disease is rarely observed and following infection virus is persistently carried in the oesophageal-pharyngeal area of the upper respiratory tract. During the 1990s oesophageal-pharyngeal scrapings were collected from free-living African buffalo in multiple herds in six different geographic areas of Zimbabwe. We sequenced over 140 FMD viruses each belonging to one of the Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes (SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3) from primary bovine thyroid cells. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This dataset has been generated from samples collected in Zimbabwe, which is a low-income country. Those viral sequences will be essential to help elucidating the nature of persistent FMDV infection in African buffalo, which is supposed to be the main virus reservoir in vivo. As the samples track viral infection and evolution over several years and across a number of different herds in different national parks and conservatories, the dataset will also inform better animal management and conservation. A better understanding of FMDV persistence would also be essential to mitigate the economic burden generated by the disease, which is a scourge of cloven-hoofed animals in LMICs. All the sequences will be made available through the Transboundary Pathogen portal that is being developed at Pirbright. 
 
Description Evaluation of immune checkpoint inhibitors as molecular adjuvants for improved PRRSV vaccines 
Organisation Leidos
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV immunology
Collaborator Contribution Patented immune checkpoint inhibitors
Impact No yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Identification and functional characterisation of host proteins that interact with non-structural proteins of PRRSV 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in viral-host protein interactions
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of sows with antibodies broadly neutralising PRRSV 
Organisation University of Lleida
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRSV immunology
Collaborator Contribution Access to large numbers of sows routinely vaccinated and exposed to PRRSV
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Benedikt Kaufer 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing knowledge and methodologies.
Collaborator Contribution Providing reagents and methodologies to perform experiments.
Impact Two publications from this collaboration: Gurung A, Kamble N, Kaufer BB, Pathan A, Shahriar Behboudi. Association of Marek's Disease induced immunosuppression with activation of a novel regulatory T cells in chickens, PLoS Pathogens, 2017, 13 (12), e1006745. Boodhoo N, Kamble N, Kaufer BB, Shahriar Behboudi. Replication of Marek's disease virus is dependent on de novo synthesis of fatty acid and Prostaglandin E2. J Virol. 2019 Apr 10
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Shayan Sharif, University of Guelph, Canada 
Organisation University of Guelph
Department Department of Pathobiology
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration between my team and Professor Sharif lead to new finding in Avian immunology, specifically in understanding the effects of nutrients on antigen presenting cells and T cells of chicken. We took the lead in studying the effects of some nutrients (Vitamin D) on the function of chicken T cells, performed most of the experiments in our laboratory. Meanwhile, we participated in studying the effects of Vitamin D on antigen presenting cells of chicken by performing some key experiments because we had access to some specific reagents (monoclonal antibodies) recognizing molecules expressed on chicken antigen presenting cells.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Sharif team took the lead in studying the effects of Vitamin D on antigen presenting cells of chicken, and contributed to experimental plan for studying the effects on chicken T cells.
Impact Two publications in 2015 and 2016: 1. Nitish Boodhoo, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi. 1a,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 Modulates Avian T Lymphocyte Functions without Inducing CTL Unresponsiveness. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 24;11(2):e0150134 2. Bahram Shojadoost, Shahriar Behboudi, Villanueva AI, Jennifer Brisbin, Ali Ashkar, Shayan Sharif. Vitamin D3 modulates the function of chicken macrophages. Res. Vet. Sci. 2015 June, 100: 45-51
Start Year 2019
 
Description Re-annotation of Marek's Disease Virus 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are using bioinformatics analysis of high-throughput sequencing data in order to provide a better annotation of the genome of Marek's Disease Virus
Collaborator Contribution Our partners are sharing their extensive expertise of the genomics of MDV, and performing experimental validations
Impact No output yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Poster presentation: International Pig Veterinary Symposium and International PRRS Symposium, Chongqing, PR China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luke Johnson (PhD student) gave a poster presentation on his studies on the interaction of macrophages and dendritic cells with PRRSV of differing virulence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Ash Manor school challenge week science workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Provide information on research activity at The Pirbright Institute and informing on pathogens infecting farmed animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Big Bang Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Big Bang Near Me is a programme of regional and local Big Bang Fairs that take place all across the UK. Together with The Big Bang UK Young Scientists & Engineers Fair and The Big Bang Competition, it forms part of the wider Big Bang programme, bringing science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) to life for young people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://nearme.thebigbangfair.co.uk/about/
 
