Disease Pathogenesis

Lead Research Organisation: The Pirbright Institute
Department Name: UNLISTED

Abstract

Comparative studies between differentially susceptible populations within a species and between closely related species are enormously powerful systems to interrogate the processes that lead to disease. Viral pathogenesis represents the sum of viral virulence factors and host susceptibility that lead to disease outcome. The suite of biological mechanisms involved during this process is complex and the outcome of infection can differ depending on variation in the virus, the host or through environmental influences. Consequently, studies using the natural viral host species offer the detailed information needed to advance our understanding of these complex processes.
Many of the viral pathogens we study cause differential disease within and between animal hosts. Susceptible species that do not show clinical signs can act as important virus reservoirs influencing viral evolution and transmission. Pirbright is uniquely placed with the capability to examine different host species responses to specific viral infections. These insights into the processes leading to disease are powerful tools to both identify future targets for disease control and for ensuring that any control strategies are not likely to exacerbate disease.
Pirbright is uniquely placed to examine the contribution of host genetics to differential immune responses. These complex traits are challenging to study, often requiring targeted and bespoke analysis in combination with more typical whole genome analyses. This has great potential to identify targets for gene editing to explore immune function in vitro, improve resilience and vaccine responses through informed breeding and potentially lead to developing transgenic animals.
Mathematical modelling of within-host dynamics has the potential to help understand mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and, in particular, factors influencing different clinical outcomes of infection. Moreover, it also provides a means to link pathogenesis with infectiousness and, hence, transmission between individuals.

Organisations

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Objective 1 Examine immune responses in different hosts to the same virus
We have developed many tools to study influenza immunity in pigs. Our data suggest that T cells can reduce severity of disease and pathology but not reliably decrease viral load. We have also demonstrated the utility of the pig influenza model in testing the protective efficacy of human therapeutic antibodies and investigating the role of Fc-FcR interactions in protective immunity. This has recently been greatly enhanced through this isolation of influenza specific pig monoclonal antibodies that have overlapping specificity and function to human antibodies.
H9N2 avian influenza viruses cause mild to severe clinical disease in poultry. These viruses also infect humans and pigs. Our studies defined the precise mechanisms by which non-structural proteins 1 (NS1) from different H9N2 virus strains impact on viral pathogenesis by altering host immune responses. Influenza A viruses (IAV), including avian viruses, directly bind to human co-factor H (FH) protein and that this interaction is mediated by the influenza HA protein. Mapping the interacting domains of FH reveals they are common with other pathogens and close to the receptor binding site. We are now determining if this is a novel innate defence mechanism or a strategy employed by the virus to avoid the complement system.
We have used peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) as a model to dissect differential immune responses. Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible while domesticated cattle and buffalo are sub-clinically infected. Transcriptome data from goat and cattle experimentally infected with PPRV in vitro demonstrates that differential susceptibility is based on induction of type-I interferons and some specific effector molecules.
We infected four inbred lines of chickens with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), one described as "susceptible" and three described as "resistant" to disease and discovered that line 15 was the most resistant. We conducted RNASeq on bursal tissue from the different lines and discovered that birds from line 15 had less inflammation than birds from line W that had more severe disease. Primary cells obtained from line 15 birds also responded more slowly to in vitro infection and stimulation with LPS. This is being used to inform future plans to engineer disease resistant chickens focussing on pro-inflammatory pathways.

Objective 2 Characterise genomic and genetic diversity underlying differential immune responses
We have examined the extent of genetic diversity in indigenous and rare breed birds in comparison to our inbred lines and commercial breeds of layers and broilers in relation to key immune gene complexes. This genetic variation is now being directly linked to in vivo and ex vivo differences in inflammatory responses that appears to be a predictor of differential disease resistance to several major poultry pathogens.
We have annotated immunogenetic variation in 12 new ruminant genomes and has been used as the template to quantify hyper-variation in over 1000 individual cattle. This has allowed us to develop tools that link variable immune responses with genetic variation, using a combination of new bioinformatic tools, and the first proof-of-principle study as part of a GWAS has been completed. We are now refining our approach based on positive results and actively discussing deploying this strategy with industry partners.
Marek's disease virus (MDV)-encoded miR-155 ortholog mdv-miR-M4, previously shown to be critical for the induction of lymphomas, are not essential for the continued proliferation of the MDV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. MDV-miR-M4-deleted cell lines proliferated at similar levels as the wild type cells.

Objective 3 Link viral pathogenesis and transmission
No vaccine is available for African swine fever virus (ASFV). Levels of ASF virus in blood correlate with risk of transmission and pathogenesis. We investigated the role of several viral attachment proteins in viremia, pathogenesis, and induction of protection against challenge. We deleted, individually or in combination, the EP402R/CD2v and EP153R/C-type lectin genes from the genome of a partially attenuated ASFV virus, Benin?DP148R. Deletion of both CD2v/EP402R and EP153R genes had a dramatic effect since no clinical signs or viremia were observed following infection. Protection against challenge was also reduced. The results confirm our prediction that the CD2v/EP402R protein increases the time of virus persistence in blood most likely by causing binding of the virus particles to red blood cells. In addition, our results show that the EP153R protein acts in co-operation with CD2v to increase viremia and clinical signs.
Linking a simple phenomenological model for the within-host dynamics of FMDV and one for its transmission has allowed derivation of explicit expressions relating viral growth and clearance rates and the timing and level of peak titre to between-host transmission, specifically, the reproduction number and generation time. Identifying how within-host processes influence these measures using more detailed models will allow the implications for transmission to be investigated.
Utilizing our new pipelines for 16S bacterial sequencing we have generated the first known chicken respiratory microbiome data set following influenza virus infection and identified the specific gut bacterial species that are differential in abundance following influenza virus infection. The impact of the microbiome on disease outcome and transmission is now being studied.
Exploitation Route • Research outcomes enabling the policy makers to make inform decisions to implement risk-based control measures to reduce the impact of emerging avian influenza viruses on both animals and humans.
• More effective vaccines produced through this project are enabling reduction in virus circulation in environment thereby lessening both direct damage to poultry industry and the zoonotic transmission to humans.
• More accurate and rapid diagnostics produced through this project are enabling rapid decision making for implementation of optimal control measures in response to disease outbreak.
• Enhanced collaboration and co-production through this project is enhancing the science-based in the UK and the international collaborating institutions in the shape of research capacity and skills that are facilitating medium to long-term science-based gains in productivity in livestock and poultry farming systems
• The methods could be used to analyse T cell responses to vaccines against other poultry pathogens, and examine host-pathogen interaction against other viral infections in chickens.
• Provide vital information to the UK agriculture sector in preparing for a potential incursion of BTV in 2019. Study outcomes will enable evidence based decisions of policy makers, veterinarians and farmers.
• Identification of molecular pathways associated with the miR-155 expression could be taken up for developing potential novel intervention strategies against lymphomas in different species including humans by the pharmaceutical industry.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink

 
Description Information obtained using a bovine challenge model RSV is being used to inform human challenge models. As part of the Human Infection Challenge Network, our work underpins the development of policies to regulate, enhance and support human challenge models in the UK and EU. In coordination with regulatory agencies and funding bodies, our work is being used to determine new regulatory frameworks for human challenge studies. The data generated by this research has allowed additional funding from other sources including EU and UKRI responsive mode. Genomic and functional data for the avian immune genes has provided fundamental data for the analysis these genes in additional species. This should enhance the quality of life and health of livestock and those involved in livestock farming. The research identified factors that aiding virulence and persistence of avian influenza viruses in different animals and bird species. The outcome of this research directly feed into surveillance and risk assessment of emerging and re-emerging viruses, enabling implementation of rapid and appropriate disease mitigation strategies. Progress towards an ASFV vaccine have been used to establish collaborations and gain funding from an International Veterinary Vaccine Company and a charity promoting development of Veterinary Vaccines for livestock farmers in low and middle income countries. In the middle term this will provide vaccines against African swine fever virus to protect the global pork industry and improve food security. We found that contemporary avian influenza viruses H9N2 viruses infecting poultry across Asia, Middle East and North Africa acquired enhanced replication and virulence and transmission capability. The genetic markers will help in the development of risk assessment of field viruses having potential to cause sever disease in poultry. The knowledge developed is enabling disease control authorities to implement appropriate disease control measures including vaccination. Because H9N2 viruses carrying identified mutations cause more severe disease (morbidity and mortality) in chickens compared with the viruses which do not contains the identified mutations.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink
 
Description Advice to DEFRA
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact Provided advice and report on activities related to African swine fever virus to DEFRA. Took part in planning for Desktop Exercise for planning response to and ASF outbreak in the UK
 
Description Advisor on International Atomic Energy Association Collaborative Reserach Project on African swine fever
Geographic Reach Africa 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Provided training to participants from Veterinary Services and Institutions in Developing Countries in Africa on African swine fever
 
Description Contributing to the chapter on Marek's disease for the OIE Terrestrial Manual
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
Impact The contribution to the Terrestrial Manual on the recent advances in the diagnosis and control of Marek's disease will impact on improved and better control of the disease to reduce losses and improved food security
URL http://www.oie.int/
 
Description Contribution to Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer UK (2017), Genomics Chapter 9.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
 
Description Contribution to a POSTnote on 'Reducing UK Antibiotic Use in Animals'
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Deputy Chair of BBSRC grant Committee A
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact As chair of the committee I influence the decision on grant funding which have effect on animal and human health and food security
 
Description Development and Evaluation of PPR DIVA vaccines
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease, severely affects small ruminants in almost 70 countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It causes USD 1.5 to 2 billion in losses each year in regions that are home to over 80% of the world's sheep and goats and to more than 330 million of the world's poorest people, many of whom depend on them for their livelihoods. The estimated current expenditure on PPR vaccination ranges between USD 270 and 380 million. The annual impact of PPR alone may be valued at between USD 1.45 and 2.1 billion per year. Approximately a third of the global financial burden of PPR is borne by Africa, with a further quarter borne by South Asia. This burden will be removed with the successful eradication of PPR. The undiscounted costs for a fifteen-year Global control Strategy of FAO and OIE are between USD 7.6 and 9.1 billion, with the first five years costing between USD 2.5 and 3.1 billion. (http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4460e.pdf). PPR is currently controlled by vaccination using mainly two live attenuated PPRV vaccines (Nigeria 75/1 and Sungri 96). However, the current vaccines and serological tests are unable to enable Differentiation between naturally Infected and Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). This factor precludes meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn reducing the efficiency of control programmes. Therefore, it is almost impossible to assess the quality and efficacy of existing PPR vaccines without knowing whether positive animals are vaccinated or naturally infected. Unlike rinderpest, where cattle and buffalo were primary hosts, in PPR, new crops (about 30-40%) of lambs and kids are produced every year and are the most susceptible population to bring back new PPR outbreaks6&7. Therefore, it is likely that the cycle of vaccinations and PPR outbreaks will continue until and unless we reach the stage of 80-90% herd immunity. Therefore, development of a marker vaccine and associated DIVA diagnostics will enable the assessment of vaccine efficacy which is essential for any successful vaccination campaign. https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-peste-des-petits-ruminant The availability of a recombinant PPRV vaccine with a proven functionality is a prerequisite for the development of novel vaccines that may enable the development of DIVA tools for PPRV diagnostics. In the DBT-BBSRC FADH BB/L004801/1 grant we have rescued Sungri 96 and Nigeria 75/1 vaccine strains. Both the vaccine strains were rescued from respective synthetic c-DNA clones with mutations in the variable part of C terminus of the nucleocapsid (N) gene similar to Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) to enable negative marker DIVA vaccines. These two DIVA vaccines along with parental vaccines have been recently tested in a pilot studies in goats. Both the DIVA and parent vaccines provided safety, stability and protection for vaccinated goats whereas the control animals were clinically infected. Patent applications have been made to protect these DIVA vaccines. Agreements are being done with vaccine industries for the licensing and commercialisation.
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/press-releases/2018/09/pirbright-collaboration-provides-tools-peste-des-...
 
Description EFSA working group on lumpy skin disease
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Advice to European Commission and affected countries about control and surveillance for lumpy skin disease
URL https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5452
 
Description Expert Reviewer for Veterinary Vaccines, European Medicines Agency
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Human Infection Challenge Models for Vaccination
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Member of the British Society for Immunology Forum
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The BSI is very active in lobbying MPs and Government on subjects to do with clinical immunology and immunisations.
URL https://www.immunology.org/
 
Description OIE Global Network of African swine fever diagnostic labs
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact Participated in discussions to establish an OIE Global Network of African swine fever virus diagnostic laboratories and became a member of the organizing committee
 
Description Organised seminar series on Sequencing, Virus Evolution and Molecular Biology at Pirbright (with Luca Ferretti and Graham Freimanis)
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Participation in the Management of the Oxford DTP
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact As part of the Management committee of the Oxford-Pirbright-Oxford Brookes-Diamond doctorate Training Partnership, contributed to the success of the DTP in meeting the objectives, recruitment and review
URL http://www.biodtp.ox.ac.uk/
 
Description Taught course on introductory bioinformatics to PhD students at Pirbright
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Training MSc students
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Delivered a new training session to MSc students teaching viral quantification assays. This lead to a greater understanding of laboratory techniques and academic research.
 
Description Assessing the functionality of avian BST2 as a viral restriction factor.
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2021 
End 09/2025
 
Description Aviagen Industry Funding
Amount £422,383 (GBP)
Organisation Aviagen Group 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 09/2019 
End 12/2020
 
Description BBSRC - responsive mode
Amount £187,370 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S007911/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Description BBSRC IAA, "Generating high-quality reference of the Babraham pig."
Amount £44,075 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S506680/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 05/2020
 
Description BBSRC Industrial CASE (iCASE)
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description BBSRC Newton Fund Swine and Poultry Research Initiative
Amount £865,623 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R01275X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description Bilateral BBSRC-FAPESP Research Grant: Dissecting Essential Roles of Chicken Interferon Stimulated Genes in the Pathobiology of Poultry Viruses
Amount £383,644 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/M008681/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description Bluetongue virus changes the emission of volatile organic chemicals in the body odour of sheep and cattle during infection
Amount £471,421 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T014601/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 01/2022
 
Description British Egg Marketing Board PhD studentship
Amount £76,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Egg Marketing Board 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID LKCS-2019- 665 
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2019 
End 10/2022
 
Description Defining the genetic characteristics of infectivity, replication and virulence for H9N2 viruses affecting poultry
Amount £83,104 (GBP)
Funding ID BBS/E/I/00001981 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2018
 
Description Development of next generation vaccine technology inducing rapid and strong immunity through targeted delivery of antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £473,080 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T013087/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 05/2023
 
Description Dissecting the molecular pathways of MDV oncoprotein Meq for understanding pathogenesis and aid vaccine development
Amount £440,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007896/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Enhancing protective efficacy of avian influenza vaccines through targeted delivery of protective antigens to chicken immune cells
Amount £98,212 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R50595X/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description FLI- TPI joint PhD studentships Avian influenza immunology markers.
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country Germany
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2022
 
Description Further development of infectious bronchitis virus vaccines adapted for production in cell culture
Amount £262,701 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R019576/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description Japan Partnering Award
Amount £49,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/P025803/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2021
 
Description LVIF
Amount $1,500,000 (CAD)
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Description NC3Rs Research Project Grant
Amount £436,339 (GBP)
Funding ID NC/R001138/1 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2019
 
Description Newton Fund: The Researcher Links Travel Grants from British Council
Amount £35,400 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 05/2017
 
Description Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative
Amount £841,995 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012679/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative. Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry.
Amount £497,995 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012679/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Novel Mucosal T cells in immunity to swine influenza
Amount £120,000 (GBP)
Funding ID Novel Mucosal T cells in immunity to swine influenza 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2020
 
Description Pathfinder BB/R012431/1 Grant holder: Dr Mark Fife. Grant title: chIFITM knockdown/knockout technology as a platform technology for increased vaccine yields in SPF Eggs.
Amount £12,500 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012431/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Pirbright Institute Flexible Talent Mobility Account
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S507945/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description Pirbright Institute PhD studentship
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description Reducing the Economic and Zoonotic Impact of Avian Influenza (REZIAI): delivering novel vaccines and diagnostics from laboratory to the field.
Amount £400,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S013792/1 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description Responsive mode: Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species
Amount £668,314 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/N002571/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 06/2019
 
Description Responsive mode: Rapid acquisition of mammalian characteristics by avian influenza virus in single host infections.
Amount £535,337 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007292/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description SFS-10-2017 - Research and approaches for emerging diseases and pests in plants and terrestrial livestock: Addressing the dual emerging threats of African Swine Fever and Lumpy Skin Disease in Europe (DEFEND)
Amount € 5,986,250 (EUR)
Funding ID 773701 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 06/2018 
End 05/2023
 
Description Seed Catalyst Award
Amount £25,527 (GBP)
Funding ID ISCF-TFPSA-Pirbright 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 02/2019
 
Description Taiwan Partnering Award
Amount £40,700 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/S020624/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description The Global Challenges Research Fund
Amount £640,473 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2019 
End 03/2024
 
Description The Pirbright Livestock Antibody Hub
Amount $5,530,900 (USD)
Funding ID INV-003007 
Organisation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2024
 
Description The genetic and functional analysis of variation in innate immune genes associated with restriction of influenza virus for chicken lines
Amount £422,383 (GBP)
Organisation Aviagen Group 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 01/2020 
End 03/2021
 
Description UK-China partnership on Global Food Security: Combating avian tumor diseases for sustainable poultry proudction
Amount £382,000 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R007632/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Pirbright Institute 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2021 
End 04/2025
 
Description ZELS-AS: Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan.
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2019
 
Description [YY-EEID US-UK XXXX] Evaluating how immunosuppression influences influenza A virus transmission and evolution in wild and domestic birds
Amount £606,360 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/T008806/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 06/2023
 
Description iCASE studentship: Production and assessment of antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Title A ligation and restriction enzyme independent cloning technique: an alternative to conventional methods for cloning hard-to-clone gene segments in the influenza reverse genetics system 
Description we developed an easy and efficient ligation and restriction enzyme independent (LREI) cloning method for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000 vector. The method involves amplification of megaprimers followed by PCR amplification of megaprimers using a bait plasmid, DpnI digestion and transformation. ligation and restriction enzyme independent (LREI) cloning method represents an alternative strategy for cloning influenza gene segments that have internal restriction sites for the enzymes used in reverse genetics. Further, the problem of genetic instability in bacteria can be alleviated by growing recombinant bacterial cultures at a lower temperature. This technique can be applied to clone any influenza gene segment using universal primers, which would help in the rapid generation of influenza viruses and facilitate influenza research and vaccine development. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method will help in the rapid generation of reverse genetic base influenza viruses and facilitate influenza research and vaccine development. 
URL https://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-020-01358-2
 
Title A pipeline to determine changes in immune cell populations in the bursa of Fabricius following IBDV infection 
Description IBDV is an immunosuppressive disease. In order to study immunosuppression further, we have developed a pipeline to quantify the number of Bu1+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and KUL01+ macrophages in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) following infection with a field strain or a vaccine strain of IBDV by flow cytometry. We found that the number of B cells decreased, the number of KUL01 macrophages increased at early time points and then declined gradually, and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased. Interestingly, CD4/CD8 double positive cells also increased following infection, which have been shown by others to potentially be suppressive. In addition, we have developed pipeline to quantify the number of CD4+CD25+FGFbeta+ T regulatory cells in the BF following IBDV infection by flow cytometry in collaboration with Shahriar Behboudi's group. T regulatory cells increased following IBDV infection. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have submitted abstracts to the Microbiology Society and American Society for Virology 2021 annual meetings. We have established a collaboration with Shahriar Behboudi's group 
 
Title An ex vivo IBDV infection model using a chicken primary B cell culture system 
Description Recently, it has become possible to culture chicken primary B cells in vitro in the presence of a soluble construct of chicken CD40L that was made at The Pirbright Institute. We have demonstrated that these chicken primary B cells can be infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). This system will be validated and expanded to other B cell tropic viruses in order to replace the use of infected chickens in research, in an NC3Rs funded grant. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - in vitro 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Using this system, we have determined that chicken primary B cells respond to IBDV infection by inducing Type I IFN responses. However, the induction is more pronounced in cells infected with an attenuated strain compared to a very virulent strain. This is consistent with the very virulent strain down-regulating antiviral responses to a greater extent than other strains which may, in part, explain its enhanced virulence. We also observed a reduction in the expression of key genes involved in B cell proliferation and activation following IBDV infection which was only possible by using the primary B cell culture system. 
URL https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=broadbent+dulwich
 
Title Cattle MHC genotyping 
Description Using the sequence data generated through the targeted pull down of MHC, we developed a full gene and more targeted PCR approach to genotype cattle for the MHC class I region. This has been applied to many hundreds of samples to enable us to select individuals for breeding as well as survey genetic diversity in beef and diary herds. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact After publication which we anticipate in 2019, we will appy this method to targeted herds and are already attracting industry interest. 
 
