# Analysis of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

Lead Research Organisation:
University of Oxford

Department Name: Mathematical Institute

### Abstract

Partial differential equations (PDEs) are equations that relate the partial derivatives, usually with respect to space and time coordinates, of unknown quantities. They are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of phenomena in the physical, natural and social sciences, often arising from fundamental conservation laws such as for mass, momentum and energy. Significant application areas include geophysics, the bio-sciences, engineering, materials science, physics and chemistry, economics and finance. Length-scales of natural phenomena modelled by PDEs range from sub-atomic to astronomical, and time-scales may range from nanoseconds to millennia. The behaviour of every material object can be modelled either by PDEs, usually at various different length- or time-scales, or by other equations for which similar techniques of analysis and computation apply. A striking example of such an object is Planet Earth itself.Linear PDEs are ones for which linear combinations of solutions are also solutions. For example, the linear wave equation models electromagnetic waves, which can be decomposed into sums of elementary waves of different frequencies, each of these elementary waves also being solutions. However, most of the PDEs that accurately model nature are nonlinear and, in general, there is no way of writing their solutions explicitly. Indeed, whether the equations have solutions, what their properties are, and how they may be computed numerically are difficult questions that can be approached only by methods of mathematical analysis. These involve, among other things, precisely specifying what is meant by a solution and the classes of functions in which solutions are sought, and establishing ways in which approximate solutions can be constructed which can be rigorously shown to converge to actual solutions. The analysis of nonlinear PDEs is thus a crucial ingredient in the understanding of the world about us.As recognized by the recent International Review of Mathematics, the analysis of nonlinear PDEs is an area of mathematics in which the UK, despite some notable experts, lags significantly behind our scientific competitors, both in quantity and overall quality. This has a serious detrimental effect on mathematics as a whole, on the scientific and other disciplines which depend on an understanding of PDEs, and on the knowledge-based economy, which in particular makes increasing use of simulations of PDEs instead of more costly or impractical alternatives such as laboratory testing.The proposal responds to the national need in this crucial research area through the formation of a forward-looking world-class research centre in Oxford, in order to provide a sharper focus for fundamental research in the field in the UK and raise the potential of its successful and durable impact within and outside mathematics. The centre will involve the whole UK research community having interests in nonlinear PDEs, for example through the formation of a national steering committee that will organize nationwide activities such as conferences and workshops.Oxford is an ideal location for such a research centre on account of an existing nucleus of high quality researchers in the field, and very strong research groups both in related areas of mathematics and across the range of disciplines that depend on the understanding of nonlinear PDEs. In addition, two-way knowledge transfer with industry will be achieved using the expertise and facilities of the internationally renowned mathematical modelling group based in OCIAM which, through successful Study Groups with Industry, has a track-record of forging strong links to numerous branches of science, industry, engineering and commerce. The university is committed to the formation of the centre and will provide a significant financial contribution, in particular upgrading one of the EPSRC-funded lectureships to a Chair

### Publications

Ball J
(2015)

*Incompatible Sets of Gradients and Metastability*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Bourgain J
(2015)

*On the Morse-Sard property and level sets of Wn,1 Sobolev functions on Rn*in Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik (Crelles Journal)
Chen G
(2015)

*Vanishing Viscosity Solutions of the Compressible Euler Equations with Spherical Symmetry and Large Initial Data*in Communications in Mathematical Physics
Chen G
(2015)

*Weak continuity and compactness for nonlinear partial differential equations*in Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B
Ball J
(2015)

*Quasiconvexity at the Boundary and the Nucleation of Austenite*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2015)

*Geometry of polycrystals and microstructure*in MATEC Web of Conferences
Bedford S
(2015)

*Function Spaces for Liquid Crystals*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen GQ
(2015)

*Free boundary problems in shock reflection/diffraction and related transonic flow problems.*in Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences
Chapman S
(2016)

*Homogenization of a Row of Dislocation Dipoles from Discrete Dislocation Dynamics*in SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
Braides A
(2016)

*Asymptotic analysis of Lennard-Jones systems beyond the nearest-neighbour setting: A one-dimensional prototypical case*in Mathematics and Mechanics of Solids
Braides A
(2016)

*Quasi-static damage evolution and homogenization: A case study of non-commutability*in Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincaré C, Analyse non linéaire
Chen G
(2016)

*Incompressible limit of solutions of multidimensional steady compressible Euler equations*in Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik
Alberti G
(2016)

*Eulerian, Lagrangian and Broad continuous solutions to a balance law with non-convex flux I*in Journal of Differential Equations
Fang B
(2016)

*The uniqueness of transonic shocks in supersonic flow past a 2-D wedge*in Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications
Ball J
(2017)

*Mathematical Thermodynamics of Complex Fluids*
Acharya A
(2017)

*Fluids, Elasticity, Geometry, and the Existence of Wrinkled Solutions*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Ball J
(2017)

*Partial regularity and smooth topology-preserving approximations of rough domains*in Calculus of Variations and Partial Differential Equations
Ball J
(2017)

*Mathematics and liquid crystals*in Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals
Chen G
(2017)

*Stability of transonic shocks in steady supersonic flow past multidimensional wedges*in Advances in Mathematics
Chen G
(2017)

*Global Weak Rigidity of the Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci Equations and Isometric Immersions of Riemannian Manifolds with Lower Regularity*in The Journal of Geometric Analysis
Chen G
(2018)

*Nonlinear Stability of Relativistic Vortex Sheets in Three-Dimensional Minkowski Spacetime*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2018)

*Fluids, geometry, and the onset of Navier-Stokes turbulence in three space dimensions*in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Chen G
(2018)

*Vanishing Viscosity Approach to the Compressible Euler Equations for Transonic Nozzle and Spherically Symmetric Flows*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2019)

*Steady Euler flows with large vorticity and characteristic discontinuities in arbitrary infinitely long nozzles*in Advances in Mathematics
Chen G
(2019)

*Cauchy Fluxes and Gauss-Green Formulas for Divergence-Measure Fields Over General Open Sets*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2019)

*Kolmogorov-type theory of compressible turbulence and inviscid limit of the Navier-Stokes equations in R 3*in Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Chen G
(2020)

*Stability of Multidimensional Thermoelastic Contact Discontinuities*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2020)

*Convexity of Self-Similar Transonic Shocks and Free Boundaries for the Euler Equations for Potential Flow*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2021)

*Weak Continuity of the Cartan Structural System and Compensated Compactness on Semi-Riemannian Manifolds with Lower Regularity*in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
Chen G
(2021)

*Formation of Singularities and Existence of Global Continuous Solutions for the Compressible Euler Equations*in SIAM Journal on Mathematical AnalysisDescription | This was a broad grant designed to help consolidate research on nonlinear partial differential equations in the UK. In particular the Oxford Centre for Nonlinear PDE was founded as a result of the grant and is now a leading international centre. As regards specific research advances, these were in various areas of applications of PDE, for example to fluid and solid mechnaics, liquid crystals, electromagnetism, and relativity. |

Exploitation Route | Through publications and consultation with current and former members of OxPDE. |

Sectors | Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Construction,Electronics,Energy,Environment |

URL | https://www0.maths.ox.ac.uk/groups/oxpde |

Description | Advanced Investigator Grant |

Amount | € 2,006,998 (EUR) |

Funding ID | 291053 |

Organisation | European Research Council (ERC) |

Sector | Public |

Country | Belgium |

Start | 03/2012 |

End | 03/2017 |