Description Big Bang SE 26-27/06/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Bishop David Brown careers fair 21/11/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description CABI_Research activity of Avian Immunology Group at The Pirbright Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Release of research activity within Avian Immunology group at The Pirbright Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Chaired the Poultry Disease group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry Disease group is a forum of veterinary practitioners to discuss the advances in poultry diseases that could be translated from research labs to the farms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conor Haydon participated in the STEM Day - Speed interviews and Careers Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact STEM day engagement and careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Diamond open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 300 people visited our stand at the open day, in which we described the importance of our work for food security and public health. Children from all ages were involved and learned about viruses and played with the huge virus particle that we had produced. One of the major impact was that we described to several people why we work on some viruses that we do not have them in the UK, and the importance of the work for the UK and UK economy and public health was explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.diamond.ac.uk/Public/VisitUs.html
 
Description EUFMD 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact During the EuFMDV conference taking place from 26 to 28 October 2016, Paolo Ribeca gave a talk on "VIBAsys and FMDV-Tools: Practical resources for FMDV sequence analysis". The conference, organised by the EU, gathers most of the important actors in FMD control. The talk explained how the new resources being developed by the Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics on behalf of the FMDV World Reference Lab can be useful to the community
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Howard of Effingham STEAM fair 01/04/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Inauguration of the UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases (CERAD) and Symposium on Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Inauguration of the UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases (CERAD) and Symposium on Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. This was held in Binzhou, Shandong province in China in 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Innovate Guildford 23/03/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invitation to give keynote talk on 'Control of avian diseases: Challenges and opportunities' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave the Keynote talk on 'Control of avian diseases: Challenges and opportunities' at this International Symposium organized with an aim to gather international virology experts from both human and veterinary fields to share research experience, update findings and contribute their expertise through presentation and interactive discussion. The topics will cover a wide range of virology research common in both human and animal aspects. In addition, technological platforms such as vaccine development, and novel assays will be emphasized and addressed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.biotec.or.th/virus-symposium2018/index.php
 
Description Invitation to talk at the Vaccine Symposium "Vaccines at different levels of complexity from subunit to whole cell formulations" jointly organised by the Centre of Genomic Regulation (CRG), Radboud UMC and MSD Animal Health, with the support from the MycoSynVac project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk and participated in the discussion on the challenges and research opportunities for innovation in poultry disease control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.crg.eu/
 
Description Invited oral presentation at 18th National Conference for Pig Disease Prevention and Eradication, Wuhan, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited oral presentation: 'Trying to hit a moving target: Novel approaches to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine development', 18th National Conference for Pig Disease Prevention and Eradication, Wuhan, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar at INRAE, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar to present our recent and ongoing PRRSV research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at World Vaccine Congress, Washington DC, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussed the potential for structural vaccinology to advance livestock vaccine development including examples of FMDV, bRSV and PRRSV
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at the National Institute for Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad on 3rd Jan 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participants were engaged in the recent advances in biotechnology, challenges and opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited to talk at the International Conference on Building Human and Animal Health Capacities organised by the Jordan University of Science and Technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the discussion and talked on 'The recent advances in vaccination-based control of poultry diseases'. The need for increased awareness of the pathogen diversity in the design of vaccines and the opportunities from advances in vaccine technologies were discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.just.edu.jo/conferences/bhahc/Pages/default.aspx
 
Description Keynote talk at the World Veterinary Poultry Association meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to give the keynote talk on 'Avian tumour viruses: their contribution to our understanding of cancer' at the World Veterinary Poultry Association XXth Congress in Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.wvpac2017.com/
 
Description MDV conference Tours 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact During the 11th International Symposium on Marek's Disease and Avian Herpesviruses, which took place from 6 to 9 July 2016, Paolo Ribeca gave a talk on "Attenuation of MDV: an RNA-seq based perspective".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual Meeting, Belfast, 8-11 April 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk describing research to date - the molecular mechanism by which the Npro protein of classical swine fever virus inhibits dsRNA-induced apoptosis in infected host cells.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Miyazaki University Symposium - Oral presentation 03/12/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation title: The N-terminal autoprotease of classical swine fever virus.