Title Comprehensive analysis of genetic variants across immune loci in indigenous breeds. 
Description The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family comprises a class of restriction factors widely characterised in humans for their potent antiviral activity. Their biological activity is well documented in several animal species, but their genetic variation and biological mechanism is less well understood, particularly in avian species. Here we report the complete sequence of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus IFITM locus from a wide variety of chicken breeds to examine the detailed pattern of genetic variation of the locus on chromosome 5, including the flanking genes ATHL1 and B4GALNT4. We have generated chIFITM sequences from commercial breeds (supermarket-derived chicken breasts), ancient bone samples, indigenous chickens from Nigeria (Nsukka) and Ethiopia, European breeds and inbred chicken lines from The Pirbright Institute, totalling of 211 chickens. Through mapping of genetic variants to the latest chIFITM consensus sequence our data reveal that the chIFITM locus does not show structural variation in the locus across the populations analysed, despite spanning diverse breeds from different geographic locations. However, single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in functionally important regions of the proteins within certain groups of chickens were detected, in particular the European breeds and indigenous birds from Ethiopia and Nigeria. In addition, we also found that two out of four SNVs located in the chIFITM1 (Ser36 and Arg77) and chIFITM3 (Val103) proteins were simultaneously under positive selection. Together these data suggest that IFITM genetic variation may contribute to the capacities of different chicken populations to resist viral infection. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - non-mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This paper is currently in press in. BMC Genomics. 
 
Title De 
Description // 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact // 
 
Title Detection of HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Description Assay for detection of recombinant HVT expressing HA antigens of avian influenza viruses 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This new method will help to detect recombinant HVT vaccine expressing HA antigen in infected cell. 
 
Title Developed assays for evaluation of antigen specific memory chicken T cells 
Description An in vitro model for generation of effector cells from memory T cells for chicken T cells were developed 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This method will enable scientists working on poultry vaccines and immune response to pathogens to assess memory T cell responses in chickens. 
 
Title Development of assay for assessing antigen-specific T cell responses in chickens 
Description An in vitro assay were developed to generate effector memory T cells from memory T cells (cultured ELISPOT assay for chicken T cells) 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Enables scientists to assess memory T cell responses induced by poultry vaccines 
 
Title Development of tetramers to study immune responses in pigs 
Description The pig is a natural and important host of influenza viruses and is physiologically more comparable to humans than other animal models in terms of size, respiratory tract biology and volume. It is also an important vector in the birds to human infection cycle. A major drawback of the current pig model is the inability to analyze antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, which are critical to respiratory immunity. We addressed this knowledge gap using an established in-bred pig model with a high degree of genetic identity between individuals, including the MHC (Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA)) locus. We developed a toolset that included long-term in vitro pig T-cell culture and cloning and identification of novel immunodominant influenza-derived T-cell epitopes. We also generated structures of the two SLA class I molecules found in these animals presenting the immunodominant epitopes. These structures allowed definition of the primary anchor points for epitopes in the SLA binding groove and established SLA binding motifs that were used to successfully predict other influenza-derived peptide sequences capable of stimulating T-cells. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Peptide-SLA tetramers were constructed and used to track influenza-specific T-cells ex vivo in blood, the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Aerosol immunization with attenuated single cycle influenza viruses (S-FLU) induced large numbers of CD8+ T-cells specific for conserved NP peptides in the respiratory tract. Collectively, these data substantially increase the utility of pigs as an effective model for studying protective local cellular immunity against respiratory pathogens. 
 
Title Evaluation of poultry virus vaccine interference 
Description Poultry are immunised with several vaccines, with the timing between vaccines sometimes only a few weeks, yet little is known as to whether they interfere with one another. Here, we developed a protocol to evaluate the interference of an IBDV vaccine with an avian influenza vaccine. We vaccinated birds with the live IBDV vaccine strain 228E and then vaccinated birds two weeks later with the inactivated avian influenza virus vaccine (strain UDL) and quantified anti-influenza antibody titers three weeks following vaccination. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This protocol will allow us to evaluate the interference of poultry vaccines on one another which will be useful for the poultry industry 
 
Title Generation of cell-free virus using feather follicle stem cells 
Description An in vitro model for generation and purification of cell-free virus using feather follicule stem cells 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Cell lines could be used to generate cell free vaccines against Marek's disease virus 
 
Title IBDV Reverse Genetics System 
Description We have developed a reverse genetics system for IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have used the reverse genetics system to generate recombinant IBDVs and chimeric recombinant IBDVs that contain genes from classical and very virulent strains of IBDV in the background of a cell culture adapted attenuated strain. This will enable us to study the effect of individual virus genes on pathogenicity. 
 
Title IBDV titration in chicken B cells by TCID50 to replace IBDV titration in chicken embryos by EID50 
Description The titer of IBDV has traditionally been determined by infecting embryos, humanely culling them at embryonic day 18 and then observing the number that show growth abnormalities due to virus. As this goes beyond 2/3 gestation (14 embryonic days), this falls under Home Office Legislation. We demonstrated that the immortalised B cell line, DT40, could be used to titrate IBDV instead, replacing the use of embryos. This is being written up into a manuscript currently. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact we have already replaced the use of embryos in our research. Once this has been published and is in the public domain, we anticipate this will lead to more replacement in the field, 
 
Title Optimisation of chicken kidney cell culture preparation 
Description We have optimised the method of extracting kidneys and preparing chicken kidney (CK) cell cultures from chickens. CK cells are used for in vitro assays to study avian viruses, in particular infectious bronchitis virus. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This has increased the yield of viable cells and the quality of the cell cultures. We can now obtain the number of cells we require using fewer chicken kidneys, therefore requiring fewer chickens to be culled. This is an important development for the 3Rs. We hope to publish this method for others' information. 
 
Title Optimisation of preparation of TOCs from adult chickens 
Description Tracheal organ cultures (TOCs) are prepared from chicken embryos and used to assess growth of avian viruses that are not able to be propagated in cell culture. We have optimised the method of TOCs preparation from 3-week old chickens and are using these to assess viral genetic stability and phenotype in organ cultures that are a similar environment to the site of replication in whole chickens. 
Type Of Material Cell line 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We hope that this technique will reduce the number of chickens required for in vivo experiments, in line with the 3Rs, and plan to publish the method in due course. 
 
Title Quantifying IBDV immunosuppression from a blood sample 
Description We plan to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression influences the pathology, evolution and transmission of subsequent infection with avian influenza virus. However, it was first necessary to develop an assay that could quantify immunosuppression from a blood sample to be sure that the birds we challenge with avian influenza virus are immunosuppressed. In order to do this, we developed a pipeline to quantify the number of Bu1+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and KUL01+ macrophages in the blood following IBDV infection by flow cytometry. We discovered that following iBDV infection, the Bu1+ B cell population in the blood was significantly reduced. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This assay will be invaluable future studies evaluating the impact of IBDV-mediated immunosuppression on various infections through collaboration 
 
Title Scintigraphy of the respiratory tract in pigs 
Description We have used in vivo scintigraphy in pigs to characterize the distribution of large and small droplets, delivered to the respiratory tract using nebulisers or a mucosal atomisation device. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Scintigraphy and the tools we have developed to analyse the specificity and function of tissue resident memory cells will allow the effects of localised distribution of antigen in the respiratory tract to be studied and established the pig as a useful model for investigating optimal targeting of vaccines for respiratory disease. 
 
Title Stable chicken cell lines overexpressing chicken IFITM1,2 and 3 
Description In collaboration with Mark Fife, we have produced chicken stable cell lines overexpressing chicken IFITM1,2, 3 and a mutant chicken IFITM3 lacking palmitoylation sites. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These cell lines will be used to evaluate the effect of the IFITM proteins on the replication of different viruses, including IBDV. 
 
Title chimeric IBDVs 
Description Andrew Broadbent has engineered chimeric IBDVs expressing individual genes from a very virulent strain in the backbone of an attenuated strain. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These chimeric strains can be used to define viral determinants of virulence. 
 
Title in vitro quantification of anti-IBDV neutralising antibodies using chicken B cells 
Description Typically, the titre of neutralising antibodies generated by a field strain of IBDV is quantified by determining the ability of the serum to neutralise the infectivity of a cell- culture adapted strain of IBDV into immortalised fibroblast cells. The reason for this is that field strains do not typically infect immortalised fibroblast cells and have a tropism limited to B lymphocytes. However, this technique may not quantify the correct titre against the field strain in question as it relies on cross-reactivity of the serum to the cell-culture adapted strain. We have developed an in vitro neutralisation assay using the immortalised B cell line, DT40, in order to quantify the titre of neutralising antibodies against field strains of IBDV. As cytopathic effect is not observed in lymphocytes, this assay relies on immunostaining with antibodies against IBDV to determine the endpoint. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This technique enables us to more accurately quantify the titre of antibodies against field strains of IBDV. 
 
Title method for identification of lung Tissue resident memory cells in pigs 
Description Recent overwhelming evidence indicates the importance of local tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) in protective immunity. Most work on TRM has been performed in mice and the TRM defined as inaccessible to intravenously administered anti-T cell antibody. However there are very few data on TRM in large animals. For the first time we have defined TRM in the pig influenza model. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The identification of TRM and their robust protective capacity in site-specific infection has provided a new paradigm by which to assess T cell-mediated responses and an important new target for vaccine design. Since swine are an economically important species, are used as a large animal model for human infection and play a key role in the emergence of novel and potentially zoonotic influenza viruses, the identification of TRM in pigs will allow us to study their role in immunity to swine influenza.and how best to induce them by immunisation. 
 
Title tetracysteine-tagged IBDV 
Description Andrew Broadbent has engineered a tetracysteine (TC)-tagged IBDV that can be used in live cell imaging and co-infection studies with the split-GFP IBDV. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This tool, combined with the split-GFP IBDV, will enable us to study co-infection, super-infection exclusion, and the intracellular requirements for viral reassortment. 
 
Title Full length cattle MHC genes 
Description Using our method for full length MHC gene amplification, the largest reference set ever produced from common haplotypes has been sequenced and deposited in the publicly available data IPD-MHC with associated research tools. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet, but it will allow far greater resolution when analysing MHC polymorphism and evolution in cattle populations. 
URL https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/group/BoLA/
 
Title Method to detect the expression of repetitive genes 
Description Reconstructing expression levels of genes having a high repeat content is difficult, due to the impossibility of assigning RNA-sequencing that have multiple mappings to their correct originating location. In collaboration with the Immunogenetics group, the Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics groups are developing a data analysis method to circumvent the problem.The method has already been shown to be effective on some KIR genes in cattle. An essential component of the immune system, their family is rich in repeated members and repetitive regions, making the technique essential if one wants to study them. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Being able to resolve the expression of repetitive genes, which are plentiful in most mammalian genomes, would be essential to the high-precision study of many important gene families, including most of the genes of the immune system. The technique has already proven itself effective on a real-life problem, and holds the potential to be extended to many more biological systems 
 
Title South-African buffalo FMDV sequences 
Description We have sequenced FMDV buffalo samples originated from a EEID project entitled: Persistence of a Highly Contagious Pathogen: Ecological and Evolutionary Mechanisms in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus. This project aims to understand why a highly contagious pathogen such as FMDV, which induces a rapid host immunity and depletes the supply of susceptible host, is able to persist in isolated buffalo populations and thus avoid auto-extinction. The centre piece of the project is a cohort study which involves an established FMDV-positive breeding herd of ca. 70 buffalo in a 900-hectare enclosure surrounded by double game fencing housing buffalo in isolation from other herds in the Kruger National Park (South Africa). The entire herd is being monitored for three years (animals are sampled every 2 months (serum, tonsil swabs, probang) to trace FMDV transmission events, allowing us to define FMD infection dynamics across the susceptible calf cohorts and amongst adults. So far, FMDV genomes from 101 samples have been deep sequenced by illumina. Samples from the last year captures are currently being analysed and virus is currently being isolated. The second experiment is an experimental study, which involves a group of naïve buffalo experimentally infected with either a SAT-1, SAT-2 or SAT-3 virus. The infected buffalo were then allowed to mingle with susceptible animals and transmission of FMDV to naïve animals was monitored during the acute infection but also from persistently infected animals. So far, FMDV genomes from 48 samples obtained at days 2, 30 and 160 of the experiment have been deep sequenced. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The samples sequenced come from South Africa, which is an LMIC, While FMDV infection in cattle is very well studied, the mechanisms of persistence in buffalo, which is thought to be the natural reservoir of the infection, are not well understood. Such understanding would be essential to inform better policies to understand and manage FMDV, which is an economically important scourge of cloven hooved animals in LMICs. All the sequences will be made available on the Transboundary Portal which is being developed at Pirbright. 
 
Title Viral assembly pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust viral assemblies out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, assembling of viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; uneven coverage due to low-quality material or the genomic material of the virus being RNA; the viral nucleic acid being almost lost in the background of nucleic acid of the host. Our pipeline overcomes most of those problems, and is even able to detect different viral strains being present together in the same sample. It can also be used on metagenomic environmental samples. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title Viral variant calling pipeline 
Description The Integrative Biology and Bioinformatics group has developed a data analysis pipeline to obtain sensitive and robust variant calling for viral sequences out of high-throughput sequencing data. In spite of the relatively short genomic length of most viruses, calling variant for viral sequences can be challenging due to several reasons, such as: low amount of material in the sample, which might require amplification, introducing biases, and/or generates low-quality sequences; very high genome coverage, which slows down most existing variant callers; the presence of a potentially very high number of different haplotypes for RNA viruses, which is an unusual scenario in variant calling. Our fast and sensitive Bayesian pipeline overcomes most of those problems. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The pipeline is being deployed as the tool of choice for the nascent sequencing facility at Pirbright. It has been used by several groups at Pirbright, and the FMDV World Reference Lab, in order to assemble very different kinds of viruses. 
 
Title Zimbabwe FMDV sequences 
Description Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes an acute vesicular disease in domestic cloven-hooved animals. However, in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) clinical disease is rarely observed and following infection virus is persistently carried in the oesophageal-pharyngeal area of the upper respiratory tract. During the 1990s oesophageal-pharyngeal scrapings were collected from free-living African buffalo in multiple herds in six different geographic areas of Zimbabwe. We sequenced over 140 FMD viruses each belonging to one of the Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes (SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3) from primary bovine thyroid cells. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This dataset has been generated from samples collected in Zimbabwe, which is a low-income country. Those viral sequences will be essential to help elucidating the nature of persistent FMDV infection in African buffalo, which is supposed to be the main virus reservoir in vivo. As the samples track viral infection and evolution over several years and across a number of different herds in different national parks and conservatories, the dataset will also inform better animal management and conservation. A better understanding of FMDV persistence would also be essential to mitigate the economic burden generated by the disease, which is a scourge of cloven-hoofed animals in LMICs. All the sequences will be made available through the Transboundary Pathogen portal that is being developed at Pirbright. 
 
