An O2 Electrode for a Rechargeable Lithium Battery

Lead Research Organisation: University of St Andrews
Department Name: Chemistry

Abstract

Energy storage has an important role to play in addressing global warming. It is vital to develop a number of storage technologies. One of the most promising is the rechargeable lithium battery. Such batteries are the technology of choice for hybrid electrical vehicles (some 30% of CO2 emissions arise from transport) and they can make a critical contribution to the storage of clean energy, including for micro-grid and off-grid applications.Currently rechargeable lithium batteries are composed of a graphite negative electrode, an organic electrolyte and LiCoO2 as the positive electrode. Li is removed from the layered intercalation compound LiCoO2 on charging and re-inserted on discharge. Energy storage is limited by the LiCoO2 electrode (0.5 Li/Co, 130 mAhg-1). All the research taking place worldwide aimed at improving the positive intercalation electrode can only hope to double the energy storage to 1 Li/Tm (300 mAhg-1). We propose a step change in rechargeable lithium batteries by replacing the LiCoO2 electrode with a porous carbon electrode and allowing Li+ and e- in the cell to react with O2 from the air. The capacity to store energy can be raised by 5-10 times compared with LiCoO2, supply of O2 is in-effect infinite and the cost is reduced significantly (LiCoO2 is the most expensive component of current batteries). Our preliminary studies have shown that the O2 cell is rechargeable and can sustain cycling. The proposal addresses a number of the materials issues necessary to realise this radically new high energy storage battery based on a non-aqueous O2 electrode.

Publications

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Bruce PG (2011) Li-O2 and Li-S batteries with high energy storage. in Nature materials

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Débart A (2008) Alpha-MnO2 nanowires: a catalyst for the O2 electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries. in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)

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Freunberger SA (2011) Reactions in the rechargeable lithium-O2 battery with alkyl carbonate electrolytes. in Journal of the American Chemical Society

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Freunberger SA (2011) The lithium-oxygen battery with ether-based electrolytes. in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)

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Imanishi Nobuyuki (2014) The Lithium Air Battery: Fundamentals

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Leskes M (2012) Direct detection of discharge products in lithium-oxygen batteries by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)

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Ma Z (2013) Catalytic decomposition of N2O on ordered crystalline metal oxides. in Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology

 
Description This research focused on the development of a new generation of batteries, known as the lithium air battery, which has the potential to exceed the performance of the popular lithium ion battery. This technology was relatively unknown at the time the grant was awarded and is now one of the leading contenders to supersede lithium ion batteries and provide a new generation of energy storage device. The work funded by this grant established many of the key concepts of this battery system, and these principles continue to direct the field to date. Specifically, this work defined the operation and approach of the field and identified the core materials and battery design. Metal oxide catalysts for the oxygen redox reactions were established and this has spawned a range of commercially relevant battery materials for metal air batteries. Critically, interest in lithium air batteries has growth expernenionally in large part due to the work performed here and is now a major development theme and potential growth area for a number of large industries.
Exploitation Route The findings performed here help to establish a large international research field centered on metal air batteries and related industrial involvement. For example, IBM and |Toyota both have significant research investments in this area in part due to this work and the findings produced here form a foundation for the development of next generation energy storage batteries for electrified transport.
Sectors Energy,Transport

 
Description The research aided establishment of research links and collaboration between the Bruce group and a number of leading international car manufacturers which are ongoing, and support the development of new battery systems and related industries. Generally, the field of metal air batteries established by this work is a major development area globally in the private sector as it represents one of a handful of possible routes to batteries with performance exceeding lithium ion technology.
First Year Of Impact 2008
Sector Chemicals,Energy,Transport
Impact Types Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description E-cosse, Scottish Government Electric Vehicle Strategic Boards
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description EASAC
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL http://www.easac.eu/
 
Description Royal Society, Science and Industry Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Crossing Boundaries in Energy Storage
Amount £3,039,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/I022570/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2011 
End 04/2016
 