Stimulating increased interest in science and research at The Pirbright Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NA PRRS Symposium & Conference of Research Workers in Animal Disease - Oral and poster presentations 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation title: Identification of host proteins that interact with non-structural proteins-1a and -1ß of PRRSV-1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Organised the 3rd UK-China CERAD meeting in Guildford, UK in July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 3rd UK-China CERAD meeting helped to bring together professional from both countries to identify challenges and exploit the opportunities for improved control of poultry diseases and increasing food security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.uk-china-cerad.org/
 
Description Organising and giving Keynote talk at the GARAD meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance of Poultry industry professional and academia to discuss about the advances in control strategies of diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://Garad.org
 
Description Poster by Nick on the sequencing of Zimbabwe FMDV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Nick Knowles presented a poster at the 2018 Europic (the meeting of the European Study Group on the Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses) on "Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Over 140 Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses Isolated From Free-living African Buffalo (Syncerus Caffer) in Zimbabwe" on behalf of Jemma Wadsworth, Bruce Bolt, Luca Ferretti, Euan C. Anderson, Ashley Gray, Paolo Ribeca, and himself. The sequencing was funded by the Transboundary Pathogens portal project awarded to Pirbright.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster presentation: European Veterinary Immunology Workshop, Utrecht, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luke Johnson (PhD student) gave a poster presentation on his studies on the interaction of macrophages and dendritic cells with PRRSV of differing virulence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on the effects on oncogenic virus infection at the Veterinarian's Forum, Namakkal, India on 29 Dec 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The purpose of the engagement was to update the practicing poultry veterinarians on the problems with oncogenic virus diseases and methods of control. The meeting attended by nearly 100 veterinarians was very informative and ended with a long discussion on the challenges and innovations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description School Year 9 STEM Networking Event, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School Year 9 STEM Networking Event, 11th May, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Sue Baigent participated in the Teen Tech event on 22nd Jan 2019 on General Science engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A General Science event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Sue Baigent participated in the Winston Churchill Careers Fair on 7th Nov 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Careers fair
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Surrey Open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Described the research activity of the Pirbright Institute for students from school, graduate and postgraduate students, and provided information on research facilities in the institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/opendays/vet
 
Description Talk by Nick on the sequencing of Zimbabwe FMDV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Nick Knowles gave a talk at the 2018 Open Session of EuFMD (European commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease ) on "Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Over 140 Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses Isolated From Free-living African Buffalo (Syncerus Caffer) in Zimbabwe" on behalf of Jemma Wadsworth, Bruce Bolt, Luca Ferretti, Euan C. Anderson, Ashley Gray, Paolo Ribeca, and himself. The sequencing was funded by the Transboundary Pathogens portal project awarded to Pirbright.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Microbiology Society Annual Conference, Belfast - Poster presentation 08-11/04/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster title: Identification of host proteins that interact with non-structural proteins-1a and -1ß of PRRSV-1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description The Microbiology Society Annual Conference, Birmingham, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Microbiology Society Annual Conference, Birmingham, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK-India bioinformatics workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On February 9 2018 Pirbright organised a "UK-India bioinformatics workshop" in order to foster ties between Indian and UK bioinformaticians working in the field of livestock and crop research. Paolo Ribeca gave a talk on "Bioinformatics and sequencing at Pirbright".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description University of Liverpool Faculty of Health and Life Sciences Poster Day - poster presentation 27/03/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Poster title: Identification of host proteins that interact with non-structural proteins-1a and -1ß of PRRSV-1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description University of Liverpool IGH Day, 16th November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact University of Liverpool IGH Day, 16th November 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Surrey School of Veterinary Medicine Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of work conducted at The Pirbright Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
 
Description University of Surrey's Widening Participation and Outreach Summer Schools for Biosciences and Veterinary Science 24/07/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description V Nair invited to talk on 'Cell type- and disease stage-specific interactions of Marek's disease virus & the host' at the International Symposium on Marek's disease and avain herpesiviruses at Yangzhou, China during 29th July to 2nd Aug 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Most recent updates in the field of avian herpesvirus research was discussed and active engagements for future collaborations discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description V Nair was invited to talk a the Poultry Health Workshop and Conference on 19th-20th Nov, 2018 in Kathmandu, Nepal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact more than 100 stakeholders from different sectors of the Poultry industry and academia attended the meeting. There was engagement from the different sectors for initiating a combined approach for finding solutions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.cmdn.org.
 
Description Vet School Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact University of Surrey School of Veterinary Medicine Open Day - introduced The Pirbright Institute and the research we conduct to prospective students and parents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Vet Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Information on research activity of Avian Immunology group at the Pirbright Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Woking High School 17/09/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Woking School Careers 27/06/2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description poster presentation, University of Liverpool IGH Day, 15th October 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact poster presentation, University of Liverpool IGH Day, 15th October 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018