Description Aerosol delivery of vaccines and therapeutics 
Organisation Aerogen
Country Ireland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Developed the pig influenza model which is a natural host pathogen system
Collaborator Contribution Provided expertise and equipment for aerosol delivery
Impact Successfully delivered vaccines by aerosol
Start Year 2015
 
Description Anihwa Call 1 
Organisation Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution 1. Conducted challenge experiments in goats to study pathogenicity. 2. Developed NGS technology to sequence PPR whole genome.
Collaborator Contribution FLI has conducted transmission study between different species ( Goats, pig, camel). For the first time they showed that pigs are clinically infected by PPR virus.
Impact Joint Publications
Start Year 2013
 
Description Aviagen 
Organisation Aviagen
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Influenza virus expertise in poultry.
Collaborator Contribution Sharing of commercial poultry breed resources
Impact We have a sponsored PhD studentship to commence Oct 2021 agreed.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species 
Organisation Animal and Plant Health Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Provision of samples and reagents for research
Collaborator Contribution Provision of samples, reagents for research and research facilities
Impact Research output entitled "A restriction digestion and ligation independent technique for cloning influenza gene segments into pHW2000" was presented at January 17th to 19th 2018. Fortuna Hotel, Lang Ha Street, Hanoi, VietNam (Presented by postdoctoral scientist Dr Sushant Bhat
Start Year 2016
 
Description Avian influenza H7N9 virus evolution: defining the impact of internal genes on virus infection in avian and mammalian species 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of research methods and reagents. (2) Provision of training to PhD students and postdoctoral Scientist (3) Critical review of experimental data and manuscripts.
Impact (1) Joint funding: BBSRC Newton Fund: UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative (2018-2021). Understanding antigenic diversity, zoonotic potential and immunological prevention of avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Value: £497,995.93. UK Co-Is: Prof John McCauley (Crick Institute), Dr Richard Reeve (University of Glasgow). Collaborators from China: Dr Yipeng Sun, Prof Jinhua Liu and Dr Juan Pu (China Agricultural University), Prof Yongqing Li (Beijing Academy of Agriculture and forestry Sciences), Dr Wenfei Zhu (National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC).
Start Year 2007
 
Description BBSRC - Oxford University iCASE Studentship (October 2019- September 2023). Production and assessment of antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry production 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration between The Pirbright Institute (UK), Oxford University (UK) and industrial partners in Italy. This project will conceived and developed bu MI. The PhD student (Holly Everest) in my group is investigating the antiviral prophylactic properties of natural biomolecules against avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses affecting poultry production.
Collaborator Contribution The partners in Italy will produce and purify natural antiviral molecules effective against avian influenza and other poultry viruses.
Impact This project started in January 2020.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Bridget Penman 
Organisation University of Warwick
Department School of Life Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are providing genetic data and diversity measures of MHC and associated receptors to inform the modelling efforts to elucidate which selection pressures are the main drivers for the types of diversity we see in extant species.
Collaborator Contribution They are experts in mathmatical modelling and will provide data to help explain genetic diversity in cattle.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Challenge of transgenic chickens with influenza viruses 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Section of Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have challenged transgenic chickens with recombinant avian influenza viruses to determine outcome; infectivity, transmission, pathogenicity, dissemination within host. We also processed the samples generated from these animal experiments at The Pirbright Institute.
Collaborator Contribution Imperial College (Wendy Barclay and Mike Skinner) generated recombinant avian influenza viruses for challenge.
Impact This collaboration has resulted in the successful award of a joint grant with imperial college aiming to carry out challenge experiments on novel transgenic chickens to facilitate control of avian influenza virus in the poultry population. BB/S007911/1 - Investigating the role of ANP32A in the replication of avian Influenza virus
Start Year 2018
 
Description Chicken Microbiome - Robert La Ragione - University of Surrey 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department School of Veterinary Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing sequencing data of gut microbiome from chickens infected with avian influenza viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Sharing expertise in the analysis of microbiome data
Impact Joint manuscripts and funding opportunities are being explored
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaboration studentship BTV 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative studentship with virologist at the University of Surrey, student registered at the University
Collaborator Contribution Intellectual input, training of student
Impact Thesis http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/845643/
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Department Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments with SARS-CoV-2 to investigate the host response to infection in vitro.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have led the research and we have a manuscript currently under review.
Impact Information on the host responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Collaboration with University of Cambridge 
Organisation University of Cambridge
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed in vitro experiments with infectious bronchitis virus, contributed to data analysis, preparation of manuscripts and discussed further funding opportunities.
Collaborator Contribution Our partners have analysed viral transcription and translation, and host gene expression after infection of host cells with infectious bronchitis virus, prepared manuscripts and discussed further funding opportunities.
Impact Dinan, A., Keep, S., Bickerton, E., Britton, P., Firth, A. and Brierley, I. (2019) Comparative analysis of gene expression in virulent and attenuated strains of infectious bronchitis virus at sub-codon resolution. J. Virol. 93(18) e00714-19.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Collaborative PhD student project on virus-bacteria-host-vector interaction 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a collaborative PhD studentship funded by The Pirbright Institute between Pirbright and the Roslin Institute. The student is investigating how bacteria or bacterial compounds will effect bluetongue virus replication in mammalian host cells with a specific emphasis on skin derived migratory cells. While mainly based at Pirbright the student will visit the Roslin Institute and spend some time in the lab of Prof. Jane Hope.
Collaborator Contribution The student will carry out the main laboratory work at Pirbright including infection studies of ruminant primary host target cells in the presence/ absence of bacterial compounds. There will be regular meetings between the students and supervisors at Pirbright and at Roslin (at least monthly by skype) and the student will visit the Roslin group for specific work aspects such as flow cytometry of skin derived pseudo-afferent lymph cells. Roslin will also make cattle pseudo-afferent lymph cells available to the student and Pirbright for ex vivo BTV infection studies.
Impact bacteriology, virology, immunology, virus-host interaction
Start Year 2019
 
Description Collaborative project on identification of volatile organic chemicals in the body odour of sheep and cattle following bluetongue virus infection 
Organisation London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Expertise in bluetongue virus infection of cattle and sheep and in-vivo animal infection studies plus Virology, Immunology and Entomology expertise especially for Culicoides -borne viruses, exploration of diagnostic methodologies to detect viral infections
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in chemical ecology, identification of volatile organic chemicals released in the body odour of mammals, exploration of diagnostic application of VOC changes in response to infections
Impact Successful application for external funding, project to commence in 2021
Start Year 2020
 
Description Commonwealth Scholarship. Molecular determinants impacting avian influenza H9N2 virus evolution, replication fitness and virulence 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I develop a research project proposal in which we are investigating how evolutionary changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus modulate virus fitness and virulence in chickens. This PhD studentship project was funded by Commonwealth scholarship commission for 3 years.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating Partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College is a co-supervisor of the PhD student Thusitha Karunarathna. she provide necessary guidance to achieve prescribed objectives of this project.
Impact The project is at its initial stage.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department School of Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation National Agricultural Research Centre
Country Pakistan 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Oxford University Clinical Research Unit Vietnam (OUCRU)
Country Viet Nam 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The outcomes of research led to incite new collaborations with following partners in UK, Vietnam and Pakistan. Together with partners we apply for the collaborative research grant to BBSRC entitled "Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines". That led to further improvement avian influenza virus vaccines and diagnostics and a number of research publication.
Collaborator Contribution The partners are evaluating the potency and efficacy of vaccines in countries where the disease is enzootic in poultry.
Impact 1. Peacock TP, Benton DJ, Sadeyen J-R, Chang P, Sealy JE.,d, Bryant JE, Martin SR., Shelton H, McCauley JW, Barclay WS, Iqbal M (2017) Variability in H9N2 haemagglutinin receptor binding preference and pH of fusion. Emerging Microbes & Infections 6, e11 2. Peacock T, Reddy K, James J, Adamiak B, Barclay W, Shelton H, Iqbal M (2016). Antigenic mapping of an H9N2 avian influenza virus reveals two discrete antigenic sites and a novel mechanism of immune escape. Scientific Reports 5: 18745. doi: 10.1038/srep18745. 3. Thuy DM, Peacock TP., Bich VTN, . Iqbal M, Juliet E. Bryant (2016). Prevalence and diversity of H9N2 avian influenza in chickens of Northern Vietnam, 2014. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 44: 530-540
Start Year 2014
 
Description Development of tetramers in the Babraham pig model 
Organisation Cardiff University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developed the aerosol delivery method of vaccine and provided material (spleen, BAL and blood) from inbred animals (Babraham pigs) following immunisation with the candidate universal vaccine, S-FLU.
Collaborator Contribution Developed porcine influenza specific class I tetramers and provided the epitope map of Babrahams S-Flu responses to NP, M1, M2, PB1 and PB2 that could be presented by SLA-1 or SLA-2 Grew pig T cell clones for the first time in 30 years.
Impact Multidisciplinary - immunology, virology, protein chemistry. Paper not yet published
Start Year 2014
 
Description Dr Carol Cardona, University of Minnesota- avian influenza virus challenge of IBDV or mock-infected chickens 
Organisation University of Minnesota
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will challenge birds that have been exposed to IBDV, or mock exposed, with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon HPAI infection in chickens.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Cardona's group will challenge birds that have been exposed to IBDV, or mock exposed, with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon LPAI infection in chickens.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Caroline Denesvere 
Organisation French National Institute of Agricultural Research
Department INRA Loire Valley Centre
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Worked together to establish a collaboration on development of feather follicular stem cell lines as a platform for the generation of cell-free vaccine against Marek's disease virus.
Collaborator Contribution Provided expertise on cell free Marek's disease and microscopic evaluation of cells generating the virus.
Impact Generation of data leading to a successful BBSRC IPA grant application
Start Year 2020
 
Description Dr Holly Shelton, The Pirbright Institute- avian influenza virus challenge of IBDV or mock-infected chickens 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We will expose birds to IBDV, compared to mock controls
Collaborator Contribution Holly will train my group in conducting studies with avian influenza viruses and, together, we will challenge birds with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains to determine how IBDV-mediated immunosuppression impacts upon HPAI infection in chickens.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Liam Morrison 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis is single cattle B cell antibody sequences
Collaborator Contribution Single cattle B cell antibody sequences
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description Dr Michael Skinner, Imperial College London 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Primary Care and Public Health
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We aim to compare the host transcriptional response of primary chicken B cells infected with different strains of IBDV of varying virulence. We have the specialist reagents and expertise in house that are required to culture primary chicken B cells, and we have access to different strains of IBDV.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Michael Skinner and his team at Imperial College London have the expertise and facilities to generate and analyse RNA-Seq data in order to determine host transcriptional responses. This is required in order to complete the aim of the project.
Impact Further funding: PhD studentship (£102,800) - Dr Andrew Broadbent at The Pirbright Institute and Dr Michael Skinner at Imperial College London are joint supervisors for a PhD student working on this project. Further Funding: Houghton Trust (£8,000)- Dr Andrew Broadbent was awarded a Houghton Trust Small Research Grant to contribute to this project. Further funding: NC3Rs (Grant Ref: NC/R001138/1)
Start Year 2014
 
Description Efficacy of a candidate universal influenza vaccine, S-FLU. 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Radcliffe Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Tested the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate universal influenza vaccine, S-FLU, in pigs. For the first time we demonstrated that S-FLU when administered by aerosol can reduce viral load in nasal swabs and lung in pigs after influenza virus challenge. We have shown that the most efficient way to administer this vaccine is by aerosol.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Alain Townsend has developed the S-FLU vaccine.
Impact The most efficient way to induce immune response in the lung is after aerosol delivery of LAIV vaccines in pigs. The most efficient way to induce cross-protective immunity is by aerosol delivery of S-FLU to the lungs of pigs
Start Year 2014
 
Description Horizon Discovery Ltd Cambridge Research Park, United Kingdom 
Organisation Horizon Discovery Group plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Verify IFITM knock-out cell by qPCR and immuno-blotting. Verification of further knock-out cell lines by DNA sequencing, immuno-blotting and qPCR Cell infection with Avian Influenza Viruses Assess the viral titre of cells infected with Influenza Viruses in K/O and wildtype cells. Quantitative analysis of viral infection in IFITM K/O cells Demonstrate increased AIV viral titres at lab scale and estimation of what this may equate to with respect to vaccine dose yields. Analysis of IFITM K/O cell lines permissivity to a range of additional animal viruses (Relevant to the LVIF). Milestone 7: Demonstrate permissivity increased and viral titres for a range of LVIF relevant viruses in the edited cell lines.
Collaborator Contribution Develop a CRISPR/cas9 gene editing system to specifically target the chIFITM locus in avian cell culture
Impact Grant funding
Start Year 2017
 
Description ILRI Research Collaboration (Kenya, March 2017) 
Organisation International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
Country Kenya 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Exchange of ideas and samples for indigenous breeds of livestock
Collaborator Contribution Contributed samples for analysis.
Impact Analysis of indigenous breed genomic sequences for Immune function genes.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Impact Submission of proposal entitled "Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design" to the "One Health Approaches to Accelerate Vaccine Development" call that forms part of the UK government's commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA) in October 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design. 
Organisation University of Kent
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Collaborator Contribution My collaborators have performed experiments to generate preliminary data for a collaborative grant application, contributed to the writing of the grant proposal and responded to reviewers comments.
Impact Submission of proposal entitled "Identification of conserved B-cell epitopes of highly pathogenic coronaviruses for broadspectrum immunotherapy and vaccine design" to the "One Health Approaches to Accelerate Vaccine Development" call that forms part of the UK government's commitment to Official Development Assistance (ODA) in October 2017.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Identification of genetic markers in the haemagglutinin glycoprotein critical for antigenic activity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution d provision of reagents and virus samples.
Collaborator Contribution Technical training to PhD students and use of research facilities
Impact (1) Talk: Avian influenza virus evolution: immune escape, increase in zoonotic potential and fitness in poultry. Presented at "Prevention and Control Techniques for Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Poultry", 27th 29th August 2017, Beijing, China. (2) Impact of avian influenza virus evolution on antigenicity and zoonotic infection potential. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan on 23rd August 2017. (3). Molecular determinants of H9N2 avian influenza virus influencing antigenicity and receptor binding. Presented at CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. 31st August - 1st September 2017 at the Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. (4) Overview of ongoing research on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom. Presented as at International poultry Stakeholders work on poultry biosecurity in Sri Lanka from 26th February to 3rd March 2017. (5). Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. Presented as invited seminar speaker at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19th October 2016.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Identification of genetic markers in the haemagglutinin glycoprotein critical for antigenic activity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Section of Virology
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution d provision of reagents and virus samples.
Collaborator Contribution Technical training to PhD students and use of research facilities
Impact (1) Talk: Avian influenza virus evolution: immune escape, increase in zoonotic potential and fitness in poultry. Presented at "Prevention and Control Techniques for Infectious Diseases in Livestock and Poultry", 27th 29th August 2017, Beijing, China. (2) Impact of avian influenza virus evolution on antigenicity and zoonotic infection potential. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan on 23rd August 2017. (3). Molecular determinants of H9N2 avian influenza virus influencing antigenicity and receptor binding. Presented at CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. 31st August - 1st September 2017 at the Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. (4) Overview of ongoing research on Poultry diseases in United Kingdom. Presented as at International poultry Stakeholders work on poultry biosecurity in Sri Lanka from 26th February to 3rd March 2017. (5). Evolutionary fitness of avian influenza viruses and development of improved vaccines and diagnostics. Presented as invited seminar speaker at RVC (Hawkshead Campus), UK. 19th October 2016.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Improving vaccines and diagnostics for avian influenza viruses 
Organisation Zagazig University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provision of Research training, analysis of field samples
Collaborator Contribution Provision of Field data and samples
Impact Characterisation of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin from Egyptian Chicken Flocks during 2016 Outbreaks. Presented at Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases conference. Hanoi, VietNam17-19 January 2018.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Industrial partnership-Aviagen 2018 
Organisation Aviagen Group
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have established a significant industrial partnership with Aviagen group Ltd. The nature of this work remains confidential.
Collaborator Contribution The nature of this work remains confidential.
Impact The nature of this work remains confidential.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Interferon stimulated genes 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosted meetings and carried out preliminary experiments
Collaborator Contribution Contributed reagents and expertise
Impact Preliminary data was used to support an MSc project. This has since led to a publication and a PhD project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Department Veterinary Basic Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The overarching aims of the proposed research are to improve controls against H5 subtype of avian influenza viruses infecting poultry by investigating underlying mechanisms that define how vaccines renders effectiveness and develop novel approaches enhancing the effectiveness of H5 avian influenza vaccines. We recently generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognise a variety of different clades of H5 viruses. Propagation of AIV in eggs or cultured cells together with mAbs drives virus to escape from mAbs neutralisation activity. These classical virus neutralization assays (VN) followed by HA gene sequence analysis allowed us to defined the role of amino acid substitutions that are associated with evasion of antibody neutralization through emergence of antigenic variants and failure of vaccine efficacy.
Collaborator Contribution provided intellectual input for achieving prescribed objectives of this work.
Impact Talk entitled "Molecular determinants for antigenicity and vaccine efficacy of avian influenza viruses" was presented at Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop " Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies against Emerging and re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens" at Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines, 4-7 February 2019.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Investigating antigenic determinants inducing stronger and broader cross-protective immunity among H5 avian influenza viruses. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We developed research programme to characterise diversity of antigenic epitopes induce protective immunity in chickens against H5 subtypes of avian influenza viruses.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis at Royal Veterinary College provide advise to on cartography programme to visualize the antigenic similarity or difference among different strains of influenza viruses.
Impact The work under this collaborative determined the antigenic differences among different clades of H5 avian influenza viruses circulating in birds. This project is multi-disciplinary. our laboratory mainly work on virology and immunology part of the project and we seek help on computer modeling part from the collaborating partner Dr Nicola Lewis.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Investigating the role of the SH protein of RSV in the duration of immunity 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided initial data supporting the hypothesis that the small hydrophobic protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus regulates the host's immune response by modulating the transcription factors NF-kB and STAT1 in bovine cells
Collaborator Contribution Based on our results, Imperial has began investigating the role of the small hydrophobic protein of human respiratory syncytial virus on human cells.
Impact Publication in progress titled "Regulation of the B cell activating factor BAFF by the small hydrophobic protein of respiratory syncytial virus".
Start Year 2017
 
Description Janet Daly & Stephen Dunham- PI3K pathway and influenza 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Preliminary data was produced by Pirbright using reverse genetics of avian influenza viruses to secure a 50:50 funded PhD studentship that will commence in October 2020 entitled "Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks".
Collaborator Contribution Preliminary data was produced by University of Nottingham using PI3K p85 subunit pulldowns to secure a 50:50 funded PhD studentship that will commence in October 2020 entitled "Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks".
Impact Funding for a PhD studentship entitled "Understanding the importance of the PI3K pathway in modulating influenza virus replication in chickens and ducks".
Start Year 2019
 