Description EPSRC
Amount £3,412,048 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/H019596/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description EPSRC
Amount £1,525,602 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/I022570/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description EPSRC
Amount £1,525,602 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/I022570/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description EPSRC
Amount £3,412,048 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/H019596/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description European Task force
Amount £1,080,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description European Task force
Amount £1,080,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start  
 
Description Fife Batteries Ltd
Amount £175,000 (GBP)
Funding ID INDUSTRY 
Organisation Fife Batteries 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Fife Batteries Ltd
Amount £175,000 (GBP)
Funding ID INDUSTRY 
Organisation Fife Batteries 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Supergen Energy Storage Hub
Amount £3,906,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/L019469/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2014 
End 06/2019
 
Description Toyota
Amount £1,100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID INDUSTRY 
Organisation Toyota Motor Corporation 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start  
 
Description Toyota
Amount £1,100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID INDUSTRY 
Organisation Toyota Motor Corporation 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start  
 
Title AIR CATHODE AND METAL-AIR BATTERY 
Description A main object of the present invention is to provide an air cathode capable of achieving both high initial discharge capacity and high capacity retention. In the present invention, the problem is solved by providing an air cathode used in a metal-air battery, comprising: an air cathode layer containing a conductive material, a particulate catalyst and a fibrous catalyst; and an air cathode current collector for collecting current of the air cathode layer, wherein the ratio of the fibrous catalyst to the total weight of the particulate catalyst and the fibrous catalyst is 10% by weight or less. 
IP Reference WO2011033683 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed Yes
Impact n/a
 
Title Bardé, F., Bruce, P. G., Freunberger, S. A., Chen, Y. & Hardwick, L. J. Catalyst loaded onto carbon for rechargeable nonaqueous metal-air battery. JPO patent 053888 (2011) 
Description Bardé, F., Bruce, P. G., Freunberger, S. A., Chen, Y. & Hardwick, L. J. Catalyst loaded onto carbon for rechargeable nonaqueous metal-air battery. JPO patent 053888 (2011) 
IP Reference  
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed No
Impact n/a
 
Title CATHODE CATALYST FOR RECHARGEABLE METAL-AIR BATTERY AND RECHARGEABLE METAL-AIR BATTERY 
Description The present invention is to provide a cathode catalyst capable of increasing the initial capacity, decreasing the charging voltage and improving the capacity retention of a rechargeable metal-air battery, and a rechargeable metal-air battery having high initial capacity, excellent charge-discharge efficiency, and excellent capacity retention. A cathode catalyst for a rechargeable metal-air battery comprising NiFe2O4, and a rechargeable metal-air battery comprising an air cathode containing at least NiFe2O4, an anode containing at least a negative-electrode active material and an electrolyte interposed between the air cathode and the anode. 
IP Reference WO2011148518 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2011
Licensed Yes
Impact n/a
 
Title STABLE NON-AQUEOUS ELECTROLYTE PROMOTING IDEAL REACTION PROCESS IN RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM-AIR BATTERIES 
Description The present invention relates to a lithium -air battery comprising: - a negative electrode containing a negative-electrode active material; - a positive electrode using oxygen as a positive-electrode active material; and - an electrolyte medium arranged between the negative electrode and the positive electrode; wherein the electrolyte medium comprises as primary solvent one or more compounds having an -N-CO- group in the molecule. 
IP Reference WO2013053378 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2013
Licensed No
Impact n/a
 
Title Stable non-aqueous electrolyte promoting ideal reaction process in rechargeable lithium-air batteries 
Description The present invention relates to a lithium-air battery including: a negative electrode containing a negative-electrode active material; a positive electrode using oxygen as a positive-electrode active material; and an electrolyte medium arranged between the negative electrode and the positive electrode; wherein the electrolyte medium includes as primary solvent one or more compounds having an -N-CO- group in the molecule.v 
IP Reference US20140255802 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2012
Licensed No
Impact n/a
 
Description Lecture at Tokyo University of Science Oct 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015