# Analysis of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Lead Research Organisation:
University of Oxford

Department Name: Mathematical Institute

### Abstract

Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that relate the partial derivatives, usually with respect to space and time coordinates, of unknown quantities. They are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of phenomena in the physical, natural and social sciences, often arising from fundamental conservation laws such as for mass, momentum and energy. Significant application areas include geophysics, the bio-sciences, engineering, materials science, physics and chemistry, economics and finance. Length-scales of natural phenomena modelled by PDEs range from sub-atomic to astronomical, and time-scales may range from nanoseconds to millennia. The behaviour of every material object can be modelled either by PDEs, usually at various different length- or time-scales, or by other equations for which similar techniques of analysis and computation apply. A striking example of such an object is Planet Earth itself.Linear PDEs are ones for which linear combinations of solutions are also solutions. For example, the linear wave equation models electromagnetic waves, which can be decomposed into sums of elementary waves of different frequencies, each of these elementary waves also being solutions. However, most of the PDEs that accurately model nature are nonlinear and, in general, there is no way of writing their solutions explicitly. Indeed, whether the equations have solutions, what their properties are, and how they may be computed numerically are difficult questions that can be approached only by methods of mathematical analysis. These involve, among other things, precisely specifying what is meant by a solution and the classes of functions in which solutions are sought, and establishing ways in which approximate solutions can be constructed which can be rigorously shown to converge to actual solutions. The analysis of nonlinear PDEs is thus a crucial ingredient in the understanding of the world about us.As recognized by the recent International Review of Mathematics, the analysis of nonlinear PDEs is an area of mathematics in which the UK, despite some notable experts, lags significantly behind our scientific competitors, both in quantity and overall quality. This has a serious detrimental effect on mathematics as a whole, on the scientific and other disciplines which depend on an understanding of PDEs, and on the knowledge-based economy, which in particular makes increasing use of simulations of PDEs instead of more costly or impractical alternatives such as laboratory testing.The proposal responds to the national need in this crucial research area through the formation of a forward-looking world-class research centre in Oxford, in order to provide a sharper focus for fundamental research in the field in the UK and raise the potential of its successful and durable impact within and outside mathematics. The centre will involve the whole UK research community having interests in nonlinear PDEs, for example through the formation of a national steering committee that will organize nationwide activities such as conferences and workshops.Oxford is an ideal location for such a research centre on account of an existing nucleus of high quality researchers in the field, and very strong research groups both in related areas of mathematics and across the range of disciplines that depend on the understanding of nonlinear PDEs. In addition, two-way knowledge transfer with industry will be achieved using the expertise and facilities of the internationally renowned mathematical modelling group based in OCIAM which, through successful Study Groups with Industry, has a track-record of forging strong links to numerous branches of science, industry, engineering and commerce. The university is committed to the formation of the centre and will provide a significant financial contribution, in particular upgrading one of the EPSRC-funded lectureships to a Chair

### Publications

Ammari H
(2011)

*Microwave Imaging by Elastic Deformation*in SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
Jones G
(2009)

*Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory*in Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Ball J
(2010)

*Nematic Liquid Crystals: From Maier-Saupe to a Continuum Theory*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Chen G
(2011)

*Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Applications*
Chen G
(2018)

*Nonlinear Stability of Relativistic Vortex Sheets in Three-Dimensional Minkowski Spacetime*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Barrett J
(2008)

*Numerical approximation of corotational dumbbell models for dilute polymers*in IMA Journal of Numerical Analysis
Capdeboscq Y
(2012)

*Numerical computation of approximate generalized polarization tensors*in Applicable Analysis
Chrusciel P
(2009)

*On higher dimensional black holes with Abelian isometry group*in Journal of Mathematical Physics
Chrusciel P
(2008)

*On Mason's Rigidity Theorem*in Communications in Mathematical Physics
Chen G
(2012)

*On Nonlinear Stochastic Balance Laws*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Capdeboscq Y
(2013)

*On one-dimensional inverse problems arising from polarimetric measurements of nematic liquid crystals*in Inverse Problems
Niethammer B
(2007)

*On Screening Induced Fluctuations in Ostwald Ripening*in Journal of Statistical Physics
Herrmann M
(2011)

*On selection criteria for problems with moving inhomogeneities*in Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics
Chrusciel P
(2010)

*On smoothness of black saturns*in Journal of High Energy Physics
Bourgain J
(2013)

*On the Morse-Sard property and level sets of Sobolev and BV functions*in Revista Matemática Iberoamericana
Bourgain J
(2015)

*On the Morse-Sard property and level sets of W n ,1 Sobolev functions on R n*in Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (Crelles Journal)
Capdeboscq Y
(2012)

*On the scattered field generated by a ball inhomogeneity of constant index*in Asymptotic Analysis
Torres M
(2011)