Description Loren Skow, Texas A&M 
Organisation Texas A&M University-Central Texas
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are sequencing extended MHC haplotypes from cattle samples that have previously been typed by low resolution SNPs
Collaborator Contribution Providing samples and SNP data for animals with known phenotypes.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Mapping ligand binding domain on African swine fever virus CD2v protein 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine (WIMM)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Testing of mutant versions of CD2v extracellular domain for ability to bind to red blood cells
Collaborator Contribution Produced predicted model of CD2v extracellular domain and selected mutations to be made
Impact Preliminary results for publication and future funding application
Start Year 2018
 
Description Microbial products in insect saliva and effects on virus infection enhancement 
Organisation Boston University School of Medicine
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Sharing of results on the discovery of bacterial LPS in Culicoides saliva and its infection enhancing effect on BTV in bovine monocytes. Discussion of future work and comparison of the results to other insect transmitted viruses including those of high importance to humans
Collaborator Contribution Sharing of data from their portfolio on mosquito saliva effects on virus infectivity and replication. Comparison of methodology and discussion of future collaborations
Impact On-going sharing of results and discussion of future experiments - collaborator left academia to work in industry. Contact still remains.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Molecular epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in Vietnam and Pakistan. 
Organisation University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
Department Department of Microbiology
Country Pakistan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of technical ideas, reagents and samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of field samples and data on avian influenza infection in poultry. This diseases is endemic in poultry in Pakistan.
Impact (1) Increased receptor binding avidity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses is associated with escape from antibody based immunity and enhanced zoonotic potential. presented by Joshua Sealy at GARAD and ZELS conferences in Haneoi, Vietnam from 17-27 January 2018.
Start Year 2008
 
Description Morphological differences of Influenza A viruses 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exchange of research methods and reagents
Collaborator Contribution (1) Exchange of reagents and Research methods.(2) training of PhD students and Postdoctoral Scientists (3) use of research facilities
Impact Research output were presented at Avian Influenza A virus budding morphology: spherical or filamentous? presented at The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) Riga, Latvia. 10 to 13 September 2017 (2) .Budding morphology of avian influenza A viruses. Microbiology Society, annual Conference 2017, 306 April, EICC, Edinburggh, UK
Start Year 2016
 
Description Mucosally Associated Invariant T cells (MAIT) in pig influenza model 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Identified MAIT cells in pig Influenza model. Provide samples from infected and immunised protected animals
Collaborator Contribution Provide expertise in characterising MAIT: development of tetramer; Zell scanner technology allowing high resolution studies of cell phenotype and functions
Impact Joint PhD studentship with Paul Klenerman, University of Oxford
Start Year 2016
 
Description Novel PRRS and swine influenza vaccines 
Organisation National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Expertise in PRRS immunology and vaccine evaluation.
Collaborator Contribution Novel vaccine strains and SE Asian field strains
Impact Collaborative grant proposal funded under the BBSRC Newton Fund UK-China-Philippines-Thailand Swine and Poultry Research Initiative
Start Year 2017
 
Description PRRS and Influenza co-nfection studies 
Organisation Government of Thailand
Department National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)
Country Thailand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The Pirbright team of 4 scientists with expertise in immunology and animal care visited Thailand in July 2018 to train Thai colleagues to perform animal experiments (Chiang Mai) and analyse immune responses by ELISPOT and Flow cytometry (Bangkok). This provided Thailand with trained personnel and expertise in testing vaccines in pigs. As a result of the joint work, the Chiang Mai animal facility is currently being renovated. Development of such an animal facility will promote the production and testing of more vaccines by Thai scientists.
Collaborator Contribution Our Thai colleagues provided us with local Thai PRRS and Influenza virus strains which we use in our co-infection studies.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description Partnering with National Taiwan University 
Organisation National Taiwan University
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have prepared and submitted an application for a BBSRC-Taiwan Partnering Award to study "Assembly of Recombinant Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Determination of Antigenic Sites that Confer Hemagglutination Activity".
Collaborator Contribution The partners conceived the project and got in contact about submitting an application for funding together.
Impact An application has been made for a BBSRC-Taiwan Partnering Award in November 2018.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Pathology of BTV in T cell depleted sheep 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department School of Veterinary Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Carrying out animal studies, taking samples for histopathology and sending material
Collaborator Contribution Certified pathologist will attend selected necropsies, sample processing and pathological analysis
Impact Protocols and sample sending established - first clinical trial to start in March 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description Pathology of bovine skin post Culicoides midge blood-feeding 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department School of Veterinary Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collection of skin samples from cattle responding with local inflammation to Culicoides biting midges blood feeding, sending of materials
Collaborator Contribution Processing of samples, histopathological analysis, sharing of results
Impact Further identification of cellular and histological local changes in ruminant skin to Culicoides blood-feeing which will inform pathogenesis of co-transmitted arboviruses such as BTV
Start Year 2017
 
Description Paul Digard - The Roslin Insititute 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We generated constructs that express PB1-F2 from a variety of avian influenza strains in eukaryotic expression plasmids. We generated Chimera PB1-F2 expression plasmids where the C-terminus of the PB1-F2 are switched between strains. Using these plasmids we have determined the localization and antagonist activity toward the IFN beta signaling pathway and NF-kb signaling pathway in human and chicken cells. We have therefore provided reagents and intellectual input to the collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators have used these plasmids in there well defined stability assays to determine sequence specific effects on this characteristic. Intellectual input and expertise in a particular assay were made by these collaborators.
Impact We have successfully published some of this work; "The cellular localization of avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein alters the magnitude of IFN2 promoter and NF?B-dependent promoter antagonism in chicken cells." doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001220. We have an ongoing joint PhD studentship in this area. This collaboration remains current and active.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Pepscan - screening antibody responses against peptide conformational epitopes from different IBDV genogroups 
Organisation Pepscan
Country Netherlands 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have provided Pepscan with serum from birds vaccinated with IBDV
Collaborator Contribution Pepscan have created14 CLIPS(TM) arrays, from viruses representing the different IBDV genogroups worldwide. They will screen the serum we provided to determine conserved conformational epitopes.
Impact no outputs yet
Start Year 2020
 
Description Professor Benedikt Kaufer 
Organisation Free University of Berlin
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Providing knowledge and methodologies.
Collaborator Contribution Providing reagents and methodologies to perform experiments.
Impact Two publications from this collaboration: Gurung A, Kamble N, Kaufer BB, Pathan A, Shahriar Behboudi. Association of Marek's Disease induced immunosuppression with activation of a novel regulatory T cells in chickens, PLoS Pathogens, 2017, 13 (12), e1006745. Boodhoo N, Kamble N, Kaufer BB, Shahriar Behboudi. Replication of Marek's disease virus is dependent on de novo synthesis of fatty acid and Prostaglandin E2. J Virol. 2019 Apr 10
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Helen Sang,The Roslin Institute - GFP1-10 expressing transgenic chickens 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have developed IBDV tagged to GFP11
Collaborator Contribution Helen Sang's group at the Roslin Institute have developed transcgenic chicken lines that constitutively express GFP1-10 in every cell.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/S014594/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Jim Kaufman 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided information on CD4 T cell epitopes derived from Marek's disease virus
Collaborator Contribution Provided knowledge and information on assessing peptide binding to chicken MHC molecules
Impact Generation of data leading to understanding correlate of protection against Marek's disease virus.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Oliver Pybus, University of Oxford / Royal Veterinary College - IBDV-like viruses in wild bird populations 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution My group will characterise the immunosuppressive potential of IBDV-like viruses from wild bird populations
Collaborator Contribution Oliver Pybus' group have screened a wild bird population by metagenomics shotgun sequencing to determine the prevalence of IBDV-like viruses and correlate their presence with the abundance and diversity of viral sequences identified for other viruses.
Impact we have been successful in obtaining funding (Grant Ref: BB/T008806/1)
Start Year 2019
 
Description Professor Shayan Sharif, University of Guelph, Canada 
Organisation University of Guelph
Department Department of Pathobiology
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration between my team and Professor Sharif lead to new finding in Avian immunology, specifically in understanding the effects of nutrients on antigen presenting cells and T cells of chicken. We took the lead in studying the effects of some nutrients (Vitamin D) on the function of chicken T cells, performed most of the experiments in our laboratory. Meanwhile, we participated in studying the effects of Vitamin D on antigen presenting cells of chicken by performing some key experiments because we had access to some specific reagents (monoclonal antibodies) recognizing molecules expressed on chicken antigen presenting cells.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Sharif team took the lead in studying the effects of Vitamin D on antigen presenting cells of chicken, and contributed to experimental plan for studying the effects on chicken T cells.
Impact Two publications in 2015 and 2016: 1. Nitish Boodhoo, Shayan Sharif, Shahriar Behboudi. 1a,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 Modulates Avian T Lymphocyte Functions without Inducing CTL Unresponsiveness. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 24;11(2):e0150134 2. Bahram Shojadoost, Shahriar Behboudi, Villanueva AI, Jennifer Brisbin, Ali Ashkar, Shayan Sharif. Vitamin D3 modulates the function of chicken macrophages. Res. Vet. Sci. 2015 June, 100: 45-51
Start Year 2019
 
Description Rapid acquisition of mammalian characteristics by avian influenza virus in single host infections. 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided reagents and day to day technical help for undertaking this project and supervising postdoctoral researcher working on this project. Reagents include influenza reverse genetic plasmids and H9N2 and H7N9-specific antibodies.
Collaborator Contribution this project will aim to understand AIV genetics that facilitate the rapid acquisition of mammalian adaptation characteristics in a single host infection. The partners with our collaborations determined adaptive genetic changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus following infection in mice (mammalian hosts). Different strains of avian influenza Viruses generated by reverse gentic techniques were inoculated into mice and lungs sampled daily. RNA recovered from lung homogenates were deep sequenced and mutations arising were characterised for adaptation. Relative viral fitness and the rapidity of the accumulation of mutations was measured and compared amongst the viral strains.
Impact The results of the our experimental studies showed the avian-origin viruses rapidly acquired mutations that increase virus fitness in mammalian species. Therefore, these viruses pose zoonotic and pandemic threat to public health.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Rapid acquisition of mammalian characteristics by avian influenza virus in single host infections. 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided reagents and day to day technical help for undertaking this project and supervising postdoctoral researcher working on this project. Reagents include influenza reverse genetic plasmids and H9N2 and H7N9-specific antibodies.
Collaborator Contribution this project will aim to understand AIV genetics that facilitate the rapid acquisition of mammalian adaptation characteristics in a single host infection. The partners with our collaborations determined adaptive genetic changes in the H9N2 avian influenza virus following infection in mice (mammalian hosts). Different strains of avian influenza Viruses generated by reverse gentic techniques were inoculated into mice and lungs sampled daily. RNA recovered from lung homogenates were deep sequenced and mutations arising were characterised for adaptation. Relative viral fitness and the rapidity of the accumulation of mutations was measured and compared amongst the viral strains.
Impact The results of the our experimental studies showed the avian-origin viruses rapidly acquired mutations that increase virus fitness in mammalian species. Therefore, these viruses pose zoonotic and pandemic threat to public health.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Re-annotation of Marek's Disease Virus 
Organisation U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA
Department Beltsville Agricultural Research Center
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are using bioinformatics analysis of high-throughput sequencing data in order to provide a better annotation of the genome of Marek's Disease Virus
Collaborator Contribution Our partners are sharing their extensive expertise of the genomics of MDV, and performing experimental validations
Impact No output yet
Start Year 2015
 
Description Research Collaboration with Nigeria (23rd - 28th January 2017) 
Organisation University of Nigeria
Country Nigeria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Analysis of rare breed indigenous chicken in Nigeria.
Collaborator Contribution Helped with sampling and background information of the breed.
Impact Analysis is ongoing.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Semliki Forest 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Generated and analysed RNA-sequencing samples with bespoke in-house methods
Collaborator Contribution Generated samples
Impact The purpose of the collaboration is to study how arboviruses interact with their host cells with modern high-throughput techniques. No outputs yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Steve Goodbourn - St Georges - chicken innate molecule interactions. 
Organisation Ulster University
Department Biomedical Sciences Research Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have collaborated by producing yeast- 2-hybrid plasmids containing the influenza PB1-F2 gene from various avian influenza strains. The PhD student on this studentship then visited Professor Goodbourn's laboratory to carry out the yeast-2-hybrid screen for interaction innate chicken molecules.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Goodbourn's laboratory provided yeast-2-hybrid plasmids containing various innate chicken molecules to be screened for interaction with avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein. They also offered help and guidance carrying out the interaction technique to understand if PB1-F2 directly associated with chicken innate components. They also provided reporter plasmids and guidance on innate reporter assays in chicken cells.
Impact Successful publication of work. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001220. The cellular localization of avian influenza virus PB1-F2 protein alters the magnitude of IFN2 promoter and NF?B-dependent promoter antagonism in chicken cells.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Suresh Kuchipudi and Janet Daly 
Organisation Penn State University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have hosted a co-supervised PhD student twice at The Pirbright Institute. During these visits we have helped with viral infection of primary cells for analysis of PI3K pathway perturbations and generated new GM influenza viruses to help to understand if the difference in PI3K pathway activity observed between two different avian influenza viruses in avian cells was a result of difference in the NS1 protein. In addition we have provided support to the student regarding the future directions of the project and writing up and presentation of the material. Therefore we have provided reagents, practical expertise and intellectual input.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have provided access to data generated in their laboratories and intellectual input to the project.
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1038/srep17999
Start Year 2016
 
Description Suresh Kuchipudi and Janet Daly 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Department School of Veterinary Medicine and Science Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have hosted a co-supervised PhD student twice at The Pirbright Institute. During these visits we have helped with viral infection of primary cells for analysis of PI3K pathway perturbations and generated new GM influenza viruses to help to understand if the difference in PI3K pathway activity observed between two different avian influenza viruses in avian cells was a result of difference in the NS1 protein. In addition we have provided support to the student regarding the future directions of the project and writing up and presentation of the material. Therefore we have provided reagents, practical expertise and intellectual input.
Collaborator Contribution The collaborators have provided access to data generated in their laboratories and intellectual input to the project.
Impact Publication: doi: 10.1038/srep17999
Start Year 2016
 
Description Swine haplotyping 
Organisation Gift Of Life
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Prepared and shipped samples
Collaborator Contribution Sample analysis
Impact Data generation. Not multi-disciplinary
Start Year 2016
 
Description T folicullar helper cells in the pig influenza model 
Organisation University of Oxford
Department Nuffield Department of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provide material from influenza infected/vaccinated protected and unprotected animals.
Collaborator Contribution Seph Borrow from Oxford University provide antibodies and advice as to how to identify and charcterise the TFH cells.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2018
 
Description The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub 
Organisation Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The focus of the research is to achieve sustainable global intensification of poultry meat and egg production whilst reducing risks to human and animal health and welfare. We are undertaking research to investigate the diversity of avian influenza viruses prevalent in poultry and wild birds in south east Asia.
Collaborator Contribution Royal Veterinary College, London is leading this GCRF One Health Poultry Hub. The project will address the need to meet rising demand for poultry meat and eggs in developing countries, while minimising risk to international public health. Population growth is driving global demand for poultry, meat and egg production; this unfortunately creates conditions in which animal diseases can spread to humans ('zoonoses'). These include bacterial food poisoning and strains with avian influenza with epidemic or pandemic potential. The GCRF One Health Poultry Hub will adopt a 'One Health' approach to the issue of combatting animal-to-human diseases by bringing together a team of laboratory, clinical, veterinary and social scientists. This team will test and evaluate novel interventions. The need for safe poultry production is most urgent in South and South East Asia, so the RVC and its partners will then use their local networks in these regions to put its positive research to immediate use.
Impact Development of international interdisciplinary partnership of 55 investigators from 13 countries to address the emerging global challenges of food security and public health associated with intensification of poultry production.
Start Year 2018
 
Description The Pirbright "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 
Organisation The Pirbright Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Me and my team established collaboration in the "Livestock Antibody Hub" funded ($5.5 million) by the from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Focus of our partnership is to develop techniques and capacity to analyse immune cells (B cells) of cattle, poultry and pigs that produce virus neutralizing antibodies. This research will support rational development of next generation of vaccines and to explore antibody-based passive immunization approaches for treatment and prophylaxis of infectious viral diseases affecting livestock and humans. Our initial focus is to target major animal viral pathogens that cause severe losses within Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) animal production systems including avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV).
Collaborator Contribution This is a collaborative project and partners are providing help in provision of reagents and techniques for analysis of diversity of B cells repertoire that produce infleunza virus-specific antibodies, single cell sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. This project will further strengthen our on-going research collaborations with many research groups in academia as well as with animal health industry (Zoetis, Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health, Merck, CEVA, Jovac, YeBio, ILRI, Galvmed, The Roslin Institute, HuMabs, AbCellera and Distributed Bio) to take the research outputs from laboratory to the field. The outputs of research will be improved vaccines and diagnostics enabling to reduce the impact of infectious diseases on farm animals, which offer substantial direct and indirect economic, public health, environmental and social benefits to the UK and rest of the world.
Impact Development of passive immunization approaches against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry (project incited in January 2020).
Start Year 2020
 
Description The effect of the microbiota on immunity to swine infleunza 
Organisation University of Surrey
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We wish to establish the gut and nasal microbiome in normal healthy pigs and how this is affected by influenza infection. We have collected gut samples from pigs at different stages of infection, as well as nasal swabs which we will provide to our collaborators in Surrey.
Collaborator Contribution Our collaborators in Surrey will perform the sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to determine the microbial communities present in the samples.
Impact No outcomes yet - we are in the process of analysing the samples.
Start Year 2017
 
