Spectroscopy of Superheavy Nuclei: The SAGE spectrometer

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

The majority of the mass of the universe is made up of atomic nuclei that lie at the centre of the atom. Nuclei contain positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. The lightest known nucleus is that of hydrogen that contains just one proton but no one yet knows how heavy a nucleus can be; in other words, just how many neutrons and protons can be made to bind together. The aim of this proposal is to address this question by studying the heaviest nuclei that can be made in the laboratory. These nuclei are extremely difficult to create and study. The heaviest man-made elements today (unnamed as yet) have as many as 116 protons, but have been produced in tiny quantities of a few atoms only. Both protons and neutrons are held together by the strong nuclear force but protons are repelled from each other because of their electric charge. The nuclear force has an extremely short range, affecting nearest neighbours only, so that, as more and more protons are added to a nucleus the electrostatic repulsion will eventually become stronger than the nuclear binding forces and the nucleus will become unstable. The neutrons and protons will no longer stick together. This should happen for nuclei beyond uranium, which has 92 protons but the existence of heavier species comes about because of the internal structure within the nuclei. Just as noble gases owe their inert chemical behaviour to a specific arrangement of electrons that has extra stability, so certain 'magic' proton and neutron numbers also enhance nuclear stability. This project is concerned with a detailed study of the underlying mechanisms that yield this extra stability and allow 'superheavy' nuclei to exist. The main focus of this work will be on nuclei around nobelium with 102 protons, approximately halfway between the well-studied nuclei around uranium and the frontier of superheavy elements. Here spectroscopic methods can be used to gain detailed insights into the shape of the nucleus and the b

Publications

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Parr E (2012) New approaches to assign configurations using low-statistic ?-ray spectra in The European Physical Journal A

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Papadakis P (2018) The SPEDE spectrometer in The European Physical Journal A

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Papadakis P (2018) The SPEDE spectrometer in The European Physical Journal A

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Papadakis P (2012) A Geant4 simulation package for the SAGE spectrometer in Journal of Physics: Conference Series

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Pakarinen J (2014) The SAGE spectrometer in The European Physical Journal A

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Page R (2011) In-beam conversion-electron spectroscopy of 180 Hg in Physical Review C

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Mistry A (2017) In-beam study of 253No using the SAGE spectrometer in The European Physical Journal A

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Liberati V (2013) ß -delayed fission and a decay of 178 Tl in Physical Review C

 
Description GREAT collaboration 
Organisation University of Jyvaskyla
Department Department of Physics
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Constructed GREAT spectrometer and TDR DAQ system. Spokesperson of many experiments.
Collaborator Contribution facility
Impact 24 outputs
 
Description TASCA Collaboration 
Organisation Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung
Department Nuclear Physics (Superheavy Elements)
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Parts of the detection system, Manpower, Data Analysis, Monte Carlo Simulation, Intellectual Input
Collaborator Contribution Technical Support for Experiment
Impact Confirmation of Element 114 and New isotope 277Hs (Duellmann et al, PRL 104 2010 252701) Spectroscopy of 253No (Anderson et al, NIMA622 2010 164)
Start Year 2006
 
Description TASCA Collaboration 
Organisation Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Department Helmholtz Institute Mainz
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Parts of the detection system, Manpower, Data Analysis, Monte Carlo Simulation, Intellectual Input
Collaborator Contribution Technical Support for Experiment
Impact Confirmation of Element 114 and New isotope 277Hs (Duellmann et al, PRL 104 2010 252701) Spectroscopy of 253No (Anderson et al, NIMA622 2010 164)
Start Year 2006
 
Description TASCA Collaboration 
Organisation Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Parts of the detection system, Manpower, Data Analysis, Monte Carlo Simulation, Intellectual Input
Collaborator Contribution Technical Support for Experiment
Impact Confirmation of Element 114 and New isotope 277Hs (Duellmann et al, PRL 104 2010 252701) Spectroscopy of 253No (Anderson et al, NIMA622 2010 164)
Start Year 2006