*On the structure of solutions of nonlinear hyperbolic systems of conservation laws*in Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis
Napoli A
(2014)

*On the validity of the Euler-Lagrange system*in Communications on Pure and Applied Analysis
BALL J
(2012)

*ON UNIQUENESS FOR TIME HARMONIC ANISOTROPIC MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS WITH PIECEWISE REGULAR COEFFICIENTS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Niethammer B
(2011)

*Optimal Bounds for Self-Similar Solutions to Coagulation Equations with Product Kernel*in Communications in Partial Differential Equations
Rindler F
(2009)

*Optimal Control for Nonconvex Rate-Independent Evolution Processes*in SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization
Ball J
(2011)

*Orientability and Energy Minimization in Liquid Crystal Models*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2008)

*Orientable and Non-Orientable Line Field Models for Uniaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
HERRMANN M
(2012)

*OSCILLATORY WAVES IN DISCRETE SCALAR CONSERVATION LAWS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Ball J
(2017)

*Partial regularity and smooth topology-preserving approximations of rough domains*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
Ammari H
(2010)

*Progress on the strong Eshelby's conjecture and extremal structures for the elastic moment tensor*in Journal de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées
NEGRI M
(2011)

*QUASI-STATIC CRACK PROPAGATION BY GRIFFITH'S CRITERION*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied Sciences
Braides A
(2016)

*Quasi-static damage evolution and homogenization: A case study of non-commutability*in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré C, Analyse non linéaire
Breit D
(2011)

*Quasiconvex variational functionals in Orlicz-Sobolev spaces*in Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata
Ball J
(2015)

*Quasiconvexity at the Boundary and the Nucleation of Austenite*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2014)

*Quasistatic Nonlinear Viscoelasticity and Gradient Flows*in Journal of Dynamics and Differential Equations
Nguyen L
(2012)

*Refined approximation for minimizers of a Landau-de Gennes energy functional*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
Kristensen J
(2008)

*Regularity in oscillatory nonlinear elliptic systems*in Mathematische Zeitschrift
Bae M
(2008)

*Regularity of solutions to regular shock reflection for potential flow*in Inventiones mathematicae
Soneji P
(2014)

*Relaxation in BV of integrals with superlinear growth*in ESAIM: Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations
Kristensen J
(2009)

*Relaxation of signed integral functionals in BV*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
Mielke A
(2009)

*Reverse Approximation of Energetic Solutions to Rate-Independent Processes*in Nonlinear Differential Equations and Applications NoDEA
Capdeboscq Y
(2011)

*Root growth: homogenization in domains with time dependent partial perforations*in ESAIM: Control, Optimisation and Calculus of Variations
Peschka D
(2010)

*Self-similar rupture of viscous thin films in the strong-slip regime*in Nonlinearity
Herrmann M
(2009)

*Self-similar solutions for the LSW model with encounters*in Journal of Differential Equations
Niethammer B
(2011)

*Self-similar solutions with fat tails for a coagulation equation with diagonal kernel*in Comptes Rendus Mathematique
Herrmann M
(2009)

*Self-similar solutions with fat tails for a coagulation equation with nonlocal drift*in Comptes Rendus Mathematique
Niethammer B
(2012)

*Self-similar Solutions with Fat Tails for Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation with Locally Bounded Kernels*in Communications in Mathematical Physics
Chen G
(2012)

*Shallow water equations: viscous solutions and inviscid limit*in Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik
Chen G
(2013)

*Shock Diffraction by Convex Cornered Wedges for the Nonlinear Wave System*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chrusciel P
(2008)

*Singular Yamabe Metrics and Initial Data with Exactly Kottler-Schwarzschild-de Sitter Ends*in Annales Henri Poincaré
HELMERS M
(2011)

*SNAPPING ELASTIC CURVES AS A ONE-DIMENSIONAL ANALOGUE OF TWO-COMPONENT LIPID BILAYERS*in Mathematical Models and Methods in Applied SciencesDescription | This was a broad grant designed to help consolidate research on nonlinear partial differential equations in the UK. In particular the Oxford Centre for Nonlinear PDE was founded as a result of the grant and is now a leading international centre. As regards specific research advances, these were in various areas of applications of PDE, for example to fluid and solid mechnaics, liquid crystals, electromagnetism, and relativity. |

Exploitation Route | Through publications and consultation with current and former members of OxPDE. |

Sectors | Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Construction,Electronics,Energy,Environment |

URL | https://www0.maths.ox.ac.uk/groups/oxpde |

Description | Advanced Investigator Grant |

Amount | € 2,006,998 (EUR) |

Funding ID | 291053 |

Organisation | European Research Council (ERC) |

Sector | Public |

Country | Belgium |

Start | 03/2012 |

End | 03/2017 |