Description The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity 
Organisation University of Edinburgh
Department The Roslin Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This is a Joint studentship project funded by The Pirbright Institute and The Roslin Institute. We identiifed molecular markers that are responsible for increase in virus pathogenicity and transmission.
Collaborator Contribution The Roslin Institute contributed both intellectually and by proving research training, samples and regents to achieve the prescribed objectives this project.
Impact 1. Oral Presentation Title: Identification of segment 3 sequence polymorphisms which alter shut off activity and pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza viruses in vivo. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard and Munir Iqbal. Global Alliance for Research Into Avian Diseases (GARAD). January 17th to 19th 2018. Fortuna Hotel, Lang Ha Street, Hanoi, VietNam 2. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. UK- China CERAD (Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases), 3rd Symposium Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. August 31st - 1st September 2017. The Harbour Hotel, Alexandra Terrace, Guildford, Surrey, UK. 3. Poster title: What is the role of H9N2 avian influenza virus PA-X within an avian model?. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Microbiology Society Annual Conference. April 3rd-6th 2017. Edinburgh International Conference Centre (EICC), Edinburgh, UK. 4. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Paul Digard & Munir Iqbal. Focused Meeting 2016: Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of Avian Viruses. September 27th-29th 2016. Charles Darwin House, London, UK. 5. Oral Presentation title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 avian influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. UK -Taiwan BBSRC Partnering Award workshop: Improving Control of influenza viruses. 26th-27th April 2016. Taipei, Taiwan. 6. Oral Presentation title: Identification of sequence polymorphisms in segment 3 of H9N2 avian influenza viruses that affect PA-X activity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2016; virus Workshop: Negative strand RNA Viruses. 21st-24th March 2016. Arena and Convention Centre, Liverpool, UK. 7. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. 7th Orthomyxovirus research conference. 16th-18th September 2015. Ecole Nationale Veterinaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France. 8. Poster title: The role of segment 3 in H9N2 influenza virus pathogenicity. Anabel Clements, Saira Hussain, Holly Shelton, Munir Iqbal & Paul Digard. Edinburgh Infectious Diseases Annual Symposium. 20th May 2015. Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, UK.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Agricultural Research Centre
Department Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute
Country Egypt 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Francis Crick Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Department MSk Lab
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Suez Canal University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation University of Tokyo
Department International Research Center for Infectious Diseases
Country Japan 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Understanding diversity of avian influenza viruses and improvement disease control in poultry and humans 
Organisation Zagazig University
Country Egypt 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This project helped my research group to establish research collboration between the Pirbright Institute and the scientists at the collaborating laboratories listed above and an excellent opportunity for building a joint "ONE HEALTH" platfor. I am sharing knowledge, reagents and techniques to improve efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tools against avian influenza viruses. The easy availability of better control tools against avian influenza viruses will aid in the reduction of poultry production losses and thus be important for global food security and improved animal welfare whilst also reducing zoonotic transmission to humans.
Collaborator Contribution Each collaborating institute and team member has specific expertise and facilities in areas relevant to this research programme. Collaborators in different institutions have extensive experience collecting field samples and implementing vaccination and large scale surveillance programmes. Each partner institutions have unique experience in monitoring the endemic prevalence of many animal diseases including avian influenza in both domestic and wild birds from which UK is under constant threat. The partners are sharing knowledge, expertise and facilities to investigate fundamental biology of influenza viruses and predict their epidemiological relevance, to assess potential risks and to devise appropriate intervention strategies. The knowledge, reagents and field samples will be available through this partnership. which will be essential for development of informed control policies and tools(vaccines and diagnostics) that may contribute to reducing the ever increasing threat from endemic, emerging and re-emerging influenza virus variants posing risk to animals and humans. Also, All researchers involved will benefit through ongoing professional development and advanced training in new technologies and new systems-level approaches to disease management. Exchange visits of researchers from collaborating laboratories to undertake training in a number of disciplines including disease surveillance, molecular virology, epidemiology, immunology, vaccinology and diagnostics will have a tangible impact on capacity building and training of next generation researchers in control of infectious animal and zoonotic diseases.
Impact The ultimate aims of this collaboration are to reduce the impact of influenza virus on poultry production and reduce their zoonotic transmission to humans. The collaboration will improve resources and capacity for disease control systems. Achieving these specific goals will prove a step-change in AIV disease management and increase in poultry productivity directly drives economic prosperity of farmers and allied communities. The will directly impact on socio-economic well-being of partner countries.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Vaccinia 
Organisation Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (DSTL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Generated and analysed DNA- and RNA-sequencing data from vaccinia samples with bespoke in-house pipelines
Collaborator Contribution Generated DNA and RNA vaccinia samples
Impact The collaboration aims to better understand the interaction between vaccina virus and its host(s), through the use of modern high-throughput techniques. No outputs yet
Start Year 2016
 
Description Wilhelm Gerner 
Organisation University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Country Austria 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our lab hosted Dr Gerner who brought samples for RNA-seq. My lab planned and executed the sequencing and is contributing to the analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Gerner did all the animal work and cell sorting to produce the samples reading for RNA-seq
Impact None as yet, analysis is ongoing
Start Year 2019
 
Title Chicken IFITMs 
Description The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). 
IP Reference WO2014195692 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact The present invention provides an avian cell in which the expression or activity of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3) is reduced. The invention also provides methods for passaging viruses in avian cells, embryos and/or avian cell lines which have reduced expression of one or more IFITM genes and methods which involve investigating the sequence of one or more of the following genes, or a homologue thereof: Chicken IFITM1 (SEQ ID No. 1); Chicken IFITM2 (SEQ ID No. 2) and Chicken IFITM3 (SEQ ID No. 3). This patent has enabled us to leverage funding for continued work.
 
Title PPR DIVA vaccine 
Description We ahve developed two PPR live attenuated DIVA vaccines that can differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals. 
IP Reference PCT/GB2019/053641,WO2020128496 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2020
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Till date there is no PPR vaccine avalable that can differentiate between vaccination and infection. This causes a huge issue on eradication of the didease and declare freedom from the disease. Therefore our newly develped chimeric live attenauted PPR vaccine and DIVA tests can differentiate between vaccination and infection which is a great achievement for ongoing PPR eradication. Please see detail from the below web. https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2020128496
 
Description Poster presentation: International Pig Veterinary Symposium and International PRRS Symposium, Chongqing, PR China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luke Johnson (PhD student) gave a poster presentation on his studies on the interaction of macrophages and dendritic cells with PRRSV of differing virulence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk Presented at 2nd International Congress of Veterinary Microbiology, 16th -19th October 2018. Sherwood Breezes Resort-Lara, Antalya, Turkey. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed improving prevention and control of viral diseases of poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Challenges for Poultry Industry". Organised by Fakieh Poultry at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 2nd -3rd December 2018, 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference discussed prevention and control of infectious diseases affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders". Title: Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop discussed the economic impacts and prevention strategies against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production and zoonotic infections.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2. Overview of Avian Influenza group Research at The Pirbright Institute. Presented at "Interactive session with poultry stakeholders" at University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) Lahore, Pakistan, 3rd August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research Project outcomes These include presenting research data for vaccine seed strains with emergent field avian influenza variants; The zoonotic risk posed by emerging avian influenza viruses circulating in the wild birds and poultry. Impact of virus evolution on vaccine efficacy and persistence in poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description A talk at a symposium entitled: Using the 3Rs to support good science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a talk at a Symposium held at The Pirbright Institute entitled: "Using the 3Rs to support good science". The talk was entitled: "A chicken primary B cell culture model to study the pathogenesis and improve the control of immunosuppressive viruses of poultry"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description A talk at the British Poultry Diseases Group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The Poultry Diseases Group meet quarterly and is comprised of representatives from private veterinary practices, vaccine and pharmaceutical industries, and the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). I gave a talk at one of the meetings outlining my research to date and future directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description AB Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S., 2015. PI3K/AKT signalling during infectious bronchitis virus infection. Food Security: Improving Approaches to Prevent and Control Viral Diseases of Livestock and Poultry, British Council Research Links Workshop, Istanbul, Turkey (Oral presentation)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description AB Society of General Microbiology Annual conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation. Batra, A., Maier, H.J., Britton, P., Hiscox, J.A., Fife, M.S. AKT activation during infectious bronchitis virus infection. Society of General Microbiology Annual conference, Liverpool, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description AN INTERVIEW WITH PROFESSOR VENUGOPAL NAIR 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Professor Venugopal Nair is a Research Group Leader at The Pirbright Institute, a visiting Professor of Avian Virology at the Department of Zoology, and a Jenner Investigator at the Jenner Institute, University of Oxford. He is also a member of the Microbiology Society, and in this interview, he tells us more about his research into viral diseases of livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/membership/meet-our-members/focus-area-viruses/an-interview-with-pro...
 
Description Amin Asfor presented the findigs of the project at the Microbiology Society Annual meeting, 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Amin Asfor presented the findigs of the project at the Microbiology Society Annual meeting, 2019. Title: in vivo and ex vivo models of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) in inbred chicken lines differing in their resistance to the disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Amin Asfor presented the work at the NC3Rs Fellows Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Amin Asfor presented a poster at the NC3Rs Fellows Day entitled: Chicken primary B cell culture model to study the pathogenesis and improve the control of immunosuppressive viruses of poultry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Animal Health Investment Forum. Panel Discussion on African swine fever 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Panel discussion on African swine fever impact and control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Article and Video in AP press on African swine fever risk to pygmy hogs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview and video recording for AP press on risks of African swine fever virus to critically endangered pygmy hogs in Assam India
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Article in The Scientist Magazine following interview with Katya Zimmer (June 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Journalist with The Scientist Magazine for a News Article concerning Race to Build ASFV vaccine in response to outbreaks in China/Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/scientists-race-to-build-vaccine-for-african-swine-fever-...
 
Description Ash Manor School challenge week workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact For this event, 60 students were rotating around a series of science workshops as part of their challenge week based on a selected theme of their choice. Giulia and Phoebe contributed together with other people from our Institute in delivering the workshop about microbiology, hence student were actively interested in the topic.
They organised activities that could be performed in small groups such as teaching pupils about the importance of hand hygiene using our UV Equipment, seeing live mosquitoes through a microscope, learning about flu using our Flu Fighters- H&N Selector and trying to take swabs from a model chicken using Flu Fighters- Henrietta the Chicken.
The students were very interested in all the activities and actively participating, and they were asking many questions related to viruses, animal diseases, zoonotic diseases and microbiology in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Ash Manor school challenge week science workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Provide information on research activity at The Pirbright Institute and informing on pathogens infecting farmed animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Avian influenza viruses can combine two techniques to evade vaccine immunity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact A study by researchers at The Pirbright Institute reveals more clues about how avian influenza viruses can evade vaccine immunity, aiding their spread in the field. The findings are published in Emerging Microbes and Infections.

Influenza viruses are able to mutate, which can enable them to evade immunity generated by natural infection or vaccination. Influenza viruses have four main ways of duping the immune system so that they can continue to infect and spread between birds. Pirbright scientists investigated two of these to further understand how the H9N2 avian influenza virus can change its genetic makeup to overcome poultry vaccines.

One of the methods the virus can use is to alter one of its surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA), which enables the virus to enter the cell and replicate. HA is also a common target for the immune system's antibodies, which block the virus from binding to cell receptors. By changing just one or two protein components, HA can latch on far more tightly to the cell, preventing antibodies from stopping the virus. However, this can come at a cost, as particularly strong binding can prevent effective replication.

The other method scientists investigated is how H9N2 viruses disguise themselves by adding sugar chains to the surface of their HA proteins. This can block antibodies from binding, but also has varying fitness outcomes for the influenza virus. The researchers found that the location of the sugar chain on HA could determine how effectively the virus replicated.

They also demonstrated that the two evasive techniques could either compliment or act against each other - if an influenza virus had gained mutations that enable it to bind more strongly to cells, a sugar chain in the right position could restore its ability to replicate effectively. In contrast, weakly binding influenza viruses do not benefit from HA sugar additions, which instead reduce the virus's ability to replicate.

Professor Munir Iqbal, head of the Avian Influenza Group at Pirbright said, "We can use this knowledge to develop new vaccines that will help antibodies to recognise how the flu virus can change. This will provide protection to birds even as the virus evolves. We can also use this information to understand how viruses survive in poultry despite vaccination and monitor new adaptions that may appear in the field."

This research was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) and the British Council with support from the Newton Fund.

Article: Sealy, J. E., Peacock, T. P., Sadeyen, J. R., Chang, P., Everest, H. J., Bhat, S., Iqbal, M. (2020). Adsorptive mutation and N-linked glycosylation modulate influenza virus antigenicity and fitness. Emerging Microbes & Infections, advance online publication, 12 November 2020, doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1850180

[SOURCE: The Pirbright Institute]
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.star-idaz.net/2020/12/avian-influenza-viruses-can-combine-two-techniques-to-evade-vaccin...
 
Description BBSRC Partnering Seminar, University of Liverpool, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Science University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk presented entitled " Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses". The research data shared with the colleagues working to reduce the impact of avian infectious diseases on poultry production. The discussion led to more collaboration and work together, acquiring reagents and protocols for further research and development activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description BSI antibody meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented work on how we have developed methods to study cattle B cells and antibody responses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BSI webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented a webinar hosted by the British Society for Immunology entitled "BSI Coronavirus webinar: What can we learn from the animal coronaviruses?", which sparked questions and discussions afterwards. I have since been contacted to establish new collaborations with people in the audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Big Band Science Event- AH, ER, LVC, MdP 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Big Bang Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Big Bang Near Me is a programme of regional and local Big Bang Fairs that take place all across the UK. Together with The Big Bang UK Young Scientists & Engineers Fair and The Big Bang Competition, it forms part of the wider Big Bang programme, bringing science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) to life for young people
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://nearme.thebigbangfair.co.uk/about/
 
Description Big Bang SE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Bishop David Brown careers fair, AH, AI, AA, ER 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulated interest in science careers and the diversity of opportunties and the people that follow these paths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Blenheim High School Fair - DB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Team members attended sessions at a local high school with secondary school children and those in the 6th form to talk about paths into scientific careers, sharing their experiences of working at The Pirbright Institute. Approximately 300 students attended and it stimulated increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Bluetongue in wildlife workshop - presentation on "Bluetongue virus in deer (and other wildlife) - pathogenesis and immune responses" July 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This workshop brought together policy makers, veterinary advisers and scientist to share information and discuss the role of wildlife for important Culicoides-borne viruses of ruminants. Gave 15 minutes presentation on "Bluetongue virus in deer (and other wildlife) - pathogenesis and immune responses"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Broadcast on African swine fever on BBC wolrd service "The Food Chain" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with BBC World Service "The Food Chain" on African swine fever virus.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p05xhflj
 
Description Brownies-AH 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talking to the Brownies about science and their careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description CABI_Research activity of Avian Immunology Group at The Pirbright Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Release of research activity within Avian Immunology group at The Pirbright Institute
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Centre of excellence for research on avian diseases (CERAD) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I was invited to present my work at the UK-China Centre of excellence for research on avian diseases (CERAD) meeting attended by researchers from UK, China and Thailand. There was lots of discussion about the research and future directions, including potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chair of organising Committee for Wellcome Trust-Animal Genetics and Diseases 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This meeting brought together specialists working on the interface between genomics, genetic engineering and infectious disease with the aims of improving animal and human health and welfare.

Scientific sessions included:
Genetics of immune responses and disease resistance
Genetically engineered livestock (including genome editing)
Quantitative genetics and epigenetics applied to disease
Epidemiology and pathogen evolution
Bioinformatics, comparative and functional genomics
Precision medicine of animal companions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/events/item.aspx?e=635&dm_i=2SUU,HOGH,4R4AW1,...
 
Description Chaired the Poultry Disease group meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry Disease group is a forum of veterinary practitioners to discuss the advances in poultry diseases that could be translated from research labs to the farms
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Institute stand at the festival covering the Institute science in general, and transmission and gene editing to control disease, in particular.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Attended the Cheltenham Science Festival and presented "Pandemic Live" an interactive debate on the spread of viruses in livestock. The audience were guided through the decision making processes that accompany an outbreak of an exotic livestock disease outbreak.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kate Dulwich participated in an outreach activity at the Cheltenham Science Festival from 07-09 Jun 2019
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cheltenham Science Festival- AH, ER, JC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Present at the Pirbright stand to discuss science with the public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cheltenham Science festival - LB 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact National science festival which Team members attended to demonstrate to the public how scientists at The Pirbright Institute can work to contain and control viral outbreaks. Over 500 people accessed the information and this stimulated increased interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Combating avian influenza through systematic analysis of antigenic drift, genetic variation, and development of novel diagnostic tools and vaccines. Presented at as PI of the ZELS project at ZELS grant holders and Stakeholders meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam 23th-24th January 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement and dissemination of research outcome to representatives of research funding bodies such as Department for International Development (DFID), Medical Research Council (MRC) and the researchers working on different research projects funded by BBSRC under Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Conor Haydon participated in the STEM Day - Speed interviews and Careers Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact STEM day engagement and careers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Coronavirus lecture MSc students (Surrey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A lecture was presented on the replication, cellular interactions and pathogenesis of coronaviruses to 15-20 MSc students from University of Surrey. The students were engaged and interested, answering and asking questions during the session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2018
 
Description Deimante Lukosaityte: Microbiology Society conference 2019. Poster presentation: Chicken protection against H9N2 virus by passive immunization 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques for development of next generation of vaccines against viral diseases affecting animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Delivered a lead talk and chaired a session at VIROCON international conference, New Delhi on Early events on PPRV pathogenesis- February 18-20, 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivered a lead talk at VIROCON international conference, New Delhi on Early events on PPRV pathogenesis- February 18-20, 2020. This parks questions and discussions after the talk. The scientists working on other morbilliviruses, example on Measles were keen to know the new fact I delivered that PPRV primarily infect immune cells in pharyngeal tonsil, but not in the epithelium of respiratory tract as believed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Demonstrating Mathematics (Angita Shrestha) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Angita Shrestha (PhD student within Avian Influenza group) provided help in a Maths session to the new Oxford Doctoral Training Porgramme (DTP) cohort.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Determinants of antigenicity of H9 Avian Influenza Viruses. UK-China Swine and Poultry Workshop.17-18 June 2019, The Pirbright Institute, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond Light Source Open Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public engagement at Diamond Light Source emphasizing our collaborations with Diamond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond Light Source Open day - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public open day for Diamond Light Source, which Pirbright attended as a user of the facility to showcase research being performed at Pirbgith in collaboration with Diamond. There was a lot of interest in the fundamental research and sicussion about future plans and how it fit with the facility at Diamond.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Diamond open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 300 people visited our stand at the open day, in which we described the importance of our work for food security and public health. Children from all ages were involved and learned about viruses and played with the huge virus particle that we had produced. One of the major impact was that we described to several people why we work on some viruses that we do not have them in the UK, and the importance of the work for the UK and UK economy and public health was explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.diamond.ac.uk/Public/VisitUs.html
 
Description Encouraging women into science and engineering STEM. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact MH Visited Warwick School, Redhill to talk to secondary students about careers in STEM. A very positive outcome and well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Epizone, Berlin - invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited speaker on "Orbiviruses on the move" at the EPIZONE conference in Berlin 2019, audience mixture of veterinary virologists, early career researchers and veterinary policy makers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Established a Twitter account for the Orbivirus research group 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Established group Twitter account in August 2019 to advocate our work and wider scientific themes of interest, continuous increase of followers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Evolution of H9N2 avian influenza virus under immune pressure. Presented at 10th International Symposium on Avian Influenza, 15th - 18th April 2018, The Grand Hotel, Brighton, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of the workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. In addition, the activity hopes provide information about the emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description Expert group meeting for PPR eradication at head quarters of WHO, Vienna, Austria, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In the FAO/PPR eradication meeting satya has presented work on PPR epidemiology and diagnosis. The talk was designed for the stakeholders and policy make to make aware on important points that are required for eradication of PPR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description FLI - presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of current research to the FLI - Germany to build collaborations 19/20 November 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Farnborough College of Technology Career day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The aim of this event was to give Y13 students direct access to local potential employers who are prepared to invest in training and developing their employees via recognised apprenticeships, formal additional qualifications or in-house training, together with information on when and how they can apply. Additionally the exhibition was open for all the 3,700 college students to attend throughout the day with their families. Giulia was in charge of The Pirbright Institute stand with various activities for visitors to take part in and she was explaining our science to the students and the general public, career opportunities and training options. During the day working on the stand Giulia could speak with many children and adults about her work at Pirbright and what The Pirbright Institute is, stimulating public interest in research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Farnborough futures careers event - HJM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The careers event aimed to introduce the range of careers available at Pirbright. In addition I discussed my own career progression and highlighted the range of possible careers that I could have entered. Finally, I discussed some details of the research with interested students. The students had a wide range of backgrounds and career aims but were interested to hear about the Institute and the sort of work opportunities available. Several of them planned to follow up by investigating future job opportunities at Pirbright.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Genetic engineering speeds up poultry vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Researchers report the rapid generation of a bivalent vaccine against Marek's disease and avian influenza

Scientists at The Pirbright Institute have used genetic engineering to develop a vaccine that protects birds against both Marek's disease and avian influenza. They say the process is faster and more efficient compared to previous methods, which will allow poultry vaccine producers to rapidly update vaccine strains in order to keep up with virus evolution.

In a study published in the journal Vaccines, the team used the gene editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 to insert an avian influenza gene into the turkey herpesvirus (HVT) that is used in Marek's disease vaccines. The gene codes for haemagglutinin (HA), an influenza protein that is key for virus entry into host cells and is therefore an important target of the host immune response to block infection.

"HVT is already widely used in vaccines against Marek's disease and can be administered to eggs, enabling automated delivery and providing birds with protection from the day they hatch. The additional HA gene we have incorporated will be expressed by HVT when it replicates in host cells, meaning that a single dose of vaccine induces immunity against both viruses", explained Professor Munir Iqbal, Head of the Avian Influenza group at Pirbright.

"The genetic engineering process we have developed using CRISPR/Cas9 is far quicker and more efficient than previous technologies, as well as being very consistent and accurate. These attributes are essential for providing fast and reliable vaccine production to protect poultry", Prof Iqbal added.

Mutations can occur with high frequency in HA proteins, enabling influenza viruses to evade immunity generated by vaccines. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to create new vaccines will help tackle evolving viruses by reducing the time it takes manufacturing companies to adapt their vaccine strains to match these mutations, allowing faster responses to outbreaks and providing better protection.

Although this gene editing method is very reliable, a small number of HVT viruses fail to incorporate the HA gene into their own genome effectively. To ensure HA is being expressed in the vaccine, the team exploited the HA protein's ability to bind to molecules on the surface of red blood cells.

Chicken cells infected with the successfully modified HVT virus express HA on their surface which red blood cells attach to, forming a clump that can be visualised using microscopy. This simple test improves the speed at which suitable vaccine candidates can be identified and has a much broader application as it can also be used for other viruses that incorporate proteins which interact with red blood cells.

"Improving how we make vaccines is critical for preventing avian influenza outbreaks. Our work could help reduce the spread of disease between birds and reduce the risk of infection for people who work closely with poultry", Prof Iqbal said. "Now that we have developed a rapid method for generating this modified vaccine, our next steps will be to study the vaccine's effectiveness in field trials."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.cabi.org/vetmedresource/news/66612
 
Description Gordon's schools careers Fair-AH 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Provoking interest in a range of science career paths
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outcomes to prevent and control of infectious diseases of animals and humans.
- Avian influenza virus evolution and efficacy.
-
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description H9N2 avian influenza viruses: impact of evolutionary changes on virus antigenicity, receptor binding and zoonotic potential. Presented at "Conference on Animal Infectious Diseases and Human Health" held at The Veterinary Biotechnology Branch of Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine & the Veterinary Immunology Branch of Chinese Society for Immunology. August 7th-10th, 2018 Harbin, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Focus of the conference was to improve control against infectious diseases affecting poultry and livestock.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description High pathogenicity avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 in Europe -Epidemiology and Surveillance. Presented via Webinar, organized by Boehringer Ingelheim, 3rd July 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk entitled; High pathogenicity avian Influenza (HPAI) H5 in Europe -Epidemiology and Surveillance. talk was organized by Boehringer Ingelheim, 3rd July 2020 and presented via Webinar.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Holt School Surrey. Bee meadow & A-level outreach Talk. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I discussed the importance of pollinators for biodiversity and food security with the younger students. I also discussed careers in science with A-Level students. There was good interaction and many questions surrounding both topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description How virus tracking can help us prevent future pandemics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact UAR interviewed Professor Munir Iqbal, head of the Avian Influenza group at The Pirbright Institute, https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/users/prof-munir-iqbal.

The Pirbright Institute specialises in the research and diagnosis of livestock viral diseases and viruses that spread from animals to humans.

The Institute is part of an international network that tracks viruses and formulates ways to control and prevent outbreaks, such as creating new vaccines and better diagnostics.

While the Covid-19 pandemic grabs the headlines there are other, potentially more deadly viruses, spreading through the animal kingdom, which may have the capacity to infect humans.

Perhaps the most well-known pandemic agent - before Covid-19 - was the flu virus. The 1918 influenza pandemic, caused by an H1N1 virus of avian origin, was the most severe pandemic in recent history, infecting one-third of the world's population and killing at least 50 million worldwide. These viruses evolve, so every year the world is at risk of a new strain of flu. One related virus that caused the 2009 swine flu pandemic killed over 200,000 people worldwide.

Professor Munir Iqbal heads up the Avian Influenza Virus group at The Pirbright Institute. This group is imitating natural selection and evolution of influenza viruses in the lab. They hope to identify how viruses might change - potentially to be more dangerous. By identifying those changes they can make informed decisions about how to create vaccines against these potential new strains.

A new strain, H7N9, emerged in China in February 2013, infecting both poultry and humans. Since then, there have been over 1500 confirmed human infections from this strain with an estimated 40% fatality rate.

By 2017 the Chinese government had, very rapidly for a new vaccine, implemented a mass vaccination programme against H7N9 in poultry. This was accompanied by a striking reduction in human infection from this virus.

At first this seemed to be good news, but it turns out that suboptimal vaccine practices were creating an evolutionary pressure for the virus to change - to escape the effects of vaccination. As the virus evolved it didn't infect human populations so well, but it became more aggressive in the poultry, even if they had been vaccinated. Iqbal explains,

"At The Pirbright Institute, we study how these viruses evolve to persist in poultry and overcome vaccines, and how mutations impact virus virulence, transmission and, pathogenicity. Ultimately this will give us information on bird-to-human transmission and help develop diagnostic tools and vaccines to better fight the virus."

Disease transmission has to be studied in chickens but disease virulence can be quantified using chicken eggs. 14 day-old fertilised eggs are infected with the virus which then replicate. The faster the virus replicates in the embryo, the more virulent the strain.

"The quantity of virus being produced often equates to the aggressiveness of the disease. Very often viral infection depends on the amount of virus that you come in contact with. One particle might not infect animals or humans, but thousands could. In the same way, a smaller amount of virus might be needed to infect poultry compared to humans. We live alongside loads of virus without getting sick until we come across an amount large enough to cause an infection," explains Iqbal.

By imitating the natural selection process in the lab, the researchers identified the specific mutation that allowed the Chinese H7N9 virus to escape vaccine-induced immunity. They were also able to predict the evolution of influenza viruses. Three mutations that were observed in the lab have since been found in the field in 2019.

"These changes can have a huge impact in terms of virus transmission, virus virulence and virus transfusion across species from avian-to-human, avian-to-avian, or even to different mammalian species," adds Iqbal.

Fortunately for us, these three mutations prevent H7N9 viruses from binding to human cells, but increase their binding, replication and stability in chicken cells and embryos. This means that the strains that had evolved around the vaccination posed a lower threat to humans, but an increased risk to poultry. Mass vaccination of poultry against H7N9 strains in China might have been beneficial to humans, driving virus evolution away from a human pandemic, but it also meant that the evolved viruses posed an even greater threat to poultry.

However, this might not be the case for all strains warns Iqbal. Not all mutations that arise due to vaccine induced evolution, push viral strains away from human infection. In the future, other mutations may have human pandemic potential or be even more deadly to poultry.

Influenza viruses are a particular risk, as they infect a huge range of animals and mutate rapidly, which gives them the capacity to jump species and evade the immune system. They are particularly a cause for concern, because they circulate in livestock such as pigs and poultry which regularly come into close contact with humans.

Using a method that can predict how vaccination may change influenza virus characteristics is potentially valuable for making new vaccines against these fast evolving viruses. These predictions could also provide advanced warning of mutations that could increase likelihood of human infection.

Looking out for these viral mutations in the global health surveillance programme can help in the monitoring for potential threats. This might allow us to get ahead of them, by developing and using new vaccines, before new viral variants have a chance to spread and spiral out of control in a new pandemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/news/research-medical-benefits/how-virus-tracking-can...
 
Description Human Infection Challenge Models Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact HIC-Vac is an international network of researchers who are developing human infection challenge (HIC) studies to accelerate the development of vaccines against pathogens of high global impact. The goal is to foster an engaged and interactive community of international researchers to promote open sharing of knowledge and expertise, generate new ideas, support and share best practice, and form new cross-discipline collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Identification of antigenic epitopes to broaden and enhance the efficacy of avian influenza vaccines. Presented at 6th Animal Vaccines and immune Adjuvant Technologies Salon & Advanced seminar, Shandong-Binzhou Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Academy, China, 18-20 October 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Imagineering Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talked to the general public about Pirbright science and Beekeeping
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Immuno-pathobiology of H9N2 avian influenza viruses: looking at how the viruses evolve and persist in poultry. Presented at "Techniques for Healthy Farming and Diseases Prevention & Control of Livestock and Poultry. Beijing, August 13th-15th, 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outputs. Improvement of vaccines and diagnostics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Improving vaccines and diagnostics for Avian influenza viruses affecting poultry. Presented at the International Poultry Expo "Poultry Science Conference", Lahore, Pakistan, 13-15 September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion was the best practices to improve control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) for prevention of avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Inauguration of the UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases (CERAD) and Symposium on Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Inauguration of the UK-China Centre of Excellence for Research on Avian Diseases (CERAD) and Symposium on Recent Advances in Avian Disease Research. This was held in Binzhou, Shandong province in China in 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Influenza update meeting (Pengxiang Chang) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact presented work entitled: Antigenic characterization of avian influenza H7N9 virus by in vitro immune escape mutant selection method.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Initiation of a mass vaccination campain ( 2018) in TamilNadu, India 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Scientists from The Pirbright Institute's Vaccine Differentiation group have recently returned from Chennai in India, where they conducted a mass peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccination campaign and awareness programme. They joined scientists from four specialist organisations; Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (NIAB) and National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI).
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also known as goat plague, is highly contagious and infects small ruminants such as sheep and goats, causing up to 90% mortality. The disease is prevalent across large parts of Africa, the Middle East, India and China and is estimated to cost between US$1.4 billion and US$2.1 billion globally each year. In 2017, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) introduced a global eradication programme to reduce the devastating impact PPR has on the economy and food security of affected countries.
"Over 40 vets joined our vaccination campaign in the Tanir Kulum village of Tiruvallur District, TaminNadu (close to Chennai), where we administered vaccines to over 400 sheep and goats in a single day. We also ran an awareness camp where we provided farmers and vets alike with expert guidance on diagnosing clinical signs of PPR and what measures they could take to reduce its spread", said Professor Satya Parida from Pirbright, who led the collaborative effort with Dr Dhinakar Raj from TANUVAS.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Innovate Guildford (Angita Shrestha): 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact GENERAL SCIENCE
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford - DB & KC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public science event where team members participated on a Pirbright Institute stand which contained activities to help the public understand how scientists can help to contain and control viral outbreaks. Over 500 members of the general public attended which stimulated increased interest in science and research and led to requests for more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Innovate Guildford Outreach (12th March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact With amazing exhibits, activities, workshops, talks and competitions, it's FREE to attend. Explore the four zones: Engineering, One Health, Digital Media and Future Living, experience interactive performances, hear inspiring speakers (including leading gaming pioneer Peter Molyneux and animal health pioneer Professor Nick Bacon) and take in an amazing atmosphere. Theatre, music and comedy will feature through the day, with everything from how technology might have affected Shakespeare's plays to risky recycling and photographic secrets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.guildford.gov.uk/innovateguildford
 
Description Innovate Guilford-AH, AA, ER, EL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact General science festival engaging the public in the research undertaken at Pirbright
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Inreview with Daily Telegraph about African swine fever 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with reporter from Daily Telegraph about African swine fever virus and risks to UK farmers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/12/uk-farmers-warned-alert-african-swine-fever-virus-hits-e...
 
Description Inspire Guildford County School Careers Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Giulia and Isobel represented The Pirbright Institute at the career fair at the Guildford College in a context of many other businesses and University representatives. The aim was to show the range of careers that are possible within a range of industries. For this event Giulia was in charge of the Institute stand and could speak about careers in science and the research carried out at The Pirbright Institute. Students were engaging in our activities for promoting interaction and showed a high level of interest for science and research careers requesting more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Institute stand at Surrey Vet School open day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Michael presented his research at the 2018 International Avian Respiratory Disease Conference in the US to an audience of avian researchers and representatives form the poultry veterinary vaccine industry. This sparked discussion and potential future collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases conference health in Hanoi 17-19 January 2018. Purpose of the conference was to establish global partnerships and links between academic researchers and the poultry industry to improve joined up work in regards to preventing, controlling and
combating avian diseases. The conferences provided a forum for discussion and exchange of ideas around the single theme of exploiting available opportunities to deal with emerging and existing infectious avian diseases in poultry production systems and to safeguard food supplies and human health.
Conference speakers discuused basic, applied and commercial aspects of research on avian diseases including:
• Evolution and Epidemiology of Avian Pathogens
• Host-Pathogen Interactions - Virulence and Pathogenicity
• Pathogen Mechanisms of Immune Evasion
• Next Generation Disease Control Strategies
• Vaccines
• Immunity
• Diagnostics
• Zoonoses and Socio-economic impacts of avian diseases
• Global Research Opportunities and Threats
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theeventsportal.com/GARAD-2018/3/Home
 
Description International Day of Women and Girls in Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I gave a quote as a STEM ambassador about why I think it is important to make sure women and girls have the same opportunities in STEM. This was shared on social media to celebrate International Day of Women and Girls in Science, a UN-led initiative.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Women's Day video for social media 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Three team members were interviewed about their careers in science for International Women's Day. The videos were posted on Pirbright's website, Facebook and Twitter to celebrate what we love about working in science.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Interview for national newspaper 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from The Telegraph about coronavirus replication and transmission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Associated Press 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from Associated Press about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Associated Press on ASFV vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Associated Press
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://apnews.com/32f84f66ce77415b96c4e90915cce6ee
 
Description Interview with Australian Broadcasting Corporation on African swine fever virus impact and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Australian Broadcasting Corporation about ASFV impact and vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.abc.net.au/news/rural/2019-11-01/african-swine-fever-vaccine-development/11645366
 
Description Interview with BBC Radio Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with journalists from BBC Radio Surrey on the breakfast show about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with BuzzFeed News 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with a journalist from BuzzFeed News about coronavirus research at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with CNN on African swine fever virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Nina Avramova from CNN International about African swine fever virus generally including transmission mechanisms and control strategies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/02/health/african-swine-fever-europe-china-spread-intl/index.html
 
Description Interview with Dominique Patton, Beijing, Reuters article Jan 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with Dominique Patton (Reuters - Beijing) about outbreaks of HPAI in wild birds. Quoted in https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birdflu-asia/reeling-from-coronavirus-asias-poultry-farmers-battle-bird-flu-outbreak-idUSKBN29J00D?edition-redirect=uk which was picked up by multiple media outlets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-birdflu-asia/reeling-from-coronavirus-asias-poultry-farmer...
 
Description Interview with Farmers Weekly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with journalist from Farmers Weekly on African swine fever virus vaccine development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with German Radio on African swine fever virus risks and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Radio broadcast on German Radio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Interview with Health for Animals about African swine fever vrius vaccine development and current situation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Interview with journalists from Health for Animals about African swine fever vaccine research published in a newsletter sent to 200 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://healthforanimals.org/resources-and-events/newsletter-repository/17-disease-outbreaks.html?q=...
 
Description Interview with IEG Policay about ASFV vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Interview with Peter Rixon of IEG policy about the prospects for development of vaccines for African swine fever vrius
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://iegvu.agribusinessintelligence.informa.com/CO221819/ASF-outbreak-in-Belgium-highlights-lack-...
 
Description Interview with Journalist from Science Journal News Section 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Interview with Science Journal journalist resulted in publication in news section http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/12/african-swine-fever-outbreak-alarms-wildlife-biologists-and-veterinarians
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/12/african-swine-fever-outbreak-alarms-wildlife-biologists-and-v...
 
Description Interview with Journalist with The Scientist Magazine concerning ASFV vaccines and our research 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with Katya Zimmer Science Journalist with The Scientist Magazine published in July. This lead to follow up interviews for an in depth article on ASFV vaccines for the Scientist Magazine. In addition The Scientist published 4 Infographics images associated with the article
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/features/can-a-vaccine-save-the-worlds-pigs-from-african-swine-fever
 
Description Interview with New Scientist Magazine about African swine fever virus spread and vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview for an article in New Scientist about impact of African swine fever in Asia
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.newscientist.com/article/2222501-a-quarter-of-all-pigs-have-died-this-year-due-to-africa...
 
Description Interview with United Press about ASFV vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview with United Press International on Development of ASFV vaccines
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2019/07/12/World-races-to-develop-African-swine-fever-vaccine/671156...
 
Description Interview with journalist and provided input to article on African swine fever vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviews with Katya Zimmer journalist with the Scientist Magazine and help with preparation of figures
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.the-scientist.com/features/can-a-vaccine-save-the-worlds-pigs-from-african-swine-fever--...
 
Description Invitation to give keynote talk on 'Control of avian diseases: Challenges and opportunities' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave the Keynote talk on 'Control of avian diseases: Challenges and opportunities' at this International Symposium organized with an aim to gather international virology experts from both human and veterinary fields to share research experience, update findings and contribute their expertise through presentation and interactive discussion. The topics will cover a wide range of virology research common in both human and animal aspects. In addition, technological platforms such as vaccine development, and novel assays will be emphasized and addressed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.biotec.or.th/virus-symposium2018/index.php
 
Description Invitation to talk at the Vaccine Symposium "Vaccines at different levels of complexity from subunit to whole cell formulations" jointly organised by the Centre of Genomic Regulation (CRG), Radboud UMC and MSD Animal Health, with the support from the MycoSynVac project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk and participated in the discussion on the challenges and research opportunities for innovation in poultry disease control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.crg.eu/
 
Description Invited Keynote Presentation on African swine fever and vaccine development 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote presentation at China Animal Breeding and Genetics conference December Guangzhou, attended by more than 2000 delegate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited Keynote Speaker International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Ecology, China Mai Thailand 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote talk on progress towards African swin efever virus vaccine development at ISVEE meeting Thailand
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited oral presentation at 18th National Conference for Pig Disease Prevention and Eradication, Wuhan, China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited oral presentation: 'Trying to hit a moving target: Novel approaches to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine development', 18th National Conference for Pig Disease Prevention and Eradication, Wuhan, China
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited seminar at INRAE, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited seminar to present our recent and ongoing PRRSV research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited speaker British Society of Veterinary Pathology Annual Meeting 2018, Applied Ruminant Pathology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker on "Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus - recognising the continued threat of Culicoides-borne viruses of ruminants" British Society of Veterinary Pathology Annual Meeting 2018, Applied Ruminant Pathology
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, 29th of September 2018,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.bsvp.org/event/applied-ruminant-pathology-disease-investigation-diagnosis-and-surveillan...
 
Description Invited speaker VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES (VBD) IN THE UK - BIENNIAL MEETING 2018 John Innes Centre Norwich 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited speaker on "The Host-vector-pathogen Interface of Culicoides-borne Bluetongue Virus" at the VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES (VBD) IN THE UK - BIENNIAL MEETING 2018 John Innes Centre Norwich 4th-5th December 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker at Imperial College 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a talk on our recent research in swine influenza. Discussions with PIs at Imperial after the talk. Established collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker at the British VeterinaryPoultry Association 2018 meeting at Boehringer Ingelheim 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I was invited to present my research findings at the British Veterinary Poultry Association 2018 meeting, held at Boehringer Ingelheim.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker, Merseyside BSI Affinity group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I described the methods we used to identifyTissue resident memory cells in pigs, which sparked a lively discussion and interest in the technique. As a result I have established two collaborations with colleagues from Liverpool.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker, Surrey University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Under- and postgraduate students attended a talk I gave at the Department of Biological Sciences in Surrey. There was a lively discussion afterwards and as a result I have established a new collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited speaker, Vienna Veterinary School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Gave a guest lecture at the Veterinary school in Vienna. There were a lot of questions and discussion after the talk. As a result established collaboration with Gerner Wilhelm's group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.vetmeduni.ac.at/de/graduate-school-pig-and-poultry-medicine/
 
Description Invited talk at Agricultural Science congress at New Delhi, India, February-2019- Use of reverse genetics to study the early pathogenesis and to develop marker vaccines for PPR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 1. In a DBT-BBSRC FADH grant, The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with four Indian partners (TANUVAS, IVRI, NIAB and NIVEDI) has developed a PPR vaccine, which will be the first to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA), for which a patent application has been filed. Scientists have manipulated in the genome of PPR full length cDNA and rescued the DIVA vaccine virus using reverse genetic technique. Further this vaccine has been tested in goats providing full safety and potency upon virulent virus challenge. In contrast to current vaccine, this new DIVA vaccine can differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated animals, therefore will help in meaningful assessment of vaccine coverage and epidemiological surveillance based on serology, in turn increasing the efficiency of control programmes.
2. Little is known about the early events in the development of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus (PPRV) infection. The current dogma is that similar to RPV, PPRV replicates primarily in the epithelium of the respiratory tract before disseminating throughout the host. However, our investigations, using intranasal inoculation of PPRV containing GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) to mimic natural infection, indicate this is not the case and that immune cells in the pharyngeal tonsil is the primary target. This is a ground breaking discovery which changes the PPR pathogenesis. This infectious GFP virus is made from a synthetic cDNA of field virus (PPRV/Mor-08) using reverse genetics technique under FADH grant.
The presentation sparked questions and discussions after the talk. Two PPR DIVA vaccines developed and the mechanism of PPR virus pathogenesis explained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk at the National Institute for Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad on 3rd Jan 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participants were engaged in the recent advances in biotechnology, challenges and opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk on 28th September 2020 on ''Challenges and opportunities for control of infectious animal diseases including zoonosis' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact International Webinar of 'Epistemological approaches to animal disease control programmes with special reference to rabies'
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Invited to attend and present at the RSPCA Lay members Forum, Royal Society London 10th of December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Invited to attend to the RSPCA Lay members Forum, Royal Society London 10th of December 2018 and present on the ethical review process of animal research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/researchanimals/ethicalreview/differentsystems/uk/events
 
Description Invited to talk at the International Conference on Building Human and Animal Health Capacities organised by the Jordan University of Science and Technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participated in the discussion and talked on 'The recent advances in vaccination-based control of poultry diseases'. The need for increased awareness of the pathogen diversity in the design of vaccines and the opportunities from advances in vaccine technologies were discussed
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.just.edu.jo/conferences/bhahc/Pages/default.aspx
 
Description Keynote Presentation China Swine Society Conference 2019 Qingdao China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited Keynote presentation at China Swine Society Conference 2019 Qingdao attended by ~1300 scientist and practitioners
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote talk at the World Veterinary Poultry Association meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited to give the keynote talk on 'Avian tumour viruses: their contribution to our understanding of cancer' at the World Veterinary Poultry Association XXth Congress in Edinburgh
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.wvpac2017.com/
 
Description Kingdown School Warminster Wiltshire talk to 6th form students about career in science. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I presented my career path to the students to engage them on STEM careers. I had a good level of discussion and many questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description LEAF Open Farm Sunday 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public engagement at a local farm to describe our research and relevance to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description LEAF open farm Sunday- JH, GM, WM, AH, KR, JS 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The annual open farm day attended by businesses in the working in the farming industry in the Guilford area
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Laboratory Science Animal association (LASA) meeting in Birmingham, Invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Gave a presentation on the tolls we have developed to study swine influenza
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.lasa.co.uk/meetings/
 
Description Lecture on entereic coronaviruses to MSc Students (Surrey) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A lecture was presented on the pathology, diagnosis and detection of enteric coronaviruses, including virus replication and interaction with the host. The students were engaged and asked/answered question throughout the session. We were invited to repeat the lecture for the subsequent student intakes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2018
 
Description Lecture to MSc studnets University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture on African swine fever virus to MSc students University of Surrey Veterinary faculty
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Lorin Adams (Gordon's School Careers Fair) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Describe the research that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description MBPAV -presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of avian viruses conference - Oxford 3-4th September 2018. Oral presentation given on drug resistant influenza viruses to approximately 50 scientist. Increased collaborative approaches following presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/event/society-events-and-meetings/focused-meeting-2018-molecular-bio...
 
Description MDV conference Tours 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact During the 11th International Symposium on Marek's Disease and Avian Herpesviruses, which took place from 6 to 9 July 2016, Paolo Ribeca gave a talk on "Attenuation of MDV: an RNA-seq based perspective".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MF AIRG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Avina immunology research group meeting in Canada
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description MF PAG 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Plant and Animal Genome XXIV Conference (PAG) is designed to provide a forum on recent developments and future plans for plant and animal genome projects. Consisting of technical presentations, poster sessions, exhibits and workshops, the conference is an excellent opportunity to exchange ideas and applications on this internationally important project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2016
 
Description MF STEM3 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Students from Years 5-6 i. Gave a talk on the Ebola virus outbreak in west Africa. Porvided virus and DNA models, careers hand-outs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description MSc student visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I hosted several MSc students from University of Surrey, discussed avian research with them and demonstrated some laboratory techniques. The students gained an understanding of academic research and laboratory work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Mapping antigenic determinants of H9N2 avian influenza viruses and improving vaccines and diagnostics" presented at Foreign Talent Lecture: New strategies and new techniques for the prevention and control of major avian diseases. Shandong Binzhou Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine Academy, Binzhou, China. 6th August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The focus of the meeting was to improve the control systems against poultry diseases including development of improved vaccines and diagnostics
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual conference (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Poster or oral presentation at Microbiology Society annual conference, a major international event. The participants included researchers from many different areas of science. This provides a platform to promote research to a wider audience as well as discuss the key findings with experts in my own field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
 
Description Microbiology Society Annual conferences- invited speaker 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Scientific talk on successful cross-species transmission of vector-borne viruses
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Microbiology Society Avian Focus Meeting (UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I gave a 15 minute oral presentation to an audience of around 80 people in 2016 and 2018. The audience consisted of researchers from many different scientific institutions from different areas of avian research. This was a great opportunity to present to experts in this field and gain novel insights into the project and the possible applications of my work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2018
 
Description Mock Interview Programme Cove School- Ai, AA 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Stimulating increased interest in science and research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular Determinants for Antigenicity and Vaccine Efficacy of H9 and H7 Avian Influenza Viruses. Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop: Novel vaccines and diagnostics technologies against Emerging and re-emerging veterinary Pathogens. 4-7 February 2019 at Rizal Pak Hotel, Manila, Philippines. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular determinants modulating avian influenza H7N9 virus antigenicity. Presented at The Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2019, 8-11 April ICC Belfast, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Molecular determinants of antigenicity of H7 and H9 avian Influenza viruses. Presented as invited speaker at BBSRC UK-India Partnering Award seminar: University of Liverpool. 2 May 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines and diagnostics) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Munir Iqbal: Cheltenham Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Describe the research that lead to improve control systems against infectious viral diseases of animals and from animals to humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NL Animal Health Research Club 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ARC will hold up to two dissemination events per annum. The aim of these events is to facilitate the dissemination of the research findings from the grants awarded through ARC to the Industry Members of the Club and other researchers. The dissemination events also provide an excellent opportunity for networking and we encourage delegates to make the most of the time made available for this purpose in the programme. BBSRC staff and the ARC coordinators will be available throughout the day should you have any questions regarding the Club.
Presentations: The presentations are the main opportunity for ARC research groups to present research findings and future plans and for Industrial Members to find out about ARC funded projects and provide feedback. Featured projects have been allocated presentation time as described in the programme and should include at least 5 minutes for questions. Presenters are asked to keep to time and presentations should demonstrate the relevance of the work to animal health and the livestock industry.
Posters: Research groups funded through ARC have been offered the opportunity to provide posters of work which is of relevance to the Industry Members of the Club. This will provide an opportunity to have informal discussions about current progress during networking activities and provide additional project information of relevance to ARC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016
 
Description Networking presentation-INRA, Paris, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation at INRA describing the role of the SH protein of BRSV in modulating immune responses in calves. This presentation resulted in a heated debate on the role of viral proteins in immune evasion and their activities in attenuated vaccines.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Newton Agham Researcher Links Workshop on "Novel Vaccines and Diagnostic Technologies Against Emerging and Re-emerging Veterinary Pathogens, Rizal Park Hotel, Manila, Philippines 4-7 February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The primary aim of this workshop was to forge long-term research partnerships between early-career researchers, livestock industry and national disease control authorities in the UK and the Philippines. The workshop provided information on emerging and next generation diagnostic and vaccine strategies and their utilization to reduce the impact of viral diseases on livestock and poultry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.slideshare.net/zerep_cire/2019-newton-agham-researcher-links-workshop-vaccines-and-diagn...
 
Description Nidovirus symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented my work at the Nidovirus Symposium, which is held every three years and brings together researchers from industry and academia from many different countries. I had some interesting discussions with other researchers and built my network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Oral and poster presentation at European Society of veterinary Virology and EPIZONE (ESVV/EPIZONE) at Vienna, Austria 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation has been made on early events of PPR virus pathogenesis. The presentation reveled that PPR virus first taken up by the immune cells to the Pharyngeal tonsil and then to other lymph nodes before generalisation of the disease. Secondary replication happens in epithelial cells. This alters the existing believe that virus primarily replicate in the epithelial cells.
Similarly a poster presentation has been done to show the detection of nucleic acid of PPR virus during PPR eradication programme, nasal sample has been shown as the best sample for viral genome detection.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oral presentation at the Global Alliance for Research on Avian Disease meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam 15th -19th Jan 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A talk was given on the PB1-F2 function in avian influenza infection of avian hosts at the GARAD meeting. This meeting was attended by approximately 120 researchers and poultry industry members from a wide international geographic region.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Oral presentation to Large Animal Research Network 24th May 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk about work understanding PB1-F2 function in avian hosts highlighting how the animal work carried out was undertaken and monitored. this was delivered to an audience of researchers, funders and industry interested in animal model systems for research and the 3Rs commitment surrounding this work. Discussions with interested parties about our chicken work at the Institute and the diverse way that the birds are entertained whilst being housed (e.g. live food, vegetables, perches, dust baths etc).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation of Influenza meeting at Roslin Institute 21st-22nd November 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Along with Paul Digard (Edinburgh) and Edward Hutchinson (Glasgow) I helped to organize, plan and run a Influenza update meeting which ran for 2 days at The Roslin Institute in November 2017. The symposium was attended by approximately 60 influenza researchers from the UK. Talks were given by a range of people with student talks and posters being awarded prizes. This was supported by Medimmune and the Microbiology Society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Organisation of UK-India Bioinformatics Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting discussed the challenges and opportunities and have decided to come up with a strategy document on working together between UK and India on data-driven biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Organised the 3rd UK-China CERAD meeting in Guildford, UK in July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The 3rd UK-China CERAD meeting helped to bring together professional from both countries to identify challenges and exploit the opportunities for improved control of poultry diseases and increasing food security.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.uk-china-cerad.org/
 
Description Organiser of the Animal Genetics and Diseases conference 08 - 10 May 2019 Wellcome Genome Campus, UK. Highlighting recent advances in animal genetics and genomic technologies. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I am on the organising committee for this conference. The second conference in this series will highlight recent advances in animal genetics and genomic technologies. It will bring together specialists working on the interface of genomics, genetic engineering and infectious disease with the aims of improving animal and human health and welfare.

Novel genomic technologies, mathematical modelling and quantitative genetics approaches, applied to host animals, as well as their pathogens, have transformed the understanding of animal diseases, host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology and their effects on productivity of farmed animal species and food supply chains.

This year's conference will not only put the spotlight on the immune response of host animals and epidemiology but also cover the genetics and genomics of pathogens and the impact of animal-human relationships.

We encourage registrations from researchers, breeders and technical specialists interested in learning and disseminating the latest cutting-edge techniques and methodologies across model species, wildlife, farmed animals and companion animals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://coursesandconferences.wellcomegenomecampus.org/our-events/animal-genetics-diseases-2019/?dm_...
 
Description Organising and giving Keynote talk at the GARAD meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Global Alliance of Poultry industry professional and academia to discuss about the advances in control strategies of diseases
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://Garad.org
 
Description PPR eradication meeting organised by FAO and OIE at Rome and talk has been delived on Development of DIVA vaccines 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Satya Parida is working as an expert to PPR eradication and he is being invited for few of FAO/OIE meetings. The meetings discussed about roadmap, vaccine production capacity and eradication policy.
Satya also presented work on PPR DIVA vaccine and DIVA tests developments and their evaluation in goats.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description PacBio Leiden 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented data to academics and industry experts on the methods we have developed to enrich and sequence targeted areas of genomes
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Paolo's talk on FMDV vaccine matching 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Paolo Ribeca gave a talk at the 2018 Open Session of EuFMD (European commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease ) on "Effective in-silico sequence-based prediction of FMDV vaccine matching" on behalf of Yasaman Kalantar-Motamedi, Mana Mahapatra, Luca Ferretti, Sophie Mahendran, Satya Parida, and himself.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in Understanding Animal Research Video 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed and filmed by Understanding Animal Research as part of their 360 degree tour of UK animal facilities (http://www.labanimaltour.org/)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.labanimaltour.org/
 
Description Pengxiang Chang: Talk presentation:The application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in the generation of viral vectored avian influenza vaccines at Microbiology Society conference, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of vaccines to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://microbiologysociety.org/event/annual-conference/annual-conference.html
 
Description Pengxiang Chang: UK-China Newton Fund (Poultry and swine) workshop at The Pirbright Institute.Oral presentation:Avian Influenza H7N9 Antigenic markers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk and the discussion on the improvement of disease control systems (vaccines) to prevent avian influenza viruses infection in poultry and zoonotic infections in humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pengxiang Chang:Influenza update meeting. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 in the development of vaccines against avian influenza virus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Described techniques to improve and produce new effective vaccines against viral diseases of animals and humans.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pig and Poultry Fair 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussed Institute research with pig and poultry farmers, related industry and the general public. Received requests for more information related to research, business and studentships.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pigandpoultry.org.uk/
 
Description Pirbright Dragon Fair - MZ 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Team members attended the locally held Dragon fair where the Pirbright Institute had a stand explaining the types of research that are conducted at the Institute, making our high containment science activities transparent to the local community. Approximately 60 people engaged with the stall to learn about the science happening on their doorstep. This stimulated interest in science and research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Pirbright Institute research teams studying characteristics of influenza virus that may alter disease outcomes in poultry. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu," is a disease caused by multiple strains of influenza virus. The viruses can infect a wide range of animals, including people and pigs, but the natural reservoir lies in populations of wild aquatic birds such as ducks and gulls, according to an announcement from The Pirbright Institute in the U.K., which is conducting research to better understand avian influenza viruses to help prevent the disease in poultry.

Flu virus strains are categorized by the combination of the two proteins found on the outside of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) -- for example, H5N6 or H9N2. The H protein binds to cell receptors in order to initiate infection, while the N protein helps release new viruses from an infected cell, the institute explained.

Strains are also classified by severity. Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause clinical signs such as mild breathing problems, decreased egg production and growth. Some birds, particularly ducks and geese, do not display any signs of LPAI infection and are still able to spread the disease, Pirbright said. When LPAI viruses circulate in high-density poultry areas, the viruses can mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have severe and often fatal effects on some species of birds such as chickens, Pirbright noted, but some HPAI strains cause mild or no clinical signs of disease in wild birds and domestic waterfowl. These strains are notifiable, meaning government control measures must be put in place.

Avian influenza can be carried vast distances by wild migratory birds and can infect domesticated poultry through direct contact or through contaminated droppings and bodily fluids, Pirbright said. Because of this, there is a year-round risk of avian influenza, which can increase depending on the disease status in a region and the migration season of wild aquatic birds.

According to Pirbright, good biosecurity is essential in preventing poultry from being exposed to the disease and can be practiced on a commercial farm, with game birds or even with just a few backyard hens.

Why is influenza so difficult to prevent?

The institute explained that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and when they replicate, small errors called mutations are copied into their genome. Some of these will alter the virus's proteins, allowing the virus to escape detection by the immune system.

All flu viruses also have the potential to undergo a process called reassortment, where two or more strains of influenza infect the same animal, allowing them to swap parts of their genome, Pirbright said. The resulting viruses can potentially have different characteristics than the original strains, such as the ability to replicate in different species, including people, the institute added.

Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 or H7N9 have infected people, predominantly in Southeast Asia, but in these cases, the virus has been transmitted directly from infected birds to people, with no onward spread. There is some evidence that avian influenza can be passed from person to person, and while there are no records of efficient or sustained human transmission, there is a constant risk that one of the new strains may spread easily among people, which could result in a new influenza virus pandemic, Pirbright said.

Changes in the virus genetics from mutation or reassortment make it very difficult to anticipate how influenza viruses will spread through a population and whether current vaccines will be suitable for the strains that are circulating, Pirbright announced.

The influenza research programs at Pirbright are progressing understanding of the virus and finding better ways to prevent its spread.

Pirbright Institute group leaders Dr. Holly Shelton and professor Munir Iqbal are researching how the characteristics of influenza viruses can change the outcomes of disease. Studying flu at the molecular level allows them to find out how the virus evolves to overcome avian immunity and how changes in their genome can alter disease severity and their ability to affect different species, the announcement said.

Shelton's and Iqbal's teams are working on identifying genetic markers for specific disease traits that can be used in surveillance systems to provide forewarning of strains that could cause pandemics. For example, Shelton's Influenza Viruses group is looking at which characteristics allow the viruses to become resistant to antiviral drugs that are currently used to treat human infections of influenza, allowing surveillance to provide an early warning of viruses that could cross into humans and be difficult to control, Pirbright said.

The team is also investigating how long it takes for avian influenza viruses to adapt to new mammalian species. According to the institute, establishing which strains can rapidly adapt and identifying the genetic changes made to enable infection of mammalian cells will help with surveillance efforts and potentially lead to the development of techniques that will help prevent these mutations occurring.

Vaccination and rapid diagnosis are very important for influenza prevention and control, but it is still not currently possible to protect against all influenza strains, Pirbright said, noting that Iqbal's Avian Influenza group is exploring which sites on the virus trigger the chicken immune system to respond quickly and fight off infection. This will better inform scientists' ability to match vaccines to strains in the field and could help to develop vaccines that are more effective.

Iqbal's group is also developing multivalent vaccines that protect chickens and ducks from several avian influenza subtypes at once as well as test kits for rapid diagnosis of different subtypes at the flock-side, the announcement said.

Visit Pirbright's Influenza Viruses and the Avian Influenza group pages to find out more about their research.

Source: The Pirbright Institute, which is solely responsible for the information provided and is wholly owned by the source. Informa Business Media and all its subsidiaries are not responsible for any of the content contained in this information asset.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.feedstuffs.com/nutrition-health/protecting-poultry-avian-influenza
 
Description Positive Strand Viruses Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was a poster presentation. There were several different poster sessions at the conference allowing a large selection of people to view each poster. The audience included world leaders in my research field and important names from groups all over the world. This gave me the opportunity to discuss my work with other scientists on a one to one basis, leading to generation of new ideas for future experiments and collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2013,2016,2019
 
Description Postdocteral scientist - oral presentation at the 12th Annual meeting of Epizone (joint with 11th International Congress for Veterinary Virology, ESVV 2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Postdoctoral scientists abstract submission was selected for oral presentation. Project results obtained at the time were presented to a highly interested and engaging audience of more than 250 scientists, veterinarians, students and policymakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.epizone-eu.net/en/Home/News/show/Abstract-book-EPIZONEESVV-meeting-now-online-.htm
 
Description Poster Presentation at the 2020 British Society for Immunology Virtual meeting: "Connecting Immunology in the time of COVID-19" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Andrew Broadbent presented a digital poster at the British Society for Immunology 2020 online meeting entitled "Connecting Immunology in the time of COVID-19".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.immunology.org/events/bsi-congress
 
Description Poster by Nick on the sequencing of Zimbabwe FMDV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Nick Knowles presented a poster at the 2018 Europic (the meeting of the European Study Group on the Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses) on "Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Over 140 Foot-and-mouth Disease Viruses Isolated From Free-living African Buffalo (Syncerus Caffer) in Zimbabwe" on behalf of Jemma Wadsworth, Bruce Bolt, Luca Ferretti, Euan C. Anderson, Ashley Gray, Paolo Ribeca, and himself. The sequencing was funded by the Transboundary Pathogens portal project awarded to Pirbright.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster presentation by PhD student and seior postdoc at SGM meeting and Negative Strand Virus (NSV) meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The work on early events on Pathogenesis of PPR virus has been presented that showed PPR virus primarily replicates in Tonsils, not in the mucosal epithelium as thought till date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poster presentation: European Veterinary Immunology Workshop, Utrecht, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Luke Johnson (PhD student) gave a poster presentation on his studies on the interaction of macrophages and dendritic cells with PRRSV of differing virulence.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Poultry Health course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poultry Health Course is run as a residential and online course to transfer recent advances in avian disease research from the laboratory to the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006
URL http://www.poultryhealthcourse.com/
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting hosted by Al Dousari Veterinary Services and Agriculture Co (Qatar ) in Qatar, 15 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The focus of talk was best practices for prevention and control of Avian influenza disease outbreaks in poultry

Vaccines and diagnostics for the control of avian influenza in poultry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting hosted by Almarai, 15 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engagement with Almarai Poultry. The focus of the meeting with Almarai Poultry disease control team was to share knowledge on improved vaccination and diagnostic techniques against avian influenza viruses affecting poultry production.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Poultry Stakeholders meeting in Kuwait city 16 October 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prevention and control of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry.
Described new vaccination and diagnostic technologies that provide more robust cross-protective immunity in emerging antigenic divergent strains of avian influenza viruses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of my research at the Global Alliance for Research on Avian Diseases Conference in Vietnam to approximately 80 conference participants resulted in discussions about future research directions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at RIVR meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of my research at Recently Independent Virology Researchers (RIVR) meetings in 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. I discussed my work and future collaborations with other virology researchers working in the UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
 
Description Presentation at Transboundary disease course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Discussion of BTV transmission, pathology and clinical disease to international participants of the Transboundary disease course
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at the EU BTV reference laboratory meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of BTV pathogenesis and effects of Culicoides saliva to representatives from all European reference laboratories plus some additional participants from the EU and industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation of project results at the 13th International dsRNA Virus Symposium 24th-28th of September 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster and Oral presentations included key results of the studentship project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to BBSRC Executive Board 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact I presented our research to the BBSRC Executive Board when they visited The Pirbright Institute in September 2018 and discussed the impacts of our work..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation to UKRI chair and Trustee Board 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Presentation of latest research in livestock immunogenetic diversity to UKRI chair and Trustee Board members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation: BSI AGM: Immune regulation by the SH protein of BRSV 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the BSI's AGM to describe the data generated regarding the role of the SH protein of BRSV in regulating immune responses after natural infections. Initiated a debate about the role of the SH protein of human RSV in immune regulation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Preventing a future pandemic by imitating natural selection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact By Munir Iqbal
A new type of avian influenza that can infect poultry and humans, called H7N9, emerged in China in February 2013. Since then, there have been over 1500 confirmed human infections with an estimated 40% case fatality rate.

In the wake of COVID-19, these numbers may seem to be relatively small. But these statistics provide an example of the issues we face in controlling influenza viruses in animals and how understanding more about these viruses can help us to predict, prevent and control outbreaks, protecting both poultry and human health.

Influenza viruses infect a huge range of animals, but the strains that are of greatest concern to us are those that circulate in livestock such as pigs and poultry, where people in farming industries have close contact with the animals. Influenza viruses can rapidly mutate, allowing them to escape the immune responses of the animals they infect and even jump to new species.

There have been five major epidemic waves of H7N9 in China. The final wave in 2016-2017 saw the originally mild disease of poultry mutate to cause higher levels of mortality in chickens and spread almost everywhere in China. The severity of H7N9 AIV situation prompted the Chinese government to implement a mass vaccination programme against H7N9 in poultry in 2017.

Since its use, the number of poultry outbreaks along with human infections has dropped dramatically, with only three human infection cases reported during 2017 to 2018 and one human infection case reported during 2018 to 2019. This may sound like vaccination has solved the problem and the virus will now be eradicated. Unfortunately, this is not the case - despite the reduction in disease outbreaks due to vaccination, these viruses have not been eradicated.

This is partly because of influenza's high mutation rate - vaccination can inadvertently encourage the evolution of viruses with mutations that allow them to escape vaccine-induced immunity. Once a virus escapes, it can spread rapidly, thereby making the vaccine ineffective and a new one must be designed. This is where our research comes in.

Our aim is to understand how H7N9 viruses could potentially mutate in the field in response to vaccination, and how these genetic changes could alter how the virus acts (for example, by making it more dangerous to poultry or by helping it to infect humans more effectively).

By imitating the natural selection process in the lab, we found several mutations and identified that one specific mutation allows the virus to escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Importantly, three other mutations that we observed in our lab studies had been found in the field in 2019 indicating that our method can predict the evolution of influenza viruses.

These three mutations prevent H7N9 viruses from binding to human cells, but increase their binding, replication and stability in chicken cells and embryos. This could mean that the strains which have these mutations pose a lower threat to human health, but increase the risk to poultry.

This shows that mass vaccination of poultry against H7N9 strains in China drives virus evolution away from human pandemic. But viruses with 'escape mutations' remain a significant risk to poultry due to their ability to escape vaccine-induced immunity and persist in poultry.

Our studies may also help to explain the Chinese government's successful control of H7N9 infection in humans by mass poultry vaccination. On one hand, the mass poultry vaccination protects the poultry from H7N9 infection and greatly reduces the risk of human infections as the majority of human H7N9 cases are linked to exposure to infected poultry or contaminated environments. On the other hand, even when some viruses escape the vaccine-induced immunity, they pose reduced risk to humans due to the lost human receptor binding.

However, this may not be the case for all strains. Other mutations may arise in the future that have human pandemic potential or are even more deadly to poultry. Using a method that can predict how vaccination may change influenza virus characteristics is hugely valuable as it can provide advanced warning of mutations that could increase likelihood of human infection. Incorporating these mutations into global health surveillance efforts can help relevant authorities to monitor potential threats and get ahead of them before they have a chance to spiral out of control.
Professor Munir Iqbal is head of the Avian Influenza Group at The Pirbright Institute.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.newton-gcrf.org/impact/data-insights-blog/preventing-a-future-pandemic-by-imitating-natu...
 
Description Project close meeting at TANUVAS, Chennai July 2018- Delivering talk on outcome of the project 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The project team held their final workshop at TANUVAS, which concluded a four year Farmed Animal Disease and Health (FADH) grant joint funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Indian Government's Department of Biotechnology (DBT). "This grant has enabled us to collaborate with four organisations across India, and ensured that our research can be applied in the field to aid the campaign for PPR global eradication", said Professor Parida.The project covered many areas of research which are essential for understanding PPR and creating tools to help control and prevent the disease. The team have now filed a patent application for their newly developed PPR vaccine, which is the first to differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) - a quality that enables livestock owners to protect their animals whilst continuing to trade.
The team have also investigated how the PPR virus (PPRV) infects sheep and goats and how their immune systems respond. By inserting green fluorescent protein into virulent PPRV and administering the modified virus to goats, they demonstrated that PPRV primarily infects the tonsils, challenging the earlier belief that the virus first replicates in the respiratory tract epithelial cells. The collaborative project has also generated better diagnostic tests for use in the field and laboratory, and preliminary research has identified why some Indian breeds of goats and sheep are resistant to the disease, which could help scientists to create PPRV resistant breeds in the future.
Project partners, scientists from the University and 40 field veterinarians have joined the meeting. An awareness training has been conducted on PPR disease and eradication for these field veterinarians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/news/2018/09/pirbright-scientists-run-vaccination-campaign-eradicate-pes...
 
Description Protecting poultry from avian influenza 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Avian influenza, commonly known as "bird flu," is a disease caused by multiple strains of influenza virus. The viruses can infect a wide range of animals, including people and pigs, but the natural reservoir lies in populations of wild aquatic birds such as ducks and gulls, according to an announcement from The Pirbright Institute in the U.K., which is conducting research to better understand avian influenza viruses to help prevent the disease in poultry.

Flu virus strains are categorized by the combination of the two proteins found on the outside of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) -- for example, H5N6 or H9N2. The H protein binds to cell receptors in order to initiate infection, while the N protein helps release new viruses from an infected cell, the institute explained.

Strains are also classified by severity. Low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses cause clinical signs such as mild breathing problems, decreased egg production and growth. Some birds, particularly ducks and geese, do not display any signs of LPAI infection and are still able to spread the disease, Pirbright said. When LPAI viruses circulate in high-density poultry areas, the viruses can mutate into highly pathogenic strains.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have severe and often fatal effects on some species of birds such as chickens, Pirbright noted, but some HPAI strains cause mild or no clinical signs of disease in wild birds and domestic waterfowl. These strains are notifiable, meaning government control measures must be put in place.

Avian influenza can be carried vast distances by wild migratory birds and can infect domesticated poultry through direct contact or through contaminated droppings and bodily fluids, Pirbright said. Because of this, there is a year-round risk of avian influenza, which can increase depending on the disease status in a region and the migration season of wild aquatic birds.

According to Pirbright, good biosecurity is essential in preventing poultry from being exposed to the disease and can be practiced on a commercial farm, with game birds or even with just a few backyard hens.

Why is influenza so difficult to prevent?

The institute explained that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and when they replicate, small errors called mutations are copied into their genome. Some of these will alter the virus's proteins, allowing the virus to escape detection by the immune system.

All flu viruses also have the potential to undergo a process called reassortment, where two or more strains of influenza infect the same animal, allowing them to swap parts of their genome, Pirbright said. The resulting viruses can potentially have different characteristics than the original strains, such as the ability to replicate in different species, including people, the institute added.

Avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 or H7N9 have infected people, predominantly in Southeast Asia, but in these cases, the virus has been transmitted directly from infected birds to people, with no onward spread. There is some evidence that avian influenza can be passed from person to person, and while there are no records of efficient or sustained human transmission, there is a constant risk that one of the new strains may spread easily among people, which could result in a new influenza virus pandemic, Pirbright said.

Changes in the virus genetics from mutation or reassortment make it very difficult to anticipate how influenza viruses will spread through a population and whether current vaccines will be suitable for the strains that are circulating, Pirbright announced.

The influenza research programs at Pirbright are progressing understanding of the virus and finding better ways to prevent its spread.

Pirbright Institute group leaders Dr. Holly Shelton and professor Munir Iqbal are researching how the characteristics of influenza viruses can change the outcomes of disease. Studying flu at the molecular level allows them to find out how the virus evolves to overcome avian immunity and how changes in their genome can alter disease severity and their ability to affect different species, the announcement said.

Shelton's and Iqbal's teams are working on identifying genetic markers for specific disease traits that can be used in surveillance systems to provide forewarning of strains that could cause pandemics. For example, Shelton's Influenza Viruses group is looking at which characteristics allow the viruses to become resistant to antiviral drugs that are currently used to treat human infections of influenza, allowing surveillance to provide an early warning of viruses that could cross into humans and be difficult to control, Pirbright said.

The team is also investigating how long it takes for avian influenza viruses to adapt to new mammalian species. According to the institute, establishing which strains can rapidly adapt and identifying the genetic changes made to enable infection of mammalian cells will help with surveillance efforts and potentially lead to the development of techniques that will help prevent these mutations occurring.

Vaccination and rapid diagnosis are very important for influenza prevention and control, but it is still not currently possible to protect against all influenza strains, Pirbright said, noting that Iqbal's Avian Influenza group is exploring which sites on the virus trigger the chicken immune system to respond quickly and fight off infection. This will better inform scientists' ability to match vaccines to strains in the field and could help to develop vaccines that are more effective.

Iqbal's group is also developing multivalent vaccines that protect chickens and ducks from several avian influenza subtypes at once as well as test kits for rapid diagnosis of different subtypes at the flock-side, the announcement said.

Visit Pirbright's Influenza Viruses and the Avian Influenza group pages to find out more about their research.

Source: The Pirbright In